[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CSA1M tumor-bearing mice exhibited a severe immune dysfunction but the underlying mechanism remained unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that the myeloid suppressor cell (Mac-1(+)Gr-1(+) cells)-(MSC) related T cell immunosuppression in this tumor-bearing model. In mice at the late stage of CSA1M tumor-bearing (Late TB [8-10 weeks after cell inoculation in male BALB/c mice]), the percentages for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells decreased but Mac-1(+) cells increased in spleens with severe splenomegaly. There was no deficit for concanavalin A-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin (IL)-4 production, but delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction were attenuated. Analysis of cytokine production in unfractionated spleen cells showed a significant reduction of IFN-gamma and a marked increase of IL-10 and IL-4. In Late-TB mice, splenic MSC number intensively accumulated; the mRNA expressions of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) were enhanced in MSC; the nitric oxide production and arginase enzyme activity increased in MSC as well. Furthermore, the concanavalin A-induced T cell proliferation was inhibited in the presence of lipopolysaccharide- or IFN-gamma-activated MSC from Late-TB mice, which could be reversed by the iNOS specific inhibitor L-NMMA. iNOS seemed to be required more than arginase for the suppressive activity of MSC. Taken together, our results suggest that the immune dysfunction in tumor-bearing mice might be causally associated with the accumulation of MSC and its tumor-favoring property.
Cancer Science 07/2007; 98(6):882-9. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (5R)-5-Hydroxytriptolide (LLDT-8) displays strong immunosuppressive activities both in vitro and in vivo in our previous studies. This study aims to investigate whether LLDT-8 has antiarthritic potential in a murine model of type II bovine collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) and to show the mechanism(s) of LLDT-8 action. DBA/1 mice were immunized with CII to induce arthritis and administered with LLDT-8. The severity of arthritis was evaluated according to the clinical score and joint damage. The effects of LLDT-8 on immune responses were determined by measurement of serum antibody levels, lymphocyte proliferation assay, cytokine assay, nitric oxide (NO) production, arginase activity assays, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of splenic Mac-1+ cells, as well as polymerase chain reaction analysis for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-related gene expression. We showed that LLDT-8 treatment significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA. The preventive and therapeutic effects of LLDT-8 are associated with 1) reduction of serum anti-CII immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgG2a, and IgG1 levels; 2) inhibition of CII-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IFN-gamma and interleukin-2 production; 3) blockade of gene expressions in IFN-gamma signaling, including IFN-gamma production pathways [signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1, T-box transcription factor, interleukin 12Rbeta2, and STAT4] and IFN-gamma-induced chemokine transcription [macrophage inflammatory protein (Mip)-1alpha, Mip-1beta, regulated on activation normally T cell expressed and secreted, and inducible protein 10]; and 4) retardation of the abnormal increase of NO via IFN-gamma/STAT1/interferon regulatory factor 1/inducible nitric-oxide synthase pathway and arginase activity. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of chemokine receptors was also suppressed [including C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, CCR5, and C-X-C chemokine receptor 3]. In conclusion, our data suggest that the antiarthritic effect of LLDT-8 is closely related to the blockade of IFN-gamma signaling. LLDT-8 may have a therapeutic value in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2006; 318(1):35-44. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T helper cell type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells express distinct sets of chemokine receptors. In contrast to Th1 chemokine receptors, it is largely unknown how Th2 chemokine receptors such as CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) are induced during Th2 differentiation. Here, we investigated the induction of CCR4 surface expression and ligand responsiveness evaluated by functional assays such as chemokine binding and chemotaxis. This was done in comparison with those of a Th1 chemokine receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3). Resting T cells expressed neither CXCR3 nor CCR4. CXCR3 expression and ligand responsiveness