[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin promotes metabolic and cardiovascular health. Circulating adiponectin increases in lean states such as caloric restriction (CR), but the reasons for this paradox remain unclear. Unlike white adipose tissue (WAT), bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) increases during CR, and both MAT and serum adiponectin increase in many other clinical conditions. Thus, we investigated whether MAT contributes to circulating adiponectin. We find that adiponectin secretion is greater from MAT than WAT. Notably, specific inhibition of MAT formation in mice results in decreased circulating adiponectin during CR despite unaltered adiponectin expression in WAT. Inhibiting MAT formation also alters skeletal muscle adaptation to CR, suggesting that MAT exerts systemic effects. Finally, we reveal that both MAT and serum adiponectin increase during cancer therapy in humans. These observations identify MAT as an endocrine organ that contributes significantly to increased serum adiponectin during CR and perhaps in other adverse states.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White adipose tissue (WAT) is a dynamic and modifiable tissue that develops late during gestation in humans and through early postnatal development in rodents. WAT is unique in that it can account for as little as 3% of total body weight in elite athletes or as much as 70% in the morbidly obese. With the development of obesity, WAT undergoes a process of tissue remodeling in which adipocytes increase in both number (hyperplasia) and size (hypertrophy). Metabolic derangements associated with obesity, including type 2 diabetes, occur when WAT growth through hyperplasia and hypertrophy cannot keep pace with the energy storage needs associated with chronic energy excess. Accordingly, hypertrophic adipocytes become overburdened with lipids, resulting in changes in the secreted hormonal milieu. Lipids that cannot be stored in the engorged adipocytes become ectopically deposited in organs such as the liver, muscle, and pancreas. WAT remodeling therefore coincides with obesity and secondary metabolic diseases. Obesity, however, is not unique in causing WAT remodeling: changes in adiposity also occur with aging, calorie restriction, cancers, and diseases such as HIV infection. In this chapter, we describe a semiautomated method of quantitatively analyzing the histomorphometry of WAT using common laboratory equipment. With this technique, the frequency distribution of adipocyte sizes across the tissue depot and the number of total adipocytes per depot can be estimated by counting as few as 100 adipocytes per animal. In doing so, the method described herein is a useful tool for accurately quantifying WAT development, growth, and remodeling.
Methods in enzymology 01/2014; 537C:93-122. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-411619-1.00006-9 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional expression of sweet taste receptors (T1R2 and T1R3) has been reported in numerous metabolic tissues, including the gut, pancreas, and, more recently, in adipose tissue. It has been suggested that sweet taste receptors in these non-gustatory tissues may play a role in systemic energy balance and metabolism. Smaller adipose depots have been reported in T1R3 knockout mice on a high carbohydrate diet, and sweet taste receptors have been reported to regulate adipogenesis in vitro. To assess the potential contribution of sweet taste receptors to adipose tissue biology, we investigated the adipose tissue phenotypes of T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice. Here we provide data to demonstrate that when fed an obesogenic diet, both T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have reduced adiposity and smaller adipocytes. Although a mild glucose intolerance was observed with T1R3 deficiency, other metabolic variables analyzed were similar between genotypes. In addition, food intake, respiratory quotient, oxygen consumption, and physical activity were unchanged in T1R2 knockout mice. Although T1R2 deficiency did not affect adipocyte number in peripheral adipose depots, the number of bone marrow adipocytes is significantly reduced in these knockout animals. Finally, we present data demonstrating that T1R2 and T1R3 knockout mice have increased cortical bone mass and trabecular remodeling. This report identifies novel functions for sweet taste receptors in the regulation of adipose and bone biology, and suggests that in these contexts, T1R2 and T1R3 are either dependent on each other for activity or have common independent effects in vivo.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86454. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086454 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors mediate responses to a myriad of ligands, some of which regulate adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. The sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are G protein-coupled receptors that function as carbohydrate sensors in taste buds, gut and pancreas. Here we report that sweet taste receptors T1R2 and T1R3 are expressed throughout adipogenesis and in adipose tissues. Treatment of mouse and human precursor cells with artificial sweeteners, saccharin and acesulfame K, enhances adipogenesis. Saccharin treatment of 3T3-L1 cells and primary mesenchymal stem cells rapidly stimulates phosphorylation of Akt and downstream targets with functions in adipogenesis such as CREB and FOXO1; however, increased expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα is not observed until relatively late in differentiation. Saccharin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at T308 occurs within 5 mins, is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent, and occurs in the presence of high concentrations of insulin and dexamethasone; phosphorylation of S473 occurs more gradually. Surprisingly, neither saccharin-stimulated adipogenesis nor T308 phosphorylation is dependent on expression of T1R2 and/or T1R3, although S473 phosphorylation is impaired in T1R2/T1R3 double knockout precursors. In mature adipocytes, artificial sweetener treatment suppresses lipolysis even in presence of forskolin, and lipolytic responses are correlated with phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase. Suppression of lipolysis by saccharin in adipocytes is also independent of T1R2 and T1R3. These results suggest that some artificial sweeteners have previously uncharacterized metabolic effects on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism, and that effects of artificial sweeteners on adipose tissue biology may be largely independent of the classical sweet taste receptors, T1R2 and T1R3.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preadipocytes secrete several WNT family proteins that act through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms to inhibit adipogenesis. The activity of WNT ligands is often decreased by secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs). Sfrp5 is strongly induced during adipocyte differentiation and increases in adipocytes during obesity, presumably to counteract WNT signaling. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced Sfrp5 expression promotes the development of new adipocytes by inhibiting endogenous suppressors of adipogenesis. As predicted, mice that lack functional SFRP5 were resistant to diet-induced obesity. However, counter to our hypothesis, we found that adipose tissue of SFRP5-deficient mice had similar numbers of adipocytes, but a reduction in large adipocytes. Transplantation of adipose tissue from SFRP5-deficient mice into leptin receptor-deficient mice indicated that the effects of SFRP5 deficiency are tissue-autonomous. Mitochondrial gene expression was increased in adipose tissue and cultured adipocytes from SFRP5-deficient mice. In adipocytes, lack of SFRP5 stimulated oxidative capacity through increased mitochondrial activity, which was mediated in part by PGC1α and mitochondrial transcription factor A. WNT3a also increased oxygen consumption and the expression of mitochondrial genes. Thus, our findings support a model of adipogenesis in which SFRP5 inhibits WNT signaling to suppress oxidative metabolism and stimulate adipocyte growth during obesity.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2012; 122(7):2405-16. DOI:10.1172/JCI63604 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is a tumor suppressor that associates with TSC2 to inactivate Rheb, thereby inhibiting signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. In order to test roles for TSC1 and mTORC1 in β-cell function, we utilized Rip2/Cre to generate mice lacking Tsc1 in pancreatic β cells (Rip-Tsc1cKO mice). While obesity developed due to hypothalamic Tsc1 excision in older Rip-Tsc1cKO animals, young animals displayed a prominent gain-of-function β-cell phenotype prior to the onset of obesity. The young Rip-Tsc1cKO animals displayed improved glycemic control due to mTOR-mediated enhancement of β-cell size and insulin production, but not β-cell number consistent with an important anabolic role for mTOR in β-cell function. Thus, mTOR promulgates a dominant signal to promote β-cell/islet size and insulin production, and this pathway is crucial for β-cell function and glycemic control. Here, we describe the methods of analyzing tissue-specific ablation of Tsc1 in pancreatic β cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is among the most lethal complications that occur in type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Podocyte dysfunction is postulated to be a critical event associated with proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in glomerular diseases including DN. However, molecular mechanisms of podocyte dysfunction in the development of DN are not well understood. Here we have shown that activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a