Hong Cao

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (27)245.9 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has gained worldwide prominence because of its medical properties, namely antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. Despite these promising results, gaps remain in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of neem compounds and their potential for use in clinical trials. We investigated supercritical extract of neem leaves (SENL) for the following: molecular targets in vitro, in vivo efficacy to inhibit tumor growth, and bioactive compounds that exert antitumor activity. Treatment of LNCaP-luc2 prostate cancer cells with SENL suppressed dihydrotestosterone-induced androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen levels. SENL inhibited integrin β1, calreticulin, and focal adhesion kinase activation in LNCaP-luc2 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Oral administration of SENL significantly reduced LNCaP-luc2 xenograft tumor growth in mice with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue, reduction in the prostate-specific antigen, and increase in AKR1C2 levels. To identify the active anticancer compounds, we fractionated SENL by high-pressure liquid chromatography and evaluated 16 peaks for cytotoxic activity. Four of the 16 peaks exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells. Mass spectrometry of the isolated peaks suggested the compounds with cytotoxic activity were nimbandiol, nimbolide, 2',3'-dihydronimbolide, and 28-deoxonimbolide. Analysis of tumor tissue and plasma samples from mice treated with SENL indicated 28-deoxonimbolide and nimbolide as the bioactive compounds. Overall, our data revealed the bioactive compounds in SENL and suggested that the anticancer activity could be mediated through alteration in androgen receptor and calreticulin levels in prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 1-11. ©2014 AACR.
    Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 03/2014; · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at the cell surface are tightly regulated by a complex endocytic machinery. Following internalization, EGFR is either recycled back to the cell surface or transported to the late endosome/lysosome for degradation. Currently, the molecular machinery that regulates this sorting pathway is only partially defined. Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate 15) is an endocytic adaptor protein that is well known to support clathrin-mediated internalization of EGFR at the plasma membrane. Using RT-PCR, we have identified a novel short form of Eps15 (Eps15S) from rat liver that lacks the 111 C-terminal amino acids present in the traditional Eps15 form. The goal of this study was to define the functional role of the novel Eps15S form in EGFR trafficking. Overexpression of a mutant form of Eps15S (Eps15S ΔEH2/EH3) did not block EGFR internalization but reduced its recycling to the cell surface. After knockdown of all Eps15 forms, re-expression of Eps15S significantly reduced EGFR degradation while promoting recycling back to the cell surface. In contrast, re-expression of Eps15 did not potentiate receptor recycling. Furthermore, overexpression of the mutant Eps15S substantially reduced cell proliferation, linking EGFR recycling to downstream mitogenic effects. Finally, we found that Eps15S is localized to the Rab11-positive recycling endosome that is disrupted in cells expressing the Eps15S mutant, leading to an accumulation of the EGFR in early endosomes. These findings suggest that distinct forms of Eps15 direct EGFR to either the late endosome/lysosome for degradation (Eps15) or to the recycling endosome for transit back to the cell surface (Eps15S).
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(40):35196-208. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mammalian epithelial cells is believed to require the synergistic action of structural coat proteins and mechanochemical enzymes to deform and sever the plasma membrane (PM) into discreet vesicles. It is generally believed that the formation of clathrin-coated pits in epithelial cells occurs randomly along the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. In this study we visualized the endocytic machinery in living hepatocytes using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged dynamin, a large mechanochemical guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase implicated in the liberation of nascent vesicles from the plasma membrane and a variety of internal membrane compartments. Confocal microscopy of living cells expressing the epithelial isoform of GFP-tagged dynamin [Dyn2-GFP] revealed a distribution along the ventral PM in discrete vesicle-like puncta or in large (2-10 μm) tubuloreticular plaques. Remarkably, these large structures are dynamic as they form and then disappear, while generating large numbers of motile endocytic vesicles with which dynamin associates. Inhibiting dynamin function by microinjection of purified dynamin antibodies increases the number and size of the tubuloreticular plaques. Importantly, these "hot spots" sequester specific trophic receptors and cognate ligands such as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), but not TfR2. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that hepatocytes sequester or prerecruit both structural and enzymatic components of the clathrin-based endocytic machinery to functional hot spots, from which large numbers of coated pits form and vesicles are generated. This process may mimic the endocytic organization found at the synapse in neuronal cells.