were observed when resting T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in the presence of [interleukin (IL)-12+anti-IL-4] and then recultured without T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Unlike CXCR3, CCR4 was induced immediately after anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation in the presence of (IL-4+anti-interferon-gamma+anti-IL-12). However, these CCR4-positive cells failed to exhibit chemokine binding and chemotaxis. Although the levels of surface CCR4 expression were not increased after the subsequent reculture in the absence of TCR stimulation, CCR4 responsiveness was induced in this stage of Th2 cells. The induction of CCR4 expression and the acquisition of CCR4 responsiveness did not occur in IL-4-deficient (IL-4(-/-)) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)6(-/-) T cells. CCR4 expression and functionality were regained in IL-4(-/-) but not in STAT6(-/-) T cells by the addition of recombinant IL-4. Although surface expression and functionality of CCR4 are induced depending on the IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway, the present results indicate that the functionality of CCR4 does not correlate with CCR4 expression but emerges at later stages of Th2 differentiation.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 10/2005; 78(3):753-61. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The B7/CD28 co-stimulatory pathway plays a critical role in T cell activation and differentiation. Our previous study demonstrated that administration of B7.2-Ig fusion proteins to tumor-bearing mice elicits IL-4-dependent, CD8+ T cell-mediated tumor regression. Here, we investigated whether B7.2-Ig stimulation of tumor-sensitized CD8+ CTL precursors during in vitro antigen re-sensitization actually results in their differentiation into mature CTLs and if so, whether such a process depends on IL-4 signals. Splenocytes from tumor-sensitized (tumor-bearing or tumor-immunized) mice exhibited low levels of anti-tumor CTL responses upon culturing alone, but induced strikingly enhanced CTL responses when stimulated in vitro with B7.2-Ig fusion proteins. Because CTLs were not generated from normal splenocytes even by B7.2-Ig stimulation, the expression of the B7.2-Ig effect required the in vivo tumor sensitization of CD8+ CTL precursors. Administration of anti-CD4 or anti-CD40 ligand (CD40L) to mice before tumor sensitization resulted in almost complete inhibition of CTL responses generated in the subsequent culture containing B7.2-Ig. In contrast, anti-IL-4 did not influence in vivo tumor sensitization required for CTL induction. However, B7.2-Ig stimulation of tumor-sensitized splenocytes enhanced IL-4 production and neutralization of this IL-4 with anti-IL-4 potently down-regulated CTL responses. These results indicate that B7.2-Ig enhances IL-4-dependent differentiation of anti-tumor CD8+ CTL precursors that can be sensitized in vivo depending on collaboration with CD4+ T cells involving CD40L function.
International Immunology 09/2005; 17(8):1071-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mode of anti-tumor function in vivo of noncytolytic Lyt-2+ T cells from C3H/He mice hyperimmune to syngeneic MH134 hepatoma was investigated in a double diffusion chamber system which was recently established in our laboratory. C3H/He mice were implanted intraperitoneally with the double diffusion chamber unit in which each chamber contained either L3T4+ T cell-depleted MH134-hyperimmune spleen cells plus mitomycin C-treated MH134 tumor cells or other syngeneic X5563 viable tumor cells plus normal spleen cells as a source of macrophages. Inclusion of anti-MH134 Lyt-2+ T cells together with MH134 tumor cells in one chamber resulted in comparable growth inhibition of viable X5563 tumor cells in the other chamber to that obtained by unfractionated MH134-hyperimmune spleen cells. The induction in the Lyt-2+ T cell-containing chamber of anti-tumor effect to be delivered into the other chamber was dependent on the co-existence of la-positive adherent cells along with Lyt-2+ T cells. Although adherent cell-depleted Lyt-2+ T cells regained the inducibility of anti-tumor immunity when supplemented with splenic adherent cells, the addition of adherent cells pretreated with chloroquine failed to restore the ability of Lyt-2+ T cells to induce their anti-tumor effect. In addition, paraformaldehyde-treated MH134 tumor cells instead of untreated tumor cells were not capable of activating Lyt-2+ T cells. These results indicate that a portion of Lyt-2+ T cells exerts their anti-tumor effect by a mechanism distinct from direct tumor cell lysis and that their activation for mediation of this type of tumor immunity requires the recognition of tumor antigens processed and presented by la-positive adherent cells.
