[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sensitive and multiplexed assay of allergen-specific human immunoglobulin E (IgE) is of great significance in the precise diagnosis of allergies. We report on the optimization of critical factors for chip-based analysis of IgE in human serum with a high reliability. Extracts of two mite species were used as model allergens, and were spotted onto a glass slide for the construction of an allergen chip. Respective allergen-specific IgE in human serum was analyzed by using biotinylated anti-human IgE and a streptavidin-Cy3 conjugate. Factors affecting the performance of the allergen chip were investigated and optimized. Especially, the effect of additives, the concentrations of biotinylated anti-human IgE and the streptavidin-Cy3 conjugate, the serum dilution factor, and the concentration of allergen extract as a capturing agent were examined in detail. Under the optimized conditions, a chip-based analysis for sera from 43 patients revealed a reliable and reproducible diagnosis of respective allergies, showing a good correlation with a conventional CAP assay.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a novel magnetophoretic immunoassay of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) based on the magnetophoretic deflection velocity of a microbead that is proportional to the associated magnetic nanoparticles under enhanced magnetic field gradient in a microchannel. In this detection scheme, two types of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus), were used as the model allergens. Polystyrene microbeads were conjugated with each of the mite extracts followed by incubation with serum samples. The resulting mixture was then reacted with magnetic nanoparticle-conjugated anti-human IgE for detection of allergen-specific IgE by using sandwich immuno-reactions. A ferromagnetic microstructure combined with a permanent magnet was employed to increase the magnetic field gradient ( approximately 10(4) T/m) in a microfluidic device. The magnetophoretic velocities of microbeads were measured in a microchannel under applied magnetic field, and the averaged velocity was well correlated with the concentration of allergen-specific IgE in serum. From the analysis of pooled sera obtained from 44 patients, the detection limits of the allergen-specific human IgEs for D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus were determined to be 565 (0.045 IU/mL) and 268 fM (0.021 IU/mL), respectively. These values are 1 order of magnitude lower than those by a conventional CAP system. For evaluation of reproducibility and accuracy, unknown sera were subjected to a blind test by using the developed assay system, and they were compared with the CAP system. As a result, coefficient of variance was less than 10%, and the developed method enabled a fast assay with a tiny amount of serum ( approximately 10 microL).