[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) regulates the cellular redox state and metabolism and has been linked to many diseases, including diabetes. Therefore, we examined the role of TXNIP in hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo.
Journal of Hepatology 07/2014; · 10.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced acute urotoxicity in rats. CP caused severe hemorrhagic cystitis as shown by significant increases in bladder weight, edema, and hemorrhage as well as increased urinary bladder epithelial cell apoptosis, protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) and phase II enzymes (i.e.
quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)), immunostaining intensity of acrolein-protein adducts, and histopathological changes. The significant decreases in glutathione content and catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase activities and a significant increase in malondialdehyde content indicated that CP-induced bladder injury was mediated through oxidative stress. In contrast, pretreatment with DADS significantly attenuated the CP-induced urotoxic effects, including oxidative damage, histopathological lesions, apoptotic changes, and accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the bladder. DADS also significantly increased expression of CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1, Nrf-2, NQO-1, and HO-1 and significantly decreased expression of CYP2C11. These results indicate that DADS prevented CP-induced bladder toxicity, in part, by detoxifying acrolein. The protective effects of DADS may be due to its ability to decrease metabolic activation of CP by inhibiting CYP2C11 and inducing CYP3A1, and its potent antioxidant activity and antiapoptotic effects occurred via the Nrf-2-antioxidant response element pathway.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical determinants of the fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoiesis. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), which is induced by oxidative stress, is a known regulator of intracellular ROS. Txnip(-/-) old mice exhibited elevated ROS levels in hematopoietic cells and showed a reduction in hematopoietic cell population. Loss of TXNIP led to a dramatic reduction of mouse survival under oxidative stress. TXNIP directly regulated p53 protein by interfering with p53- mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) interactions and increasing p53 transcriptional activity. Txnip(-/-) mice showed downregulation of the antioxidant genes induced by p53. Introduction of TXNIP or p53 into Txnip(-/-) bone marrow cells rescued the HSC frequency and greatly increased survival in mice following oxidative stress. Overall, these data indicate that TXNIP is a regulator of p53 and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the hematopoietic cells by regulating intracellular ROS during oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deregulated Wnt signaling pathway is implicated in many hereditary diseases and tumorigenesis including colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer. In this study, to assess the relationship between chemically induced gastric tumor and canonical Wnt signaling pathway in genetically intact mice, histopathological and quantitative mRNA analyses were performed in C57BL/6J mice given drinking water containing N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU). 60.5% of gastric adenoma and 27.9% of adenocarcinoma were observed 48 weeks after first administration. Also, in immunohistochemical analysis, aberrant expressions of phospho-GSK-3β, β-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc, osteopontin and COX-2 were found. In double immunofluorescent-antibody stains, β-catenin accumulation was colocalized with other proteins. mRNA levels of cyclin D1, c-myc and COX-2 were relatively higher in adenocarcinoma. Altogether, canonical Wnt pathway was highly involved in MNU induced gastric neoplasia of C57BL/6J mice, and it could be a considerably suitable system for the study to examine the linkage between gastric tumorigenesis and the canonical Wnt pathway.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 10/2012; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The regulation of antioxidant enzymes has received increased attention in terms of protection from many diseases. Despite reports that administered estradiol derivatives can change antioxidant enzyme levels, comprehensive information is not available regarding the effects of the human menstrual cycle or the rat estrous cycle on the expression of the antioxidant enzyme system. The present study was performed to determine the expression levels of cytosolic antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase-1, catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1, glutathione reductase, peroxiredoxin (Prx)-1, Prx-2, thioredoxin-1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit, alpha-class glutathione S-transferase (GST), pi-class GST, and mu-class GST, in the liver and ovaries of female rats during diestrus and proestrus. Our results indicate that hepatic expression of Prx-1 and Prx-2, and ovarian expression of alpha-class GST were increased significantly during the proestrus phase compared with the diestrus phase. These results suggest that the hepatic Prx family and ovarian alpha-class GST are sensitive to changes during the estrous cycle. Further studies are needed to determine the physiological significance of the regulation of the Prx family and alpha-class GST during the estrous cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MT) against gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. We also investigated the effects of MT on induction of apoptotic cell death and its potential mechanisms in renal tissues in response to GM treatment. The following four experimental groups were evaluated: (1) vehicle control, (2) MT (15 mg/kg/day), (3) GM (100 mg/kg/day), and (4) GM&MT. GM caused severe nephrotoxicity as evidenced by increased serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, increased renal tubular cell apoptosis, and increased Bcl2-associated X protein and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. Additionally, GM treatment caused an increase in levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) protein expression in renal tissues. The significant decreases in glutathione content, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and the increase in malondialdehyde content indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. In contrast, MT treatment protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by the GM treatment. Histopathological studies confirmed the renoprotective effect of MT. These results indicate that MT prevents nephrotoxicity induced by GM in rats, presumably because it is a potent antioxidant, restores antioxidant enzyme activity, and blocks NF-κB and iNOS activation in rat kidney.