Cancer Science 08/2005; 79(1):99 - 108. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (IFN) have an essential role in antiviral defense, and they are produced upon viral infection in a variety of cells. IFN-alpha/beta treatment of immature dendritic cells (DC) is known to induce their phenotypic and functional maturation, but it remains unclear whether stimulation by this cytokine family influences the functions and maturation of Langerhans cells (LC). We used highly enriched (>95%) LC directly isolated from BALB/c mouse skin and addressed this issue, comparing LC with splenic CD11c(+) DC. Type I IFN-treated LC exhibited impaired ability to produce IL-12 and inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, whereas IL-10 production was not augmented. In splenic DC, the production of inflammatory cytokines was rather enhanced by type I IFN treatment. With regard to chemokines, in both LC and splenic DC, type I IFN upregulated the production of inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5. Strikingly, IFN-beta treatment reduced the expression of CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86 on LC, whereas IFN-beta-treated splenic DC showed enhanced expression of these molecules. Furthermore, IFN-beta-treated LC had impaired costimulatory activity for anti-CD3-induced proliferation of T cells. Finally, treatment with IFN-alpha/beta reduced the migratory capacity of LC to CCL21. These results indicate that type I IFN inhibit maturation and activation of LC in a direct manner. Our observations may provide a novel explanation for the reported inability of LC to act as potent antigen-presenting cells in cutaneous and mucosal viral infection.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 07/2005; 125(1):126-33. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer-T (NKT) cells are rich in the liver. However, their involvement in liver injury is not fully understood. We developed here a new murine model of NKT-cell-activation-associated liver injury, and investigated a role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and Fas in pathogenesis. We injected intraperitoneally alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer), an NKT-cell stimulant, into D-galactosamine (GalN)-sensitized mice. Survival rate, pathological changes of the liver, and plasma concentrations of cytokines were studied. Alpha-GalCer/GalN administration gave a lethal effect within 7 h, making pathological changes such as massive parenchymal hemorrhage, hepatocyte apoptosis, sinusoidal endothelial cell injury, and close apposition of lymphocytes to apoptotic hepatocytes. Anti-NK1.1 mAb-pretreated mice and Valpha14NKT knock out (KO) mice did not develop liver injury. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were elevated at 4 h in the plasma. These cytokines were produced by hepatic lymphocytes as demonstrated by in vitro stimulation with alpha-GalCer. The lethal effect was suppressed in TNF-alpha KO mice, TNF receptor-1 KO mice, and lpr/lpr (Fas deficient) mice, whereas it was not in IFN-gamma KO mice. These results indicate that the present liver injury is characterized by parenchymal hemorrhage and hepatocyte apoptosis, and mediated by TNF-alpha secretion and direct cytotoxicity of alpha-GalCer-activated NKT cells.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 07/2005; 446(6):663-73. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some chemokines specifically attract T helper 1 (Th1) cells, whereas others attract T helper 2 (Th2) cells. In this study, we investigated the capacity of Langerhans cells (LC) to produce Th1- and Th2-type chemokines in comparison with that of splenic CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DC). We prepared highly purified (>95%) LC from BALB/c mouse skin using the panning method. With regard to Th1-type chemokines, exogenous stimulus, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), lipopolysaccharide, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, was mandatory for the production of substantial amounts of CXCL10, CXCL9, and CXCL11 both in LC and splenic DC. LC, as a whole, exhibited low ability to produce Th1-type chemokines in comparison with splenic DC. As for Th2-type chemokines, LC, but not splenic DC, produced high levels of CCL22 and CCL17 constitutively during culture even without exogenous stimuli. The production of Th2-type chemokines was regulated in a complicated manner. In particular, interleukin-4 upregulated, and IFN-gamma downregulated both CCL22 and CCL17 production by LC. Of note, LC produced much more amounts of Th2-type chemokines than splenic DC under any conditions tested. Finally, Th1- and Th2-type chemokines produced by LC were shown to be functional using chemokine receptor-transfected-2B4 T cells. The high production of CC chemokine receptor 4 ligands by LC in the absence of IFN-gamma may be an important character discriminating LC from other DC.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2005; 124(2):343-50. · 6.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The B7/CD28 costimulatory pathway plays a critical role in T cell activation including Th1/Th2 differentiation. However, little is known about whether CD28 costimulation favors polarization of either Th1 and Th2 or both. Here, we show a critical role of the natural ligands for CD28 molecules (B7.2-Ig or B7.1-Ig fusion proteins), particularly in the induction of type 2 T cell polarization. Upon TCR-triggering with suboptimal doses of anti-CD3, costimulation of naïve CD4+ T cells with anti-CD28 mAb or B7-Ig fusion proteins led to comparable levels of IFN-gamma production. Naïve T cells could produce IL-4 when CD28 costimulation was done with B7-Ig, but not with anti-CD28. IL-4-selective upregulation was also observed when T cells from anti-OVA TCR transgenic mice were stimulated with OVA in the presence of B7-Ig. Correlating with IL-4 expression, GATA-3 expression was induced much more potently by costimulation with B7-Ig than with anti-CD28 mAb, while T-bet induction by these two costimulatory reagents was comparable. This B7 effect was also applied for naïve and antigen-primed CD8+ T cells: IL-4-expressing CD8+ T cells were generated when naïve and alloantigen-primed T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 and recall antigens, respectively, in the presence of B7-Ig costimulation. Importantly, such CD8+ T cell differentiation required the coexistence of CD4+ T cells during the initial TCR stimulation. These observations indicate that both type 2 CD4 and CD8 T cell polarizations are efficiently induced via costimulation of CD28 with its natural ligands, although the differentiation of CD8+ T cells is dependent on CD4+ cells.
