[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of bronchiolitis in infants. It is also responsible for high morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Programmed death ligands (PD-Ls) on antigen-presenting cells interact with receptors on T cells to regulate immune responses. The programmed death receptor-ligand 1/programmed death receptor 1 (PD-L1-PD-1) pathway is inhibitory in chronic viral infections, but its role in acute viral infections is unclear. We hypothesized that bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) expression of PD-Ls would inhibit local effector CD8(+) T cell function. We report that RSV infection of primary human BECs strongly induces PD-L1 expression. In a co-culture system of BECs with purified CD8(+) T cells, we demonstrated that RSV-infected BECs increased CD8(+) T cell activation, proliferation, and antiviral function. Blocking PD-L1 on RSV-infected BECs co-cultured with CD8(+) T cells enhanced CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ, IL-2, and granzyme B production. It also decreased the virus load of the BECs. Based on our findings, we believe therapeutic strategies that target the PD-L1-PD-1 pathway might increase antiviral immune responses to RSV and other acute virus infections.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2011; 203(1):85-94. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are abundant in the lower respiratory tract. They play a central role in the innate response to infection but may also modulate excessive inflammation. Both macrophages and ciliated epithelial cells respond to infection by releasing soluble mediators, leading to the recruitment of innate and adaptive effector cells. To study the role of lung macrophages in acute respiratory viral infection, we depleted them by the inhalation of clodronate liposomes in an established mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. Infection caused an immediate local release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, peaking on day 1, which was virtually abolished by clodronate liposome treatment. Macrophage depletion inhibited the activation (days 1 to 2) and recruitment (day 4) of natural killer (NK) cells and enhanced peak viral load in the lung (day 4). However, macrophage depletion did not affect the recruitment of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells, weight loss, or virus-induced changes in lung function. Therefore, lung macrophages play a central role in the early responses to viral infection but have remarkably little effect on the adaptive response occurring at the time of peak disease severity.
Journal of Virology 06/2008; 82(9):4441-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), as major producers of IFN-alpha, are thought not only to be pivotal in antiviral immunity, but also to limit allergic inflammation. In this study, we delineate the role of pDC in a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced airway inflammation. Bone marrow-derived pDC generated high levels of IFN-alpha upon RSV infection, and the percentage of pDC expressing MHC class II and maturation-associated costimulatory molecules was increased. However, their weak Ag-presenting capacity was not enhanced. Furthermore, pDC induced marked levels of IL-10 in T cell cultures irrespective of infection. In vivo, numbers of pDC in the lung increased early after RSV infection and remained elevated throughout the inflammatory phase and the resolution phase of infection. Depletion of pDC resulted in increases in peak RSV titers, pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness. In contrast, adoptive transfer of activated pDC to the airways reduced RSV copy numbers. In conclusion, RSV infection induces activation of murine pDC with robust IFN-alpha production, limiting replication and accelerating elimination of RSV. In addition to this innate response, pDC also may play an immune regulatory role in reducing pulmonary inflammation and inhibiting the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2006; 177(9):6263-70. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increases in numbers of lung dendritic cells (DC) observed during respiratory viral infections are assumed to be due to recruitment from bone marrow precursors. No local production has been demonstrated. In this study, we isolated defined populations of murine lung cells based on CD11c and MHC class II (MHC II) expression. After culture for 12 days with GM-CSF, we analyzed cell numbers, DC surface markers, and Ag-presenting capacity. Only CD11c+ MHC II- cells from naive mice proliferated, yielding myeloid DC, which induced Ag-specific proliferation of naive T cells. After respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, numbers of pulmonary CD11c+ MHC II- precursor cells were significantly reduced and DC could not be generated. Moreover, RSV infection prevented subsequent in vivo expansion of pulmonary DC in response to influenza infection or LPS treatment. These results provide direct evidence of local generation of fully functional myeloid DC in the lung from CD11c+ MHC II(-) precursor cells that are depleted by RSV infection, leading to an inability to expand lung DC numbers in response to subsequent viral infection or exposure to bacterial products. This depletion of local DC precursors in respiratory viral infections may be important in explaining complex interactions between multiple and intercurrent pulmonary infections.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2006; 177(4):2536-42. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The integrin CD11c is known as a marker for dendritic cells and has recently been described on T cells following lymphotropic choriomeningitis virus infection, a systemic infection affecting a multitude of organs. Here, we characterise CD11c bearing T cells in a murine model of localised pulmonary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Mice were infected intranasally with RSV and expression of beta2 integrins and T lymphocyte activation markers were monitored by flow cytometry. On day 8 post RSV infection CD11c+ CD8+ and CD11c- CD8+ T cells were assessed for cytokine production, cytotoxic activity and migration. Expression of CD11c mRNA in CD8+ T cells was assessed by quantitative PCR.
Following RSV infection CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were detectable in the lung from day 4 onwards and accounted for 45.9 +/- 4.8% of CD8+ T cells on day 8 post infection, while only few such cells were present in mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen and blood. While CD11c was virtually absent from CD8+ T cells in the absence of RSV infection, its mRNA was expressed in CD8+ T cells of both naïve and RSV infected mice. CD11c+, but not CD11c-, CD8+ T cells showed signs of recent activation, including up-regulation of CD11a and expression of CD11b and CD69 and were recruited preferentially to the lung. In addition, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells were the major subset responsible for IFNgamma production, induction of target cell apoptosis in vitro and reduction of viral titres in vivo.
CD11c is a useful marker for detection and isolation of pulmonary antiviral cytotoxic T cells following RSV infection. It identifies a subset of activated, virus-specific, cytotoxic T cells that exhibit potent antiviral effects in vivo.
Respiratory research 02/2005; 6:70. · 3.64 Impact Factor