Archives of Toxicology 04/2012; 86(10):1527-36. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of α-chlorohydrin (ACH) on epididymal function and antioxidant system in male rats. The test chemical was administered to male rats by gavage at doses of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Twenty-four male rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, with six rats in each group. Spermatotoxicity was assessed by measurement of reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, histopathologic examination, and oxidative damage analysis in rats. At 30 mg/kg/day, an increase in the incidence of clinical signs, epididymis weight, and gross necropsy findings of the epididymis, a decrease in the sperm motility, and an increased incidence of histopathological changes of the epididymis were observed in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 mg/kg/day, an increased incidence of clinical signs and histopathological changes and decreased sperm motility were observed. In the oxidative damage analysis, an increase in the malondialdehyde concentration and a decrease in the glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in the epididymal tissue were detected at ≥3 mg/kg/day. The results show that graded doses of ACH elicit depletion of the antioxidant defense system and that the spermatotoxicity of ACH may be due to the induction of oxidative stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effect of methanolic extract isolated from the root of Lycoris aurea (LA) on the growth of cancer cells and the tube formation activity of endothelial cells. Various cancer cells were treated with LA at doses of 0.3, 1, 3, 10 or 30 μg/ml and LA significantly suppressed the growth of several cancer cell lines, including ACHN, HCT-15, K-562, MCF-7, PC-3 and SK-OV-3, in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that LA induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in ACHN renal cell adenocarcinoma cells. Further study demonstrated that LA concentration-dependently inhibited the tube formation, which is a widely used in vitro model of reorganization stage of angiogenesis, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Collectively, these results show that LA inhibits the growth of cancer cells and tube formation of endothelial cells and the growth-inhibitory effect of LA might be mediated, at least in part, by blocking cell cycle progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced developmental toxicity in rats. A total of 44 mated females were randomly assigned to the following four experimental groups: (1) vehicle control, (2) CP, (3) CP&PYC, or (4) PYC. All dams were subjected to a Caesarean section on day 20 of gestation, and fetuses were examined for morphological abnormalities. Oxidative stress analysis was performed on maternal hepatic tissues. CP treatment caused decreased fetal and placental weights and increased embryonic resorptions and fetal malformations. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase activity were observed in the hepatic tissues. On the contrary, PYC treatment during pregnancy significantly ameliorated the CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA and GSH concentrations and catalase activity in hepatic tissues were not affected when PYC was administered in conjunction with CP. These results suggest that repeated administration of PYC has beneficial effects against CP-induced embryo-fetal developmental toxicity in rats, and that the protective effects of PYC may be due to both inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 02/2012; 50(2):109-15. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D(3) upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is a potent tumour suppressor whose expression is dramatically reduced in various types of human cancers, including gastric cancer. However, the precise mechanisms underlying tumour development remain unclear. In the present study, the authors examined the effect of VDUP1 on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis in mice.
Gastric cancer was generated in VDUP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice using a combination of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea treatment and H pylori infection. Fifty weeks after treatment, gastric tissues from both types of mice were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. In vitro tests on the human gastric cancer cell line, AGS, were also performed to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer development.
The overall incidence of gastric cancer was significantly higher in VDUP1 KO mice than in wild-type mice. Similarly, VDUP1 KO mice showed more severe chronic gastritis, glandular atrophy, foveolar hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia. Although no differences in the apoptotic index were apparent, lack of VDUP1 increased the rate of gastric epithelial cell proliferation in non-cancerous stomachs, with corresponding increases in tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) level, nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. An in vitro study showed that H pylori-associated cell proliferation and induction of TNFα, NF-κB and COX-2 were inhibited in cells transfected with VDUP1. In addition, overexpression of VDUP1 in AGS cells suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression.