kinase that senses nutrient availability, was enhanced in the podocytes of diabetic animals. Further, podocyte-specific mTORC1 activation induced by ablation of an upstream negative regulator (PcKOTsc1) recapitulated many DN features, including podocyte loss, glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial expansion, and proteinuria in nondiabetic young and adult mice. Abnormal mTORC1 activation caused mislocalization of slit diaphragm proteins and induced an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic switch with enhanced ER stress in podocytes. Conversely, reduction of ER stress with a chemical chaperone significantly protected against both the podocyte phenotypic switch and podocyte loss in PcKOTsc1 mice. Finally, genetic reduction of podocyte-specific mTORC1 in diabetic animals suppressed the development of DN. These results indicate that mTORC1 activation in podocytes is a critical event in inducing DN and suggest that reduction of podocyte mTORC1 activity is a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent DN.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(6):2181-96. DOI:10.1172/JCI44771 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TSC1 is a tumor suppressor that associates with TSC2 to inactivate Rheb, thereby inhibiting signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. To test roles for TSC1 and mTORC1 in β-cell function, we utilized Rip2/Cre to generate mice lacking Tsc1 in pancreatic β-cells (Rip-Tsc1cKO mice). Although obesity developed due to hypothalamic Tsc1 excision in older Rip-Tsc1cKO animals, young animals displayed a prominent gain-of-function β-cell phenotype prior to the onset of obesity. The young Rip-Tsc1cKO animals displayed improved glycemic control due to mTOR-mediated enhancement of β-cell size, mass, and insulin production but not determinants of β-cell number (proliferation and apoptosis), consistent with an important anabolic role for mTOR in β-cell function. Furthermore, mTOR mediated these effects in the face of impaired Akt signaling in β-cells. Thus, mTOR promulgates a dominant signal to promote β-cell/islet size and insulin production, and this pathway is crucial for β-cell function and glycemic control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) associated with type 2 diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and a serious health issue in the world. Currently, molecular basis for DN has not been established and only limited clinical treatments are effective in abating the progression to ESRD associated with DN. Here we found that diabetic db/db mice which lack the leptin receptor signaling can be used as a model of ESRD associated with DN. We demonstrated that p70S6-kinase was highly activated in mesangial cells in diabetic obese db/db mice. Furthermore, systemic administration of rapamycin, a specific and potent inhibitor of mTOR, markedly ameliorated pathological changes and renal dysfunctions. Moreover, rapamycin treatment shows a significant reduction in fat deposits and attenuates hyperinsulinemia with few side effects. These results indicate that mTOR activation plays a pivotal role in the development of ESRD and that rapamycin could be an effective therapeutic agent for DN.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2009; 384(4):471-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.04.136 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) promotes anabolic cellular processes in response to growth factors and metabolic cues. The TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressors are major upstream inhibitory regulators of mTOR signaling. Mice with Rip2/Cre-mediated deletion of Tsc1 (Rip-Tsc1cKO mice) developed hyperphagia and obesity, suggesting that hypothalamic disruption (for which Rip2/Cre is well known) of Tsc1 may dysregulate feeding circuits via mTOR activation. Indeed, Rip-Tsc1cKO mice displayed increased mTOR signaling and enlarged neuron cell size in a number of hypothalamic populations, including Pomc neurons. Furthermore, Tsc1 deletion with Pomc/Cre (Pomc-Tsc1cKO mice) resulted in dysregulation of Pomc neurons and hyperphagic obesity. Treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, ameliorated the hyperphagia, obesity, and the altered Pomc neuronal morphology in developing or adult Pomc-Tsc1cKO mice, and cessation of treatment reinstated these phenotypes. Thus, ongoing mTOR activation in Pomc neurons blocks the catabolic function of these neurons to promote nutrient intake and increased adiposity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes results from the selective destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells during islet inflammation, which involves inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. However, mechanisms for protecting beta-cells from destruction have not been clarified. In this study, we define the role of SOCS3 on beta-cell destruction using beta-cell-specific