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Publications (7)26.82 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Our purpose was to compare the accuracy between rubella-specific IgM and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of fetal rubella infection by ultrasound-guided cordocentesis.Method30 pregnant women with the evidences of rubella infection were enrolled. Fetal rubella infection was diagnosed by rubella-specific IgM using microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and rubella virus PCR with the blood obtained by ultrasound-guided cordocentesis after 21 weeks of gestation. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated by physical examination at birth and rubella-specific IgM if possible.Results20 cases were evaluated by IgM and PCR, and 10 cases only IgM. No fetus showed positive IgM antibody, and 8 of 20 cases showed positive PCR in cord blood, and 6 in amniotic fluid. One infant with negative rubella-specific IgM by cordocentesis before completed 22 weeks resulted in positive IgM at birth, low birth weight, strabismus and developmental delay. These findings were compatible with congenital rubella syndrome. No case showed congenital rubella syndrome in the fetuses with positive rubella PCR.Conclusion(1) The incidence of fetal rubella infection may be very low in mothers with rubella infection. It is suggested that prenatal diagnosis should be performed even if maternal infection occurs in early pregnancy; (2) Cord blood rubella-specific IgM is more accurate than PCR for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital rubella syndrome; (3) Cordocentesis for rubella-specific IgM detection should be done after 22 weeks of gestation for accurate diagnosis.
    Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2002; 16(s1):79 - 80. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fetal inflammatory response syndrome is a multisystem disorder associated with impending preterm delivery and adverse neonatal outcome. Inflammation of the umbilical cord--funisitis--is the histologic counterpart of fetal inflammatory response syndrome and has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cerebral palsy. Neutrophils found in the amniotic cavity are of fetal origin. Therefore, neutrophil secretory products may be an index of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between levels of amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 and funisitis. The relationship between the presence of funisitis and concentrations of amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 was examined in 255 consecutive patients who delivered preterm singleton neonates (gestational age, <36 weeks) within 72 hours of amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and for mycoplasmas. Funisitis was diagnosed in the presence of neutrophil infiltration into the umbilical vessel walls or Wharton jelly. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 was measured by use of a specific immunoassay. Nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. Funisitis was present in 23% (59/255) of cases. Patients with funisitis had a significantly higher median concentration of amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 than those without funisitis (median, 433.7 ng/mL [range, 1.5-3836.8 ng/mL] vs median, 1.9 ng/mL [range, <0.3-4202.7 ng/mL]; P <.001). The diagnostic indices of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (cutoff, 23 ng/mL) in the identification of funisitis were: sensitivity of 90% (53/59), specificity of 78% (153/196), positive predictive value of 55% (53/96), and negative predictive value of 96% (153/159). There is a strong association between increased levels of amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 and funisitis. We propose that determination of amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentrations may assist the assessment of the fetal inflammatory status, thereby eliminating the need for fetal blood sampling.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 12/2001; 185(5):1156-61. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical significance of intraamniotic inflammation in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Amniocentesis was performed in 206 patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasmas. The diagnosis of intraamniotic inflammation was made in patients with a negative amniotic fluid culture on the basis of amniotic fluid concentrations of interleukin-6 (>2.6 ng/mL, derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis). Statistical analysis was conducted with contingency tables and survival techniques. Intra-amniotic inflammation (negative amniotic fluid culture but elevated amniotic fluid interleukin-6) was more common than intra-amniotic infection (positive amniotic fluid culture regardless of amniotic fluid interleukin-6 concentration; 21% [44/206 women] vs 10% [21/206 women]; P <.001). The amniocentesisto-delivery interval was significantly shorter in patients with intra-amniotic inflammation than in patients with a negative culture and without an