Our data show that VDUP1 negatively regulates H pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis, in part by disrupting cell growth and inhibiting the induction of TNFα, NF-κB and COX-2. These findings provide important insights into the role of VDUP1 in H pylori-associated tumourigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are an emerging source for cell-based therapies aimed at repairing damaged organ tissues; however, the efficiency of directed differentiation is low and refinement of differentiation protocols is hampered by incomplete understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. To find new compounds which can improve the efficiency of directed differentiation of ESCs to cardiomyocytes, we screened several thousand chemical compounds and identified a promising group. All of the compounds found have a common structure of 1H-pyrrole,2,2'-(phenylmethylene)bis. Here we report the potential mechanism of action for 31002 which showed the strongest activity among the compounds selected. In the presence of 31002, 15 times more cardiomyocytes differentiated from ESCs, i.e., 3.5% to 52% of total differentiated cells. Moreover, the cardiomyocytes showed functional characteristics including rhythmic beating and marker gene expression. 31002 inhibited the down-regulation of genes related to the three germ layers in the late stage of ESCs differentiation, implying that 31002 supports a continuous fate commitment of undifferentiated ESCs to the cardiac lineage by prolonging the three germ layer stages. Therefore, compounds in this group, including 31002, might be useful as directed cardiomyogenic differentiation-inducers to produce cells for use in cell therapy aimed at restoring damaged heart tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential reproductive toxicity of 2-methylbutane in a one-generation reproductive toxicity study using Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 24 male and female rats per group were given 2-methylbutane by gavage at 0, 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/day. Males were dosed for 10 weeks prior to mating and during mating. Females were dosed from 2 weeks before mating to day 21 of lactation. At 1000 mg/kg/day, both genders exhibited an increase in adrenal gland weight, however, a decrease in body weight gain and food intake, an increase in kidney weight, and an increased incidence of histopathological changes of the kidney were also observed in male rats. No treatment-related effects of 2-methylbutane were found in relation to the reproductive capacity of parental animals or the pre- and post-natal development of the F1 generation. There were no treatment-related effects in either gender at ≤ 300 mg/kg/day. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 2-methylbutane was 300 mg/kg/day for general toxicity and 1000 mg/kg/day for reproductive capacity and pup development in rats.
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 03/2011; 60(1):136-43. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the potential adverse effects of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on pregnant dams and embryonic development following maternal exposure in rats.
MWCNTs were orally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day (GD) 6 through 19 at dose levels of 0, 8, 40, 200, and 1000 mg/kg/day. During the test period, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, food consumption, serum biochemistry, oxidant-antioxidant status, gross findings, organ weights, and Caesarean section findings were examined.
All animals survived to the end of the study. A decrease in thymus weight was observed in the highest dose group. However, maternal body weight, food consumption, serum biochemical parameters, and oxidant-antioxidant balance in the kidneys were not affected by treatment with MWCNTs. No treatment-related differences in gestational index, embryo-fetal mortality, or fetal and placental weights were observed between treated and control groups.
The results show that 14-day repeated oral dosing of MWCNTs during pregnancy induces minimal maternal toxicity at 1000 mg/kg/day in rats. Under these experimental conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of MWCNTs is considered to be 200 mg/kg/day for dams and 1000 mg/kg/day for embryonic development.