SOCS3-conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The beta-cell-specific SOCS3-deficient mice were resistant to the development of diabetes caused by streptozotocin (STZ), a genotoxic methylating agent, which has been used to trigger beta-cell destruction. The islets from cKO mice demonstrated hyperactivation of STAT3 and higher induction of Bcl-xL than did islets from WT mice, and SOCS3-deficient beta-cells were more resistant to apoptosis induced by STZ in vitro than were WT beta-cells. These results suggest that enhanced STAT3 signaling protects beta-cells from destruction induced by a genotoxic stress and that STAT3/SOCS3 can be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2007; 359(4):952-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.05.198 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes play important roles in brain development and injury response. Transcription factors STAT3 and Smad1, activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), respectively, form a complex with the coactivator p300 to synergistically induce astrocytes from neuroepithelial cells (NECs) (K. Nakashima, M. Yanagisawa, H. Arakawa, N. Kimura, T. Hisatsune, M. Kawabata, K. Miyazono, and T. Taga, Science 284:479-482, 1999). However, the mechanisms that govern astrogliogenesis during the determination of the fate of neural stem cells remain elusive. Here we found that LIF induces expression of BMP2 via STAT3 activation and leads to the consequent activation of Smad1 to efficiently promote astrogliogenic differentiation of NECs. The BMP antagonist Noggin abrogated LIF-induced Smad1 activation and astrogliogenesis by inhibiting BMPs produced by NECs. NECs deficient in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of STAT3, readily differentiated into astrocytes upon activation by LIF not only due to sustained activation of STAT3 but also because of the consequent activation of Smad1. Our study suggests a novel LIF-triggered positive regulatory loop that enhances astrogliogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by insulin and IGF-I, which transmit signals by activating their receptor tyrosine kinase. SH2-B is an adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that have been implicated in insulin and IGF-I receptor signaling. In this study, we found a strong link between SH2-B levels and adipogenesis. The fat mass and expression of adipogenic genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) were reduced in white adipose tissue of SH2-B-/- mice. Reduced adipocyte differentiation of SH2-B-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) was observed in response to insulin and dexamethasone, whereas retroviral SH2-B overexpression enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. SH2-B overexpression enhanced mRNA level of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells, whereas PPARgamma levels were reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs in response to insulin. SH2-B-mediated up-regulation of PPARgamma mRNA was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, but not by a MAPK kinase inhibitor. Insulin-induced Akt activation and the phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factor (FKHR/Foxo1), a negative regulator of PPARgamma transcription, were up-regulated by SH2-B overexpression, but reduced in SH2-B-deficient MEFs. These data indicate that SH2-B is a key regulator of adipogenesis both in vivo and in vitro by regulating the insulin/IGF-I receptor-Akt-Foxo1-PPARgamma pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation associates with insulin resistance, which dysregulates nutrient homeostasis and leads to diabetes. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), which is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFalpha and IL-6, has been implicated in inflammation-mediated insulin resistance in the liver and adipocytes. However, no genetic evidence has been provided for the involvement of SOCS3 on insulin resistance. Here, we generated hepatocyte-specific SOCS3-deficient (L-SOCS3 cKO) mice and examined insulin sensitivity. Being consistent with a previous idea, the loss of SOCS3 in the liver apparently improved insulin sensitivity. However, unexpectedly, L-SOCS3 cKO mice exhibited obesity and systemic insulin resistance with age. Insulin signaling was rather suppressed in muscles, suggesting that deletion of the SOCS3 gene in the liver modulates insulin sensitivity in other organs. Anti-inflammatory reagent, sodium salicylate, partial improved insulin resistance of aged L-SOCS3 cKO mice, suggesting that enhanced inflammatory status is associated with the phenotype of these mice. STAT3 was hyperactivated and acute-phase proteins were elevated in L-SOCS3 cKO mice liver, which were reduced by sodium salicylate treatment. We conclude that hepatic SOCS3 is a mediator of insulin resistance in the liver; however, lack of SOCS3 in the liver promotes systemic insulin resistance by mimicking chronic inflammation.