inflammation (median, 20 hours [range, 0.1-2328 hours] vs median, 701 hours [range, 0.1-3252 hours], respectively; P <.0001). Spontaneous preterm delivery of <37 weeks was more frequent in patients with intra-amniotic inflammation than in those with a negative culture and without inflammation (98% vs 35%; P <.001). Patients with intra-amniotic inflammation had a significantly higher rate of adverse outcome than patients with a negative culture and without intra-amniotic inflammation. Adverse outcomes included clinical and histologic chorioamnionitis, funisitis, early preterm birth, and significant neonatal morbidity. There were no significant differences in the rate of adverse outcomes between patients with a negative culture but with intra-amniotic inflammation and patients with intra-amniotic infection (positive culture regardless of amniotic fluid interleukin-6 concentration). Intra-amniotic inflammation/infection complicates one third of the patients with preterm labor (32%; 65/206 women), and its presence is a risk factor for adverse outcome. The outcome of patients with microbiologically proven intra-amniotic infection is similar to that of patients with intra-amniotic inflammation and a negative amniotic fluid culture. We propose that the treatment of patients in preterm labor be based on the operational diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation rather than the diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection because the latter diagnosis cannot be undertaken rapidly.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2001; 185(5):1130-6. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A positive fetal fibronectin result in cervicovaginal fluid is a powerful predictor of preterm delivery and is considered a marker for upper genital tract infection (ie, intrauterine infection). Treatment with antimicrobial agents is being considered in patients with a positive fetal fibronectin test of cervico/vaginal fluid. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical significance of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation in patients with a positive fetal fibronectin. A total of 1709 pregnant women (gestational age, 23-31 weeks) were screened for cervical fetal fibronectin. Patients with a positive fibronectin were offered amniocentesis for the diagnosis of intra-amniotic infection and treatment with antibiotics. Amniocentesis was performed in 58 patients with a positive fibronectin test (>50 ng/mL). Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic/anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasmas. Polymerase chain reaction assay for Ureaplasma urealyticum was performed. Interleukin-6 concentrations were measured by a specific immunoassay. Nonparametric statistics were used for analysis. None of the patients with a positive fibronectin had a positive amniotic fluid culture. U urealyticum was detected in 1 case (1.8%) with the polymerase chain reaction assay. Amniotic fluid IL-6 was elevated (>2.5 ng/mL) in 5.3% of patients (3/57 patients); all of these patients delivered preterm neonates. There was no relationship between amniotic fluid IL-6 and cervical fibronectin concentration (r = 0.14;P: >.1). Patients who delivered preterm (<34 weeks) had higher median amniotic fluid IL-6 and cervical fetal fibronectin concentrations than those patients who delivered after 34 weeks (IL-6: median, 2.1 ng/mL [range, 0.1-25.3 ng/mL] vs median, 0.3 ng/mL [0.03-2.4 ng/mL]; P <.05; fibronectin: median, 509 ng/mL [260->1000 ng/mL] vs median, 155 ng/mL [50-889 ng/mL]; P <.01). Intra-amniotic infection was detected in 1.8% of cases with a positive fibronectin in the cervical fluid; intra-amniotic inflammation was present in 5.3% of cases. All patients with a positive fetal fibronectin and intra-amniotic inflammation delivered preterm neonates.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 11/2001; 185(5):1137-42. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Funisitis, the inflammation of the umbilical cord determined by histologic examination of the placenta, is evidence of a fetal inflammatory response. The inflammatory process may involve the umbilical vein (phlebitis) and one or both umbilical arteries (arteritis) and extend into the Wharton's jelly. This study was conducted to examine whether the pattern of inflammation of the umbilical cord correlates with a biochemical marker of systemic fetal inflammation (umbilical cord plasma interleukin-6) and an adverse neonatal outcome. This cohort study included 636 cases of preterm delivery (<36 weeks) with or without inflammation of the umbilical cord. Umbilical cord blood was collected at the time of delivery. The aim of pathologic examination was to characterize the extent of umbilical cord inflammation and the involvement of the vein (phlebitis), the involvement of one or both arteries (arteritis), and the presence of inflammation of the Wharton's jelly. Umbilical cord plasma interleukin-6 concentrations were assayed by a sensitive and specific immunoassay. Neonates with umbilical arteritis had a significantly higher median concentration