J Andrew Williams

Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

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Publications (4)15.21 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) in the presence of human liver microsomes (HLMs) is altered by drugs that bind nonspecifically to the lipid bilayer. The present study characterized the relationship between the nonspecific binding (NSB) of drugs to HLMs as measured by equilibrium dialysis and the magnitude of the change in baseline ANS fluorescence. Fraction unbound in incubations of HLMs (f(u(mic))) was determined for 16 drugs (12 bases, 3 acids, and 1 neutral) with log P values in the range 0.1 to 6.7 at three concentrations (100, 200, and 500 μM). Changes in ANS fluorescence induced by each of the drugs in the presence of HLMs were measured by spectrofluorometry. Values of f(u(mic)) determined by equilibrium dialysis ranged from 0.08 to 1.0. Although NSB of the basic drugs tended to increase with increasing log P, exceptions occurred. Basic drugs generally caused an increase in ANS fluorescence, whereas the acidic and neutral drugs resulted in a decrease in ANS fluorescence. There were highly significant (p < 0.001) linear relationships between the modulus (absolute value) of the increment/decrement in ANS fluorescence and both f(u(mic)) (r = 0.90 to 0.96) and log(1 - f(u(mic))/f(u(mic))) (r = 0.85 to 0.92) at the three drug concentrations. Agreement between measured f(u(mic)) and that predicted by ANS fluorescence was very good (<10% variance) for a validation set of six compounds. The ANS fluorescence method provides an accurate measure of the NSB of drugs to HLMs. Physicochemical determinants other than log P and charge type influence the NSB of drugs to HLMs.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 05/2011; 39(9):1711-7. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between the UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation of zidovudine (AZT), 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), and 1-naphthol (1NP) were analyzed using multisite and empirical kinetic models to explore the existence of multiple substrate and effector binding sites within this important drug metabolizing enzyme. 4MU and 1NP glucuronidation by UGT2B7 exhibit sigmoidal kinetics characteristic of homotropic cooperativity (autoactivation), which may be modeled assuming the existence of two equivalent, interacting substrate binding sites. In contrast, UGT2B7-catalyzed AZT glucuronidation follows hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten) kinetics. Although 4MU and 1NP decreased the binding affinity of AZT, the kinetics of AZT glucuronidation changed from hyperbolic to sigmoidal in the presence of both modifiers. Data were well described by a generic two-substrate binding site model in which there is no interaction between the sites in the absence of 4MU or 1NP, but heterotropic cooperativity results from the binding of modifier. Inhibition of 4MU and 1NP glucuronidation by AZT and interactions between 4MU and 1NP required more complex three-site models, where the modifier acts via a distinct effector site to alter either substrate binding affinity or Vmax without affecting the homotropic cooperativity characteristic of 4MU and 1NP glucuronidation. It is noteworthy that 1NP inhibited 4MU glucuronidation, whereas 4MU activated 1NP glucuronidation. The results are consistent with the existence of two "catalytic" sites for each substrate within the UGT2B7 active site, along with multiple effector sites. The multiplicity of binding and effector sites results in complex kinetic interactions between UGT2B7 substrates, which potentially complicates inhibition screening studies.
    Molecular pharmacology 10/2008; 74(4):1152-62. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies were performed to investigate the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme(s) responsible for the human liver microsomal N2-glucuronidation of the anticonvulsant drug lamotrigine (LTG) and the mechanistic basis for the LTG-valproic acid (VPA) interaction in vivo. LTG N2-glucuronidation by microsomes from five livers exhibited atypical kinetics, best described by a model comprising the expressions for the Hill (1869 +/- 1286 microM, n = 0.65 +/- 0.16) and Michaelis-Menten (Km 2234 +/- 774 microM) equations. The UGT1A4 inhibitor hecogenin abolished the Michaelis-Menten component, without affecting the Hill component. LTG N2-glucuronidation by recombinant UGT1A4 exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km of 1558 microM. Although recombinant UGT2B7 exhibited only low activity toward LTG, inhibition by zidovudine and fluconazole and activation by bovine serum albumin (BSA) (2%) strongly suggested that this enzyme was responsible for the Hill component of microsomal LTG N2-glucuronidation. VPA (10 mM) abolished the Hill component of microsomal LTG N2-glucuronidation, without affecting the Michaelis-Menten component or UGT1A4-catalyzed LTG metabolism. Ki values for inhibition of the Hill component of LTG N2-glucuronidation by VPA were 2465 +/- 370 microM and 387 +/- 12 microM in the absence and presence, respectively, of BSA (2%). Consistent with published data for the effect of fluconazole on zidovudine glucuronidation by human liver microsomal UGT2B7, the Ki value generated in the presence of BSA predicted the magnitude of the LTG-VPA interaction reported in vivo. These data indicate that UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 are responsible for the Hill and Michaelis-Menten components, respectively, of microsomal LTG N2-glucuronidation, and the LTG-VPA interaction in vivo arises from inhibition of UGT2B7.
    Drug Metabolism and Disposition 07/2006; 111(6):1055-62. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the fluconazole-zidovudine (AZT) interaction as a model, to determine whether inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) catalysed drug metabolism in vivo could be predicted quantitatively from in vitro kinetic data generated in the presence and absence bovine serum albumin (BSA). Kinetic constants for AZT glucuronidation were generated using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant UGT2B7, the principal enzyme responsible for AZT glucuronidation, as the enzyme sources with and without fluconazole. K(i) values were used to estimate the decrease in AZT clearance in vivo. Addition of BSA (2%) to incubations decreased the K(m) values for AZT glucuronidation by 85-90% for the HLM (923 +/- 357 to 91 +/- 9 microm) and UGT2B7 (478-70 microm) catalysed reactions, with little effect on V(max). Fluconazole, which was shown to be a selective inhibitor of UGT2B7, competitively inhibited AZT glucuronidation by HLM and UGT2B7. Like the K(m), BSA caused an 87% reduction in the K(i) for fluconazole inhibition of AZT glucuronidation by HLM (1133 +/- 403 to 145 +/- 36 microm) and UGT2B7 (529 to 73 microm). K(i) values determined for fluconazole using HLM and UGT2B7 in the presence (but not absence) of BSA predicted an interaction in vivo. The predicted magnitude of the interaction ranged from 41% to 217% of the reported AUC increase in patients, depending on the value of the in vivo fluconazole concentration employed in calculations. K(i) values determined under certain experimental conditions may quantitatively predict inhibition of UGT catalysed drug glucuronidation in vivo.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 05/2006; 61(4):427-39. · 3.58 Impact Factor