    Hepatology 07/2011; 54(5):1819-29. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor cell migration is supported in part by the cyclic formation and disassembly of focal adhesions (FAs); however, the mechanisms that regulate this process are not fully defined. The large guanosine 5'-triphosphatase dynamin (Dyn) plays an important role in FA dynamics and is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using a novel antibody specific to phospho-dynamin (pDyn-Tyr-231), we found that Dyn2 is phosphorylated at FAs by Src kinase and is recruited to FAs by a direct interaction with the 4.1/ezrin/radizin/moesin domain of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which functions as an adaptor between Src and Dyn2 to facilitate Dyn2 phosphorylation. This Src-FAK-Dyn2 trimeric complex is essential for FA turnover, as mutants disrupting the formation of this complex inhibit FA disassembly. Importantly, phosphoactivated Dyn2 promotes FA turnover by mediating the endocytosis of integrins in a clathrin-dependent manner. This study defines a novel mechanism of how Dyn2 functions as a downstream effector of FAK-Src signaling in turning over FAs.
    Molecular biology of the cell 03/2011; 22(9):1529-38. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2010; 138(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The size and integrity of the Golgi apparatus is maintained via a tightly controlled regulation of membrane traffic using a variety of different signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. We have recently observed that activation of c-Src has profound effects on Golgi structure, leading to dramatically vesiculated cisternae in a variety of cell types. As the large GTPase dynamin (Dyn2) has been implicated in Golgi vesiculation during secretion, we tested whether inhibiting Dyn2 activity by expression of a Dyn2K44A mutant or siRNA knockdown could attenuate active Src-induced Golgi fragmentation. Indeed, these perturbations attenuated fragmentation, and expression of a Dyn2Y(231/597)F mutant protein that cannot be phosphorylated by Src kinase had a similar effect . Finally, we find that Dyn2 is markedly phosphorylated during the transit of VSV-G protein through the TGN whereas expression of the Dyn2Y(231/597)F mutant significantly reduces exit of the nascent protein from this compartment. These findings demonstrate that activation of Dyn2 by Src kinase regulates Golgi integrity and vesiculation during the secretory process.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2010; 107(13):5863-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of transferrin are poorly defined and generally viewed as a constitutive process that occurs continuously without regulatory constraints. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that endocytosis of the transferrin receptor is a regulated process that requires activated Src kinase and, subsequently, phosphorylation of two important components of the endocytic machinery, namely, the large GTPase dynamin 2 (Dyn2) and its associated actin-binding protein, cortactin (Cort). To our knowledge these findings are among the first to implicate an Src-mediated endocytic cascade in what was previously presumed to be a nonregulated internalization process.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/2009; 30(3):781-92. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Remodeling of cell-cell contacts through the internalization of adherens junction proteins is an important event during both normal development and the process of tumor cell metastasis. Here we show that the integrity of tumor cell-cell contacts is disrupted after epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation through caveolae-mediated endocytosis of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin. Caveolin-1 and E-cadherin closely associated at cell borders and in internalized structures upon stimulation with EGF. Furthermore, preventing caveolae assembly through reduction of caveolin-1 protein or expression of a caveolin-1 tyrosine phospho-mutant resulted in the accumulation of E-cadherin at cell borders and the formation of tightly adherent cells. Most striking was the fact that exogenous expression of caveolin-1 in tumor cells that contain tight, well-defined, borders resulted in a dramatic dispersal of these cells. Together, these findings provide new insights into how cells might disassemble cell-cell contacts to help mediate the remodeling of adherens junctions, and tumor cell metastasis and invasion.
    Molecular biology of the cell 08/2009; 20(19):4140-52. · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 05/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2009; 136(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eps15 (EGFR pathway substrate clone 15) is well known for its role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation at the plasma membrane through interactions with other clathrin adaptor proteins such as AP-2. Interestingly, we observed that in addition to its plasma membrane localization, Eps15 is also present at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Therefore, we predicted that Eps15 might associate with clathrin adaptor proteins at the TGN and thereby mediate the formation of Golgi-derived vesicles. Indeed, we have found that Eps15 and the TGN clathrin adaptor AP-1 coimmunoprecipitate from rat liver Golgi fractions. Furthermore, we have identified a 14-amino acid motif near the AP-2-binding domain of Eps15 that is required for binding to AP-1, but not AP-2. Disruption of the Eps15-AP-1 interaction via siRNA knockdown of AP-1 or expression of mutant Eps15 protein, which lacks a 14-amino acid motif representing the AP-1 binding site of Eps15, significantly reduced the exit of secretory proteins from the TGN. Together, these findings indicate that Eps15 plays an important role in clathrin-coated vesicle formation not only at the plasma membrane but also at the TGN during the secretory process.
