Joe C. Watson

University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States

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Publications (5)18.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Nitroxides mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD) biochemically and may prevent free radical oxidative injury in settings in which endogenous SOD is overwhelmed. The authors have previously shown the efficacy of a nitroxide, Tempol, in reducing stroke infarct size. Of the nitroxides, 3-carbamoyl-proxyl (3-CP) is especially promising for clinical use, because it does not cause hypotension in animals. Its efficacy in brain ischemia, however, is untested. The goal of this study was to ascertain whether 3-CP would reduce brain damage in a rat ischemia-reperfusion model. The authors performed a blinded, dose-response study of the effect of different amounts of 3-CP (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg) on infarct size at 24 hours after focal ischemia and reperfusion. The 3-CP was given intravenously during reperfusion, which followed 1 hour of reversible ischemia induced by a thread placed intraluminally in the middle cerebral artery of rats. Brain infarcts, measured with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining in six 3-CP groups, were compared with those measured in controls (animals given an equal volume of saline). Edema-corrected infarct sizes (mean +/- standard deviation) were as follows: 146 +/- 64 mm3 in controls; 107 +/- 18 mm3 in rats given 1 mg/kg 3-CP; 40 +/- 20 mm3 in those given 10 mg/kg 3-CP; and 44 +/- 17 mm3 in those given 100 mg/kg 3-CP. A statistically significant reduction in infarct size was achieved in the 10- and 100-mg/kg 3-CP-treated groups (p < 0.01). A reduction in infarct size was also seen in the 1 mg/kg 3-CP-treated group, but this did not reach statistical significance. The authors observed no effects of 3-CP on blood pressure or brain temperature. Given at reperfusion, 3-CP significantly decreases brain infarct size at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg without causing hypotension. The authors found that 3-CP is well suited for further laboratory and clinical use in brain ischemia and reperfusion.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 02/2003; 98(2):393-6. DOI:10.3171/jns.2003.98.2.0393 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of thrombolytic agents in the treatment of stroke has yielded surprisingly modest success, possibly because of reperfusion injury mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, scavenging ROS may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of stroke. Nitroxides are low-weight superoxide dismutase mimics, which allows them to act as cell-permeable antioxidants. In this study the nitroxide 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6,-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol) is investigated to determine its ability to reduce reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 280 g and 350 g underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion with an intraluminal suture for 60 minutes. Regional cerebral blood flow, blood pressure, cerebral temperature, and rectal temperature were monitored during the procedure. After reperfusion, the animals were randomized to groups receiving blinded intravenous administration of either Tempol (10 mg/kg; eight animals) or vehicle (eight animals) over the first 20 minutes of reperfusion (Study I). In a second study to determine dose dependency, animals were randomized to groups receiving Tempol (20 mg/kg; eight animals), low-dose Tempol (5 mg/kg; eight animals), or vehicle (eight animals; Study II). The rats were killed after 4 hours of reperfusion, and brain sections were stained with 2,3,5 triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Infarct volumes were measured using digital imaging. Animals receiving Tempol had significantly reduced infarct volumes at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg compared with controls (49.01+/-18.22% reduction [p = 0.003] and 47.47+/-34.57 [p = 0.02], respectively). No significant differences in the physiological variables measured were observed between groups. Tempol provides significant neuroprotection after reperfusion in a rat model of transient focal ischemia. These results support the importance of ROS in reperfusion injury and encourage further study of this molecule as a therapeutic agent following thrombolysis.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2000; 92(4):646-51. DOI:10.3171/jns.2000.92.4.0646 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present their neurosurgical experience with Carney complex. Carney complex, characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, cardiac myxomas, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, pituitary tumors, and nerve sheath tumors (NSTs), is a recently described, rare, autosomal-dominant familial syndrome that is relatively unknown to neurosurgeons. Neurosurgery is required to treat pituitary adenomas and a rare NST, the psammomatous melanotic schwannoma (PMS), in patients with Carney complex. Cushing's syndrome, a common component of the complex, is caused by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and is not secondary to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. The authors reviewed 14 cases of Carney complex, five from the literature and nine from their own experience. Of the 14 pituitary adenomas recognized in association with Carney complex, 12 developed growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (producing gigantism in two patients and acromegaly in 10), and results of immunohistochemical studies in one of the other two were positive for GH. The association of PMSs with Carney complex was established in 1990. Of the reported tumors, 28% were associated with spinal nerve sheaths. The spinal tumors occurred in adults (mean age 32 years, range 18-49 years) who presented with pain and radiculopathy. These NSTs may be malignant (10%) and, as with the cardiac myxomas, are associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Because of the surgical comorbidity associated with cardiac myxoma and/or Cushing's syndrome, recognition of Carney complex has important implications for perisurgical patient management and family screening. Study of the genetics of Carney complex and of the biological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological abnormalities associated with the tumors may provide insight into the general pathobiological features of pituitary adenomas and NSTs.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 04/2000; 92(3):413-8. DOI:10.3171/jns.2000.92.3.0413 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Neurosurgery 09/1999; 45(3). DOI:10.1097/00006123-199909000-00070 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary surgery has been reported to produce remission of Cushing's disease with preservation of pituitary function in only 60 to 70% of patients. The inability to identify an adenoma accounts for most failed sellar explorations. Most negative surgical explorations occur in patients in whom magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary demonstrates normal findings, which happens in at least 35 to 45% of patients with Cushing's disease. To examine the usefulness of intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) for identifying an adenoma in patients with no demonstrable tumor (negative findings) on pituitary MR imaging. we prospectively assessed the results of IOUS in 68 patients with a negative (59 patients) or equivocal (nine patients) MR image from a consecutive series of 107 patients with Cushing's disease (64%). We compared surgical findings and outcomes in these 68 patients with a group of 68 patients with Cushing's disease and negative findings on MR imaging in whom IOUS was not available. Intraoperative ultrasonography localized a tumor in 47 (69%) of 68 patients with negative findings on MR imaging. Surprisingly, the size of the adenomas that were detected with IOUS compared with the size of those not detected did not differ (6.8+/-3.4 mm compared with 6.1+/-2.8 mm [mean+/-standard deviation], respectively [p=0.51). In four patients, no adenoma was found at surgery or in the pathological specimen ("true negative"). In eight patients, nine abnormalities detected by IOUS that were suspected adenomas were negative on exploration ("false positive"). Thus, IOUS has a sensitivity of 73% and a positive predictive value of 84% for detecting pituitary adenomas in patients with Cushing's disease and negative findings on MR imaging. Compared with the 68 patients who did not undergo IOUS. remission after surgery was improved (61 patients [90%] compared with 57 patients [84%]), the number of tumors found on exploration was increased (61 tumors compared with 51 tumors, p=0.02), and the number of hemihypophysectomies was decreased (five compared with 15; p=0.02) with IOUS. When the groups were compared after excluding patients with prior pituitary surgery, tumors were found in 91% versus 72% (p=0.008), and remission occurred in 95% versus 87% of patients, respectively, in the groups that had or did not have IOUS. The IOUS is a sensitive imaging modality when used in patients with Cushing's disease in whom findings on pituitary MR imaging are negative. The improved ability to detect and localize these tumors by using IOUS positively affects surgical outcome.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 01/1999; 89(6):927-32. DOI:10.3171/jns.1998.89.6.0927 · 3.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

176 Citations
18.57 Total Impact Points

Top Journals


  • 2003
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Neurological Surgery
      Davis, CA, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States