[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To differentiate remnant tumour from postoperative changes on short-term follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or combined positron-emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) after inadequate primary resection of malignant soft-tissue tumours.
Materials and methods:
From January 2007 through September 2010, 35 patients (18 women and 17 men; mean age 48 years; age range 18-78 years) who underwent MRI and PET-CT within 64 days after surgery for malignant soft-tissue tumours were included. MRI images were assessed for the following findings: the presence of delineated enhancing portions; fascial thickening; and fluid or haematomas with measurable wall thickening. The PET-CT data were analysed using the standardized uptake value (SUV) and the uptake pattern.
The correlation of tumour grade and the presence of remnant tumour was significant (p = 0.026). After re-excision, remnant tumour was demonstrated in 15 patients and no tumour cells were discovered in 20 patients. The finding of focally delineated enhancing portions on MRI images and the SUVmax on PET-CT analysis were significantly correlated with the remnant tumour (each p = 0.001 and p = 0.036).
To evaluate the presence of remnant tumour after inadequate excision of malignant soft-tissue tumours, an MRI finding of a focally enhancing area and an SUVmax of >2 on PET-CT might be helpful factors. The coexistence of these two findings would be even more helpful for the detection of residual tumours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to present the CT and MRI findings of patients with fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the spine.
Among the patients with pathologically proven skeletal FD, 12 (8 males and 4 females; mean age, 43 years) who were evaluated with either spine CT or MRI were included. The number and location of the involved vertebral segments, the presence of lytic lesions, ground-glass opacity (GGO), an expansile nature, cortical disruption, a sclerotic rim, a decrease in body height and contour deformity were examined on CT scans (n=12), while signal intensity, enhancement patterns and the presence of a dark signal rim on the lesion were examined using MRI (n=9).
Nine patients had polyostotic FD, including one with an isolated spinal localisation, while three had monostotic FD. An expansile nature (n=3) and osteolytic lesions with GGO (n=3) were seen. On CT images, GGO was noted in all patients. An expansile nature (n=11) and presence of lytic lesions (n=11) were noted. A decrease in body height (n=9) and sclerotic rim formation (n=9) were indicated. Contour deformities were visible in six patients. The MRI findings were non-specific. Dark signal rims were visible on MRI in seven patients.
Typical imaging findings of extraspinal FD were noted on spine CT scans. These characteristic CT imaging findings of spinal FD may be helpful in differentiating FD from other common spine diseases.
The British journal of radiology 12/2011; 85(1015):996-1001. DOI:10.1259/bjr/81329736 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a possible rheumatoid arthritis (RA) case found in a Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910) tomb encapsulated by a lime-soil mixture barrier (LSMB). The tomb is thought to have been constructed during the 1700s AD (1760 AD by carbon dating). In our anthropological examination, joint destruction, erosion or fusion (signs of polyarthritis) were identified mainly in the peripheral skeleton. Especially in both sides of the wrist bones, severe destruction/joint fusion possibly caused by polyarthritis was observed. A similar polyarthritis pattern also was seen in the right foot bones, even though we failed to confirm this symmetry due to the missing left foot bones. Despite these findings, signs suggestive of polyarthritis are very rarely seen in axial bones, even though bony fusions are found in the atlanto-occipital joint or thoracic vertebrae (TV) 9–10.
By the osteological signs observed in this case, the individual, a female, might have been suffering from a very late stage of RA and died in her 40s, even though other forms of chronic arthritis could not be ruled out completely. Though the current case could not provide evidence to decisively settle the debates on the antiquity of RA, our report could be a stepping stone for forthcoming studies on RA cases found in East Asian countries. Copyright
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 03/2011; 21(2):136 - 149. DOI:10.1002/oa.1112 · 0.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the differences in CT findings of miliary tuberculosis in patients with and without HIV infection. Two radiologists reviewed retrospectively the CT findings of 15 HIV-seropositive and 14 HIV-seronegative patients with miliary tuberculosis. The decisions on the findings were reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi2 test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test. All of the HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients had small nodules and micronodules distributed randomly throughout both lungs. HIV-seropositive patients had a higher prevalence of interlobular septal thickening (p = 0.017), necrotic lymph nodes (p = 0.005) and extrathoracic involvement (p = 0.040). The seropositive patients had a lower prevalence of large nodules (p = 0.031). In conclusion, recognition of the differences in the radiological findings between HIV-seropositive and -seronegative patients may help in the establishment of an earlier diagnosis of immune status in patients with miliary tuberculosis.