    Molecular biology of the cell 08/2008; 19(8):3564-75. · 5.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well-known that dynamin 2 (Dyn2) participates in clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis; however, the role of Dyn2 in coat-independent endocytic processes remains controversial. Here we demonstrate a role for specific spliced variants of Dyn2 in the micropinocytosis of fluid in epithelial cells, independent of coat-mediated endocytic pathways. A general inhibition of Dyn2 was first performed using either microinjection of anti-dynamin antibodies or Dyn2-siRNA treatment. Both of these methods resulted in reduced uptake of transferrin, a marker for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and, under unstimulated conditions, reduced the uptake of the fluid-phase markers dextran and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). By contrast, cells treated similarly but stimulated with serum or EGF internalized substantial amounts of dextran or HRP, indicating that Dyn2 is not required for stimulated fluid uptake via macropinocytosis. We next tested whether a specific spliced variant might selectively affect fluid-phase endocytosis. Mutation of specific Dyn2 spliced variants resulted in a differential attenuation of transferrin and dextran internalization. Furthermore, the reduction in fluid uptake in Dyn2-siRNA-treated cells was only rescued upon re-expression of select spliced variants. These findings suggest that Dyn2 function is required for the coat-independent internalization of fluid through endocytic pathways distinct from macropinocytosis and, in addition, implicate different Dyn2 spliced variants in specific endocytic functions.
    Journal of Cell Science 01/2008; 120(Pt 23):4167-77. · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that has recently been implicated in endocytosis. It binds directly to dynamin-2 (Dyn2), a large GTPase that mediates the formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane and the Golgi. Here we show that cortactin associates with the Golgi to regulate the actin- and Dyn2-dependent transport of cargo. Cortactin antibodies stain the Golgi apparatus, labelling peripheral buds and vesicles that are associated with the cisternae. Notably, in vitro or intact-cell experiments show that activation of Arf1 mediates the recruitment of actin, cortactin and Dyn2 to Golgi membranes. Furthermore, selective disruption of the cortactin-Dyn2 interaction significantly reduces the levels of Dyn2 at the Golgi and blocks the transit of nascent proteins from the trans-Golgi network, resulting in swollen and distended cisternae. These findings support the idea of an Arf1-activated recruitment of an actin, cortactin and Dyn2 complex that is essential for Golgi function.
    Nature Cell Biology 06/2005; 7(5):483-92. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caveolin is the principal component of caveolae in vivo. In addition to a structural role, it is believed to play a scaffolding function to organize and inactivate signaling molecules that are concentrated on the cytoplasmic surface of caveolar membranes. The large GTPase dynamin has been shown to mediate the scission of caveolae from the plasma membrane, although it is unclear if dynamin interacts directly with caveolin or via accessory proteins. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test whether dynamin associates with caveolae via a direct binding to the caveolin 1 (Cav1) protein. Immunoelectron microscopy of lung endothelium or a cultured hepatocyte cell line stained with antibodies for Dyn2 and Cav1 shows that these proteins co-localize to caveolae. To further define this interaction biochemically, in vitro experiments were performed using glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-Dyn2 and GST-Cav1 fusion proteins, which demonstrated a direct interaction between these proteins. This interaction appears to be mediated by the proline-arginine-rich domain (PRD) of Dyn2, as a GST-PRD fragment binds Cav1 while GST-Dyn2DeltaPRD does not. Further, in vitro binding studies using two Dyn2 spliced forms and Cav1 peptides immobilized on paper identify specific domains of Cav1 that bind Dyn2. Interestingly, these Cav1-binding domains differ markedly between two spliced variant forms of Dyn2. In support of these distinctive physical interactions, we find that the different Dyn2 forms, when expressed as GTPase-defective mutants, exert markedly different inhibitory effects on caveolae internalization, as assayed by cholera toxin uptake. These studies provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between dynamin and the caveolin coat, and demonstrate a selectivity of one Dyn2 form toward the caveolae-mediated endocytosis.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 05/2005; 348(2):491-501. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamin 2 (Dyn2) is a large GTPase involved in vesicle formation and actin reorganization. In this study, we report a novel role for Dyn2 as a component of the centrosome that is involved in centrosome cohesion. By light microscopy, Dyn2 localized aside centrin and colocalized with gamma-tubulin at the centrosome; by immunoelectron microscopy, however, Dyn2 was detected in the pericentriolar material as well as on centrioles. Exogenously expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Dyn2 also localized to the centrosome, whereas glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged Dyn2 pulled down a protein complex(es) containing actin, alpha-tubulin and gamma-tubulin from liver homogenate. Furthermore, gel overlay and immunoprecipitation indicated a direct interaction between gamma-tubulin and a 219-amino-acid middle domain of Dyn2. Reduction of Dyn2 protein levels with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in centrosome splitting, whereas microtubule nucleation from centrosomes was not affected, suggesting a role for Dyn2 in centrosome cohesion. Finally, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of a GFP-tagged Dyn2 middle domain indicated that Dyn2 is a dynamic exchangeable component of the centrosome. These findings suggest a novel function for Dyn2 as a participant in centrosome cohesion.