Genes to Cells 03/2007; 12(2):143-54. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2007.01044.x · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (Socs-3) negatively regulates the action of various cytokines, as well as the metabolic hormones leptin and insulin. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Socs-3, or those with neuronal deletion of Socs-3, are lean and more leptin and insulin sensitive. To examine the role of Socs-3 within specific neurons critical to energy balance, we created mice with selective deletion of Socs-3 within pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells. These mice had enhanced leptin sensitivity, measured by weight loss and food intake after leptin infusion. On chow diet, glucose homeostasis was improved despite normal weight gain. On a high-fat diet, the rate of weight gain was reduced, due to increased energy expenditure rather than decreased food intake; glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity were substantially improved. These studies demonstrate that Socs-3 within POMC neurons regulates leptin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and plays a key role in linking high-fat diet to disordered metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays a key role in energy homeostasis, yet resistance to leptin is a feature of most cases of obesity in humans and rodents. In vitro analysis suggested that the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (Socs3) is a negative-feedback regulator of leptin signaling involved in leptin resistance. To determine the functional significance of Socs3 in vivo, we generated neural cell-specific SOCS3 conditional knockout mice using the Cre-loxP system. Compared to their wild-type littermates, Socs3-deficient mice showed enhanced leptin-induced hypothalamic Stat3 tyrosine phosphorylation as well as pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) induction, and this resulted in a greater body weight loss and suppression of food intake. Moreover, the Socs3-deficient mice were resistant to high fat diet-induced weight gain and hyperleptinemia, and insulin-sensitivity was retained. These data indicate that Socs3 is a key regulator of diet-induced leptin as well as insulin resistance. Our study demonstrates the negative regulatory role of Socs3 in leptin signaling in vivo, and thus suppression of Socs3 in the brain is a potential therapy for leptin-resistance in obesity.
Nature Medicine 08/2004; 10(7):739-43. DOI:10.1038/nm1071 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3/CIS3) has been shown to be an important negative regulator of cytokines, especially cytokines that activate STAT3. To examine the role of SOCS3 in neutrophils and the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) signaling in vivo, we compared neutrophils from two types of conditional knockout mice, LysM-Cre:SOCS3(fl/fl) mice and Tie2-Cre:SOCS3(fl/fl) mice, in which the Socs3 gene had been deleted in mature neutrophils and hematopoietic stem cells, respectively. The size of the G-CSF-dependent colonies from Tie2-Cre:SOCS3(fl/fl) mouse bone marrow was much larger than that of colonies from control wild-type mice, while the size of interleukin-3-dependent colonies was similar. Moreover, LysM-Cre:SOCS3(fl/fl) mice had more neutrophils than SOCS3(fl/fl) mice, suggesting that SOCS3 is a negative regulator of G-CSF signaling in neutrophils. Consistent with this notion, G-CSF-induced STAT3 as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was much stronger and prolonged in SOCS3-deficient mature neutrophils than in wild-type neutrophils. The preventive effect of G-CSF on apoptosis was more prominent in SOCS3-deficient mature neutrophils than in control neutrophils. These data indicate that SOCS3 negatively regulates granulopoiesis and G-CSF signaling in neutrophils and may contribute to neutrophilia or neutropenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation is progressed by the action of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, TNF, IFN-gamma and IL-6, and is resolved by anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Intracellular signal transduction pathways initiated by these cytokines have been studied extensively; these pathways ultimately activate transcription factors, such as NF-kappa B, Smad and STATs. Recently, negative feedback regulation of these pathways, mediated by molecules such as A-20, Smad7 and CIS/SOCS family proteins, has been identified. Negative regulation of cytokine signaling is quite important for inflammation.
Current Opinion in Immunology 01/2004; 15(6):704-8. DOI:10.1016/j.coi.2003.09.004 · 7.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine, IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is essential for the function of both IL-6 and IL-10, it is unclear how these two cytokines have such opposing functions. Here we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key regulator of the divergent action of these two cytokines. In macrophages lacking the Socs3 gene or carrying a mutation of the SOCS3-binding site in gp130, the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-12 is suppressed by both IL-10 and IL-6. SOCS3 specifically prevents activation of STAT3 by IL-6 but not IL-10. Taken together, these data indicate that SOCS3 selectively blocks signaling by IL-6, thereby preventing its ability to inhibit LPS signaling.