International Immunology 02/2005; 17(1):73-83. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HER-2/neu oncogene products have been implicated as a potential target of T cell-mediated immune responses to HER-2/neu-induced tumors. Using HER-2/neu transgenic mice (oncomice), we investigated whether, and if so how, anti-HER-2/neu immune responses are induced and modulated in these oncomice from birth to tumor initiation. Female oncomice carrying the activated HER-2/neu oncogene displayed apparent hyperplasia in mammary glands at 10 weeks of age and developed mammary carcinomas around an average age of 26 weeks. Unfractionated spleen cells from 10- to 15-week-old oncomice that were cultured without any exogenous stimuli exhibited cytotoxicity against the F31 tumor cell line established from an HER-2/neu-induced mammary carcinoma mass. The final antitumor effectors were a macrophage lineage of cells. However, this effector population was activated, depending on the stimulation of oncomouse CD4(+) T cells with oncomouse-derived antigen-presenting cell (APC) alone or with wild-type mouse APC in the presence of F31 membrane fractions, suggesting the presence of HER-2/neu-primed CD4(+) T cells and HER-2/neu-presenting APC in 10- to 15-week-old oncomice. These antitumor cytotoxic responses were detected at approximately 5 weeks of age and peaked at age 10 to 15 weeks. However, the responses then declined at tumor-bearing stages in which the expression of target proteins could progressively increase. This resulted from the dysfunction of CD4(+) T cells but not of APC or effector macrophages. These results indicate that an anti-HER-2/neu CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune response was generated at the pretumorigenic stage but did not prevent tumorigenesis and declined after the development of clinical tumors.
Cancer Research 11/2004; 64(20):7588-95. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28 signals contribute to either type 1 or type 2 T cell differentiation. Here, we show that administration of B7.2-Ig fusion proteins to tumor-bearing mice induces tumor regression by promoting the differentiation of antitumor type 2 CD8(+) effector T cells along with IL-4 production. B7.2-Ig-mediated regression was not induced in IL-4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice. However, it was elicited in IFN-gamma(-/-) and STAT4(-/-) mice. By contrast, IL-12-induced tumor regression occurred in IL-4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice, but not in IFN-gamma(-/-) and STAT4(-/-) mice. Moreover, B7.2-Ig treatment was effective in a tumor model not responsive to IL-12. B7.2-Ig administration elicited elevated levels of IL-4 production. Tumor regression was predominantly mediated by CD8(+) T cells, although the induction of these effector cells required CD4(+) T cells. Tumor regression induced by CD8(+) T cells alone was inhibited by neutralizing the IL-4 produced during B7.2-Ig treatment. Thus, these results indicate that stimulation in vivo of CD28 with B7.2-Ig in tumor-bearing mice results in enhanced induction of antitumor type 2 CD8(+) T cells (Tc2) leading to Tc2-mediated tumor regression.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2004; 172(3):1347-54. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-12 promotes T(h)1 development/IFN-gamma expression by activating STAT4. However, it is still unclear how STAT4 elicits IFN-gamma promoter activation. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which IL-12-activated STAT4 functions for IFN-gamma induction in TCR-triggered T cells. TCR stimulation induced high levels of IFN-gamma production depending on co-stimulation with IL-12. IL-12 stimulation greatly enhanced the promoter-binding activity of c-Jun/AP-1, a critical transcription factor for IFN-gamma gene expression in wild-type T cells, but not in STAT4-deficient (STAT4(-/-)) T cells. Comparable amounts of c-Jun were induced by TCR stimulation in both wild-type and STAT4(-/-) T cells irrespective of IL-12 co-stimulation. However, c-Jun bound to STAT4 in IL-12-co-stimulated wild-type T cells. c-Jun forming a complex with STAT4 efficiently interacted with the AP-1-related sequence of the IFN-gamma promoter. Such an enhanced c-Jun binding did not occur in STAT4(-/-) T cells. These results show that STAT4 contributes to enhancing IFN-gamma expression by up-regulating the binding of TCR signal-induced AP-1 to the relevant promoter sequence.