The British journal of radiology 03/2010; 83(987):206-11. DOI:10.1259/bjr/95169618 · 2.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunoreactivity and protein expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the dog during normal ageing was investigated. OMP immunolabelling was observed only in nerve bundles of the olfactory nerve (ONL) and glomerular layers (GL) and there was no OMP expression within cell bodies of any layer. TH immunolabelling was detected in all layers of the MOB except for the ONL. Most of the neurons expressing TH were distributed in the juxtaglomerular region and had a morphological appearance consistent with periglomerular, external tufted or superficial short axon cells. Dendrites of TH-immunoreactive neurons were closely apposed to OMP-immunoreactive nerve bundles within the glomeruli. There was no significant age-related loss of OMP and TH immunoreactivity and protein concentrations of these molecules were consistent in dogs of different ages. These results suggest that olfactory signal transduction to the GL via axons of olfactory receptor neurons remains unchanged during ageing in the dog.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of traumatic spinal dural tears is difficult to establish. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliable MR imaging findings suggesting dural tears in spinal burst fractures.
We retrospectively reviewed spine MR images of 21 patients with dural tears (study group) and 33 patients without dural tears (control group), all of whom had spinal burst fractures. The following MR imaging features were compared between the 2 groups: the interpedicular distance, the angle of the retropulsed segments, the ratio of the central canal diameter, the presence or absence of laminar fractures, the degree of laminar fractures, and the extent of epidural hemorrhage.
The mean values of the grade of the laminar fracture, the interpedicular distance, the ratio of the central canal diameter, the angle of the retropulsed segment, and the extent of epidural hemorrhage in the study and control groups were as follows: 1.77 and 0.86 (P = .034), 28.7 and 26 mm (P = .02), 0.37 and 0.58 (P = .008), 112 degrees and 128 degrees (P = .05), and 2.37 and 1.4 (P = .11), respectively. The ratio of the central canal diameter was the most reliable factor suggesting dural tears compared with other factors.
Dural tears are likely when there are MR imaging findings of laminar fracture of more than grade 1, the interpedicular distance is >28 mm, the central canal ratio is <0.46, and the acute angle of the retropulsed segment is <135 degrees .
American Journal of Neuroradiology 09/2008; 30(1):142-6. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A1273 · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conventional transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI) has several problems. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporary diagnostic relief and advantages of TFESI performed using the conventional and posterolateral approaches.
From August to December 2004, 187 patients received TFESI for lumbar radicular pain. A total of 108 patients (65 women, 43 men; mean age, 56 years) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In essence, the needle target point was the "safe triangle," but if there was a possibility that the needle could penetrate the nerve root or that the injectate could contact spinal nerve, posterolateral TFESI was used as an alternative. Image analyses of needle positions and chart reviews were performed. Logistic regression analysis and t test were used for statistical analysis.
Of the 108 patients, 75 (69.4%) showed an improvement at 2 weeks after TFESI. In 46 patients (42.6%), the needle was located in the posterolateral epidural space, and 33 (71.7%) of those experienced pain relief. Of the 62 patients in whom the needle was located in the anterior epidural position, 42 (68%) experienced pain relief. There was a significant reduction in pain sense for the posterolateral approach (P < .05). However, no statistical difference was found between the 2 approaches and temporary diagnostic relief, and no correlation was found between the other variables tested and temporary diagnostic relief (P > .05).
Our findings suggest that the posterolateral approach is an alternative method for TFESI in cases where needle tip positioning in the anterior epidural space is difficult.
American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2007; 28(2):204-8. · 3.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The expression of calbindin D-28k (CB), calretinin (CR), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the stomach myenteric plexus of the Korean native goat stomach was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the presence of nerve fibers and cell bodies immunoreactive (IR) to CB, CR, SP and CGRP. In tissues of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum, some distinct neuronal populations could be distinguished according to their morphologic and neuronal chemical properties: Dogiel type I cells which have irregular lamellar dendrites and a single axon, Dogiel type II cells which have large ovoid cell bodies and several long axon-like processes, and small filamentous interneurons. CB-, CR-, SP- and CGRP-IR neurons and fibers were observed in the myenteric plexus of stomach, and varicose nerve fiber immunostained to SP and CGRP also were found in the muscle layer. In myenteric plexus of the stomach, CB- and SP-positive neurons were characterized by Dogiel type II and CR-IR neurons were classified Dogiel type I with lamellar dendrites, and immunoreactivity of CGRP was very weak in the somata. SP- and CGRP-IR nerve fibers formed dense networks within the myenteric ganglia. SP-IR cell bodies and their fibers were found in the myenteric plexus, and the immunoreactivity and number of cell bodies were more than CB-, CR-, and CGRP-IR neurons. These results suggest that SP, CGRP, CB and CR in the myenteric neurons of Korean native goat stomach may have play an important role in the dynamic movement.(Support contributed by: Korean Research Foundation 2003-015-E00195).