[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the ESA Planck satellite carries eleven radiometer subsystems, called Radiometer Chain Assemblies (RCAs), each composed of a pair of pseudo-correlation receivers. We describe the on-ground calibration campaign performed to qualify the flight model RCAs and to measure their pre-launch performances. Each RCA was calibrated in a dedicated flight-like cryogenic environment with the radiometer front-end cooled to 20K and the back-end at 300K, and with an external input load cooled to 4K. A matched load simulating a blackbody at different temperatures was placed in front of the sky horn to derive basic radiometer properties such as noise temperature, gain, and noise performance, e.g. 1/f noise. The spectral response of each detector was measured as was their susceptibility to thermal variation. All eleven LFI RCAs were calibrated. Instrumental parameters measured in these tests, such as noise temperature, bandwidth, radiometer isolation, and linearity, provide essential inputs to the Planck-LFI data analysis. Comment: 15 pages, 18 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we discuss the linearity response of the Planck-LFI receivers, with particular reference to signal compression measured on the 30 and 44 GHz channels. In the article we discuss the various sources of compression and present a model that accurately describes data measured during tests performed with individual radiomeric chains. After discussing test results we present the best parameter set representing the receiver response and discuss the impact of non linearity on in-flight calibration, which is shown to be negligible. Comment: this paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst; This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in JINST. IOP Publishing Ltd is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The definitive publisher authenticated version is available online at 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12011.
Journal of Instrumentation 01/2010; · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We give the calibration and scientific performance parameters of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) measured during the ground cryogenic test campaign. These parameters characterise the instrument response and constitute our best pre-launch knowledge of the LFI scientific performance. The LFI shows excellent $1/f$ stability and rejection of instrumental systematic effects; measured noise performance shows that LFI is the most sensitive instrument of its kind. The set of measured calibration parameters will be updated during flight operations through the end of the mission. Comment: Accepted for publications in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2010 (acceptance date: 12 Jan 2010)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), designed and developed as part of the Planck space mission, the ESA program dedicated to precision imaging of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Planck-LFI will observe the full sky in intensity and polarisation in three frequency bands centred at 30, 44 and 70 GHz, while higher frequencies (100-850 GHz) will be covered by the HFI instrument. The LFI is an array of microwave radiometers based on state-of-the-art Indium Phosphide cryogenic HEMT amplifiers implemented in a differential system using blackbody loads as reference signals. The front-end is cooled to 20K for optimal sensitivity and the reference loads are cooled to 4K to minimise low frequency noise. We provide an overview of the LFI, discuss the leading scientific requirements and describe the design solutions adopted for the various hardware subsystems. The main drivers of the radiometric, optical and thermal design are discussed, including the stringent requirements on sensitivity, stability, and rejection of systematic effects. Further details on the key instrument units and the results of ground calibration are provided in a set of companion papers. Comment: 23 pages, 31 figures, accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysics, Planck LFI technical papers published by JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/1748-0221