International Immunology 03/2004; 16(2):295-302. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collections of already developed programs are important resources for efficient development of reliable software systems. In this paper, we propose a novel method of ranking software components, called Component Rank, based on analyzing actual use relations among the components and propagating the significance through the use relations. We have developed a component-rank computation system, and applied it to various Java programs. The result is promising such that non-specific and generic components are ranked high. Using the Component Rank system as a core part, we are currently developing Software Product Archiving, analyzing, and Retrieving System named SPARS.
Software Engineering, 2003. Proceedings. 25th International Conference on; 06/2003
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 and CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 are expressed on T helper cell type 1 cells and have been implicated in their migration to sites of inflammation. Our preceding study demonstrated that a nonpeptide synthetic CCR5 antagonist, TAK-779 (N, N-dimethyl-N-[4-[[[2-(4-methylphenyl)-6, 7-dihydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-8-yl]carbon-yl]amino]benzyl]-tetrahydro-2H-pyran4-aminium chloride, inhibits the development of experimentally induced arthritis by modulating the migration of CCR5(+)/CXCR3(+) T cells to joints. The present study investigated the functional properties of TAK-779, including the effect of this antagonist on CXCR3 function. For this purpose, transfectants expressing mouse CCR5 (mCCR5) or mCXCR3 and expressing mCCR4 or mCXCR4 as controls were established by introducing each relevant gene into 2B4 T cells and were subjected to the following assays. First, the ligand binding to chemokine receptors was assayed by incubating transfectants with [(125)I]-labeled relevant ligand or with the unlabeled relevant ligand followed by staining with anti-ligand antibody. Second, chemokine-induced lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) activation was assayed by measuring the adhesion of cells to microculture plates coated with purified intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Third, chemokine-stimulated chemotaxis was assayed by observing the cell migration through transwells. In these assays, TAK-779 blocked the ligand binding as well as LFA-1 up-regulating and chemotactic function of mCXCR3 and mCCR5 but did not elicit a biologically significant inhibition of those functions of mCCR4 and mCXCR4. These observations indicate the unique target specificity of TAK-779 and explain why this antagonist efficiently blocks the migration of T cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3 to sites of inflammation.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 03/2003; 73(2):273-80. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-12 activates TYK2 and Janus kinase (JAK)-2 to induce the phosphorylation of various signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins. However, little is known regarding how these JAK exhibit the distinct biological effects of IL-12. Using two JAK inhibitors, tyrphostin A1 (A1) for TYK2 and tyrphostin B42 (B42) for JAK2, we investigated the involvement of JAK2 and TYK2 in IL-12-induced T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production. B42, but not A1, inhibited T cell proliferation along with down-regulation of IL-12-induced c-Myc expression and STAT5 phosphorylation. In contrast, A1 but not B42 inhibited STAT4/STAT3 phosphorylation and IFN-gamma production. IL-18, but not IL-12, induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) responsible for high levels of IFN-gamma promoter activation. However, this IL-18 effect depended on the interaction of AP-1 with STAT4. A1 prevented AP-1 binding by inhibiting STAT4 involvement and down-regulated synergistic IFN-gamma promoter activation. These results indicate that JAK2 activation is required for IL-12-mediated T cell growth, whereas the TYK2-STAT4 signaling pathway is critical for IFN-gamma expression that is mediated by IL-12 alone and enhanced synergistically by combination with IL-18.
European Journal of Immunology 02/2003; 33(1):243-51. · 4.97 Impact Factor