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatostatin is found in the olfactory system, including the main olfactory bulb (MOB), and is thought to be one of the neuroactive substances for olfaction. However, somatostatin immunoreactivity in the olfactory system has not been determined during ageing. Hence, we examined the age-related changes of somatostatin-immunoreactive (IR) neurones in the rat MOB over a period of 2 years, at the following various ageing stages: post-natal month 1 (PM 1), PM 3, PM 6, PM 12 and PM 24. In PM 1 group, a few somatostatin-IR neurones were detected in the granule cell layer (GCL), and had slender or oval somata and short processes. At PM 3, somatostatin-IR neurones were observed in the glomerular, external plexiform and GCL. The size of somatostatin-IR somata was larger than that at PM 1. In PM 6 group, the number and size of somatostatin-IR neurones increased, and their processes became longer while running in various directions. At PM 12, somatostatin-IR neurones increased in number, and their processes became markedly longer than those at PM 6. At this stage, somatostatin-IR neurones had multipolar somata, and were the largest in size. In PM 24 group, somatostatin-IR neurones were most numerous. However, the processes of somatostatin-IR neurones were shorter than those at PM 12. This study suggests that the increased number of somatostatin-IR neurones in the MOB of aged rats may play a role to compensate for any decrease of olfactory function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, the temporal and spatial alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus after 5 min transient forebrain ischemia were investigated as followed up 7 days after ischemic insult, and the effects of ACTH after ischemic insult were also investigated 4 days after ischemic insult. The ectopic expression of ACTH (1-24 fragments) immunoreactive neurons in the cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) region of hippocampus and hilar region of the dentate gyrus 1 day after the ischemic insult was observed. Judging from the double immunofluorescence study, these neurons contain GABA. Four days after ischemic insult, the ACTH immunoreactivity was localized in CA1 pyramidal cells and glia near the stratum pyramidale, which normally do not express ACTH. In addition, in the saline-treated groups, the percentage of the detected Cresyl Violet positive neurons was 11.2% compared with the sham-operated group 4 and 7 days after ischemic insult. In these groups, the OX-42 immunoreactive microglia were detected in the strata pyramidale, oriens and radiatum. However, in the Org2766 (analog of ACTH)-treated group, 57.8% neurons compared with the sham-operated group were stained with Cresyl Violet 4 and 7 days after ischemic insult. In these groups, the OX-42 immunoreactive microglia were significantly reduced in the stratum pyramidale. These results suggest that transient forebrain ischemia may provoke selective ectopic and enhanced expression of ACTH in the hippocampus, and further suggest that ACTH plays an important role in reducing the ischemic damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glucocorticoids have a profound influence on the survival of hippocampal neurones, and that the depletion of glucocorticoids as a result of adrenalectomy (ADX) reduces nerve growth factor levels in the hippocampus. It is also believed that ADX is associated with the seizure susceptibility of the Mongolian gerbil. In the present study, the choronological changes of c-jun immunoreactivity were investigated after ADX in the hippocampal formations in the seizure-prone gerbil model. In the sham hippocampus, c-jun immunoreactivity was not observed in the neurones of the hippocampus proper and dentate gyrus. C-jun immunoreactive neurones appeared 3 h after ADX in the neurones of the CA1 area and dentate gyrus, and these immunoreactivities peaked 24 h after ADX and then gradually decreased. These results suggest that, in the adrenalectomized gerbil, c-jun may be expressed in the neurones of the hippocampus in compensation for glucocorticoid deficit. The result of enhanced c-jun expression of the hippocampal formation provides anatomical support for the hypothesis that c-jun may play a role in the reduction of seizure activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report upon the distribution of galanin-immunoreactive (GAL-IR) cells in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the rat, and upon the distribution of GAL-IR cells, which also contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, substance P (SP)- and somatostatin (SOM)-immunoreactivity. Neuropeptide-immunoreactive lumbar DRG cells were 55.8% for CGRP, 12.7% for SP, and 6.5% for GAL in lumbar DRG cells. There was no significant difference between the right and left DRGs (L1-L6) for any neuropeptide-immunoreactive cell (P < 0.01). In terms of size distribution, CGRP-immunoreactive cells were identified below 1500 microm2, and SP-, and GAL-IR cells below 600 microm2. Neuropeptide immunoreactive cells showed various immunoreactivities in the cytoplasm according to each neuropeptide. CGRP and SP immunoreactive cells were colocalized with GAL immunoreactive cells in the serial sections about 83.3 and 60% respectively, but SOM colocalizing with GAL-IR cells were not in evidence. The current results confirm and extend previous results, and show that neuropeptides can coexist in single sensory neurones of the rat DRG. In addition, our results demonstrate that the normal distribution of some neurotransmitters modulating sensory action in Wistar Kyoto rat, make this model more prone to develop neuropathic pain than Sprague-Dawley rat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is located in the olfactory system, including the olfactory bulb, and is thought to be one of the main neurotransmitters for olfaction. Thus, we examined age-related changes of NPY-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the rat anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) at various aging stages over a period of 2 years; postnatal months 1 (PM 1), PM 6, PM 12 and PM 24. NPY-IR neurons in the AON were present in the lateral and medial subdivisions at PM 1 and at PM 6 were distributed in all subdivisions of the AON. Prior to PM 12, the NPY-IR neurons showed a tendency to change from bipolar cells with short processes into multipolar cells with long processes. Moreover, the population of NPY-IR neurons and nerve fibers in the AON increased in proportion to age. In particular, the number of NPY-IR neurons increased about 6-fold between PM 1 and PM 3. At PM 24, the number of NPY-IR neurons was much smaller than that at PM 12 and somal size had decreased. It is therefore suggested that the dramatic increase in the number and size of the NPY-IR neurons between PM 1 and PM 3 may be associated with sexual maturation and that the decrease in the number and cell size of the NPY-IR neurons at PM 24 may underlie age-related changes in the olfactory process.