    Nature Cell Biology 05/2004; 6(4):335-42. · 20.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium parvum invasion of epithelia requires polymerization of host cell actin at the attachment site. We analyzed the role of host cell c-Src, a cytoskeleton-associated protein tyrosine kinase, in C. parvum invasion of biliary epithelia. In vitro models of biliary cryptosporidiosis using a human biliary epithelial cell line were used to assay the role of c-Src signaling pathway in C. parvum invasion. c-Src and cortactin, an actin-binding protein and a substrate for c-Src, were recruited to the parasite-host cell interface during C. parvum invasion. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin in infected cells was also detected. Inhibition of host cell c-Src significantly blocked C. parvum -induced accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin and actin polymerization at the attachment sites, thereby inhibiting C. parvum invasion of biliary epithelial cells. A triple mutation of tyrosine of cortactin in the epithelia also diminished C. parvum invasion. In addition, proteins originating from the parasite were detected within infected cells at the parasite-host cell interface. Antiserum against C. parvum membrane proteins blocked accumulation of c-Src and cortactin and significantly decreased C. parvum invasion. No accumulation of the endocytosis-related proteins, dynamin 2 and clathrin, was found at the parasite-host cell interface; also, inhibition of dynamin 2 did not block C. parvum invasion. C. parvum invasion of biliary epithelial cells requires host cell tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin by a c-Src-mediated signaling pathway to induce actin polymerization at the attachment site, a process associated with microbial secretion but independent of host cell endocytosis.
    Gastroenterology 08/2003; 125(1):216-28. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The actin cytoskeleton is believed to contribute to the formation of clathrin-coated pits, although the specific components that connect actin filaments with the endocytic machinery are unclear. Cortactin is an F-actin-associated protein, localizes within membrane ruffles in cultured cells, and is a direct binding partner of the large GTPase dynamin. This direct interaction with a component of the endocytic machinery suggests that cortactin may participate in one or several endocytic processes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test whether cortactin associates with clathrin-coated pits and participates in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Morphological experiments with either anti-cortactin antibodies or expressed red fluorescence protein-tagged cortactin revealed a striking colocalization of cortactin and clathrin puncta at the ventral plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, cells microinjected with these antibodies exhibited a marked decrease in the uptake of labeled transferrin and low-density lipoprotein while internalization of the fluid marker dextran was unchanged. Cells expressing the cortactin Src homology three domain also exhibited markedly reduced endocytosis. These findings suggest that cortactin is an important component of the receptor-mediated endocytic machinery, where, together with actin and dynamin, it regulates the scission of clathrin pits from the plasma membrane. Thus, cortactin provides a direct link between the dynamic actin cytoskeleton and the membrane pinchase dynamin that supports vesicle formation during receptor-mediated endocytosis.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2003; 23(6):2162-70. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2003; 124(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dynamins comprise a large family of mechanoenzymes known to participate in membrane modeling events. All three conventional dynamin genes (Dyn1, Dyn2, Dyn3) are expressed in mammalian brain and produce more than 27 different dynamin proteins as a result of alternative splicing. Past studies have suggested that Dyn1 participates in specialized neuronal functions such as rapid synaptic vesicle recycling, while Dyn2 may mediate the conventional clathrin-mediated uptake of surface receptors. Currently, the distribution, expression, and function of Dyn3 in neurons, or in any other cell type, are completely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that Dyn1 and Dyn3 localize differentially in the synapse. Dyn1 concentrates within the presynaptic compartment, while Dyn3 localizes to dendritic spine tips. Within the postsynaptic density (PSD), we found Dyn3, but not Dyn1, to be part of a biochemically isolated complex comprised of Homer and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Finally, although dominant-negative Dyn3 did not seem to inhibit receptor endocytosis, overexpression of a specific Dyn3 spliced variant in mature neurons caused a marked remodeling of dendritic spines. These data suggest that Dyn3 is a postsynaptic dynamin and, like its binding partner Homer, plays a significant role in dendritic spine morphogenesis and remodeling.
    Current Biology 04/2003; 13(6):510-5. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which mammalian cells remodel the actin cytoskeleton in response to motogenic stimuli are complex and a topic of intense study. Dynamin 2 (Dyn2) is a large GTPase that interacts directly with several actin binding proteins, including cortactin. In this study, we demonstrate that Dyn2 and cortactin function to mediate dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in response to stimulation with the motogenic growth factor platelet-derived growth factor. On stimulation, Dyn2 and cortactin coassemble into large, circular structures on the dorsal cell surface. These "waves" promote an active reorganization of actin filaments in the anterior cytoplasm and function to disassemble actin stress fibers. Importantly, inhibition of Dyn2 and cortactin function potently blocked the formation of waves and subsequent actin reorganization. These findings demonstrate that cortactin and Dyn2 function together in a supramolecular complex that assembles in response to growth factor stimulation and mediates the remodeling of actin to facilitate lamellipodial protrusion at the leading edge of migrating cells.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 04/2003; 14(3):1085-96. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
245.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2011
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States