of cord plasma interleukin-6 (median, 111 pg/mL; range, 0.1-19,230 pg/mL) than those without umbilical arteritis (median, 22.5 pg/mL; range, 0.9-511.6 pg/mL; P <.05). Also, severe neonatal morbidity occurred more frequently in infants with arteritis than in those without arteritis (74% vs 50%; P <.05). And finally, the most severe form of inflammation, which involves both arteries, vein, and Wharton's jelly, was associated with the highest median concentration of plasma interleukin-6 observed in this study (median, 182.6 pg/mL; range, 0.1-7,400 pg/mL), whereas inflammation limited to the vein (phlebitis) was associated with a lower concentration of cord plasma interleukin-6 (median, 29.1 pg/mL; range, 0.9-511.6 pg/mL; P <.05). Neonates whose placenta demonstrates umbilical arteritis have higher concentrations of umbilical cord plasma interleukin-6 and higher rates of adverse outcome than those without umbilical arteritis.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2001; 185(2):496-500. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduced amniotic fluid volume was associated with the onset of preterm parturition in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. An amniotic fluid index was determined before transabdominal amniocentesis in 129 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (gestational age < or = 35 weeks). Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as for mycoplasmas. Survival techniques were used for analysis. Amniotic fluid index was < or = 5 cm in 29% of patients (38/129). Patients with an amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm had a significantly higher rate of positive amniotic fluid culture than those with an amniotic fluid index of >5 cm (42% [16/38] vs 18% [16/91]; P<.01). Spontaneous preterm delivery within 24 hours and 48 hours was more frequent among patients with an amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm than those with an amniotic fluid index of >5 cm (for 24 hours, 29% vs 12%; for 48 hours, 42% vs 21%; P<.05 for each). The amniocentesis-to-delivery interval was significantly shorter in patients with an amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm than in patients with an amniotic fluid index of >5 cm (median, 38 hours; range, 0.2-1310 hours; vs median, 100 hours; range 0.1-2917 hours; P<.01). Moreover, Cox proportional hazards model analysis indicated that an amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm was a significant predictor of the duration of the pregnancy after adjustment for gestational age and the results of amniotic fluid culture (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.9; P<.001). Patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes and an amniotic fluid index of < or = 5 cm are at increased risk for a shorter interval to delivery.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 03/2001; 184(3):459-62. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to determine whether interleukin-6 concentrations in cervical fluid samples are of value in the identification of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, prediction of the duration of the latency period, and assessment of the risk of neonatal complications in preterm premature rupture of membranes. A cohort study was performed in 86 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Amniotic fluid and cervical fluid were collected. Amniotic fluid was cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, as well as mycoplasmas. Interleukin 6 was measured by a sensitive and specific immunoassay. The receiver operating characteristic curve, logistic regression, and survival techniques were used for analysis. (1) Patients with a positive amniotic fluid culture had a significantly higher median cervical fluid interleukin 6 concentration than those with negative results (median, 528 pg/mL; range, 174-825 pg/mL; vs median, 169 pg/mL; range, 8-986 pg/mL; P <.0001). (2) A cervical fluid interleukin 6 concentration of >350 pg/mL had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 78% in the identification of a positive amniotic fluid culture. (3) Patients with a cervical fluid interleukin 6 concentration of >350 pg/mL had a significantly shorter median interval to delivery and higher rate of funisitis, preterm delivery within 2 days and 7 days, and the occurrence of significant neonatal morbidity than did those with a cervical fluid interleukin 6 concentration of <350 pg/mL (P <.05 for each). (4) The increased perinatal morbidity remained significant after adjustment for gestational age (P <.05). (5) There was a strong correlation between cervical fluid concentrations and amniotic fluid concentrations of interleukin 6 (P <.001). Cervical fluid interleukin 6 determinations are of value in the assessment of the likelihood of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, impending preterm delivery, and the occurrence of significant neonatal complications in the setting of preterm premature rupture of membranes.
    American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 10/2000; 183(4):868-73. · 3.88 Impact Factor