Journal of Neurocytology 01/2002; 30(12):967-72. DOI:10.1023/A:1021880405862 · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells are morphological hallmarks of Hodgkin's disease (HD). So far, several characteristics frequently seen in H-RS cells from different origins have been described, such as the high expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the elevation of NF-kappaB activity, and the aberrant expression of molecules such as CD15, CD30, and CD99. Despite extensive studies on the nature of H-RS cells, the molecular mechanism by which H-RS cells are generated remained elusive. Recently, the forced down-regulation of CD99 was reported to induce typical H-RS phenotypes in vitro in a B cell line. Furthermore, it was revealed that LMP1 markedly reduces the CD99 expression at the transcriptional level. Since the presence of LMP1 is known to be associated with the H-RS cell formation, the data provide a possibility of linkage between LMP1 and HD via CD99, thus suggesting that, at least in part, the loss of CD99 may play a critical role in the pathogenic sequence to the formation of H-RS cells in HD. In this review, the role of CD99 in the generation of H-RS cells and its molecular mechanism will be suggested.
Leukemia and Lymphoma 09/2001; 42(4):587-94. DOI:10.3109/10428190109099318 · 2.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) is highly expressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells from patients with EBV-associated Hodgkin disease. It was previously demonstrated that CD99 can be negatively regulated by LMP1 at the transcriptional level, and the decreased expression of CD99 in a B lymphocyte cell line generates H-RS-like cells. In this study, detailed dissection of the CD99 promoter region was performed to search regulatory factor(s) involved in the expression of the gene. Using various mutant constructs containing deletions in the promoter region, it was revealed that the maximal promoter activity was retained on 5'-deletion to the position -137 from the transcriptional initiation site. Despite the presence of multiple putative Sp1-binding sites in the promoter region, the site located at -95 contributes heavily as a positive cis-acting element to its basal promoter activity. However, on examination of the involvement of the positive-acting Sp1-binding site of the promoter for the repressive activity of LMP1, it appeared to be dispensable. Instead, the repressive effect was mapped to the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation domains in the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of LMP1 despite the absence of the NF-kappaB consensus sequences in the CD99 promoter region. Furthermore, the decreased CD99 promoter activity by LMP1 was markedly restored when NF-kappaB activity was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that Sp1 activates, whereas LMP1 represses, transcription from the CD99 promoter through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and they might aid in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis in EBV-positive Hodgkin disease. (Blood. 2001;97:3596-3604)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The down-regulation of surface expression of MHC class I molecules has recently been reported in the CD99-deficient lymphoblastoid B cell line displaying the characteristics of Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that the reduction of MHC class I molecules on the cell surface is primarily due to a defect in the transport from the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane. Loss of CD99 did not affect the steady-state expression levels of mRNA and protein of MHC class I molecules. In addition, the assembly of MHC class I molecules and the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cis-Golgi occurred normally in the CD99-deficient cells, and no difference was detected between the CD99-deficient and the control cells in the pattern and degree of endocytosis. Instead, the CD99-deficient cells displayed the delayed transport of newly synthesized MHC class I molecules to the plasma membrane, thus causing accumulation of the molecules within the cells. The accumulated MHC class I molecules in the CD99-deficient cells were colocalized with alpha-mannosidase II and gamma-adaptin in the Golgi compartment. These results suggest that CD99 may be associated with the post-Golgi trafficking machinery by regulating the transport to the plasma membrane rather than the endocytosis of surface MHC class I molecules, providing a novel mechanism of MHC class I down-regulation for immune escape.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2001; 166(2):787-94. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.166.2.787 · 4.92 Impact Factor