Environmental health and toxicology. 01/2011; 26:e2011006.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thioacetamide (TA) is a commonly used drug that can trigger acute hepatic failure (AHF) through generation of oxidative stress. Vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is an endogenous inhibitor of thioredoxin, a ubiquitous thiol oxidoreductase, that regulates cellular redox status. In this study, we investigated the role of VDUP1 in AHF using a TA-induced liver injury model. VDUP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a single intraperitoneal TA injection, and various parameters of hepatic injury were assessed. VDUP1 KO mice displayed a significantly higher survival rate, lower serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and less hepatic damage, compared to WT mice. In addition, induction of apoptosis was decreased in VDUP1 KO mice, with the alteration of caspase-3 and -9 activities, Bax-to-Bcl-2 expression ratios, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Importantly, analysis of TA bioactivation revealed lower plasma clearance of TA and covalent binding of [¹⁴C]TA to liver macromolecules in VDUP1 KO mice. Furthermore, the level of oxidative stress was significantly less in VDUP1 KO mice than in their WT counterparts, as evident from lipid peroxidation assay. These results collectively indicate that VDUP1 deficiency protects against TA-induced acute liver injury via lower bioactivation of TA and antioxidant effects.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2010; 248(3):277-84. · 3.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D(3) upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is a candidate tumor suppressor, the expression of which is dramatically reduced in various tumor tissues. In this study, we found that VDUP1 expression is suppressed during human hepatic carcinogenesis, and mice lacking VDUP1 are much more susceptible to diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis compared with wild type mice. VDUP1-deficient tumors proliferated significantly more than wild type tumors and had corresponding changes in the expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins. In addition, the hepatomitogen-induced response was associated with a considerable increase in the release of TNF-α and subsequent enhancement of NF-κB activation in VDUP1-deficient mice. When cells were treated with TNF-α, the VDUP1 level was markedly reduced, concomitant with elevated NF-κB activation. Furthermore, the overexpression of VDUP1 resulted in the robust suppression of TNF-α-activated NF-κB activity via association with HDAC1 and HDAC3. These results indicate that VDUP1 negatively regulates hepatocarcinogenesis by suppressing TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(7):3980-9. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver regeneration is a complicated process involving a variety of interacting factors. Vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is a potent growth suppressor that, upon over-expression, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and cell-cycle progression. Here, we investigated the function of VDUP1 in liver regeneration following hepatectomy in mice.
Liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) was compared in VDUP1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and the activities of proliferative- and cell-cycle-related signaling pathways were measured.
Compared with WT mice, liver recovery was significantly accelerated in VDUP1 KO mice during the first day after PH, in association with increased DNA synthesis. Consistent with this observation, the expression levels of key cell-cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), p21, and p27, were markedly altered in the livers of VDUP1 KO mice. Induction of growth factors and activation of proliferative signaling pathway components including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and p70S6 kinase (p70(S6K)), occurred much earlier and to a greater extent in VDUP1 KO mouse livers. In addition, primary hepatocytes isolated from VDUP1 KO mice displayed increased activation of ERK1/2 and Akt in response to HGF and TGF-α.
Our results reveal an important role for VDUP1 in the regulation of proliferative signaling during liver regeneration. Altered activation of genes involved in ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways may explain the accelerated growth responses seen in VDUP1 KO mice.
Journal of Hepatology 10/2010; 54(6):1168-76. · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), which play pivotal roles in atherogenesis, have been reported to be involved in plaque stability. Licofelone, a dual COX and 5-LOX inhibitor, has been reported to possess anti-atherogenic effect in rabbit atherosclerosis model. We therefore investigated the anti-atherogenic effect of BHB-TZD [5-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylidene)thiazolidin-2,4-dione], a dual COX and 5-LOX inhibitor, in low density lipoprotein receptor null (LDLR-/-) mice. Fifteen LDLR-/- mice were fed a western diet (control group), whereas 15 were fed a western diet plus 0.1% (w/w) BHB-TZD (BHB-TZD group). After 8 weeks, the BHB-TZD group had markedly lower serum levels of leukotriene B(4) and prostaglandin E(2) than the control group. Interestingly, BHB-TZD treatment also reduced plasma triglyceride level without significant changes in total cholesterol and HDL levels. Compared with control mice, BHB-TZD fed mice had 52% fewer fatty streak lesions in the aortic sinus, as well as fewer initial lesions in the aortic arch. Macrophage infiltration into the lesions was 40% lower, and collagen and smooth muscle cells were increased by 102% and 96%, respectively, in the BHB-TZD group compared with the control group. In addition, aortic expression of proatherogenic molecules including TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1 and VCAM-1, was lower in the BHB-TZD group than the control group. BHB-TZD treatment also reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in aorta. In conclusion, BHB-TZD effectively attenuated atherosclerosis in mouse model, suggesting its therapeutic potential for atherosclerosis.