Ian Wilson

GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)67.67 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of [(18)F]flutemetamol as a preclinical PET tracer for imaging β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition by comparing its pharmacokinetics to those of [(11)C]Pittsburgh compound B ([(11)C]PIB) in wild-type Sprague Dawley rats and C57Bl/6N mice. In addition, binding of [(18)F]flutemetamol to Aβ deposits was studied in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. [(18)F]Flutemetamol biodistribution was evaluated using ex vivo PET methods and in vivo PET imaging in wild-type rats and mice. Metabolism and binding of [(11)C]PIB and [(18)F]flutemetamol to plasma proteins were analysed using thin-layer chromatography and ultrafiltration methods, respectively. Radiation dose estimates were calculated from rat ex vivo biodistribution data. The binding of [(18)F]flutemetamol to Aβ deposits was also studied using ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography. The location of Aβ deposits in the brain was determined with thioflavine S staining and immunohistochemistry. The pharmacokinetics of [(18)F]flutemetamol resembled that of [(11)C]PIB in rats and mice. In vivo studies showed that both tracers readily entered the brain, and were excreted via the hepatobiliary pathway in both rats and mice. The metabolism of [(18)F]flutemetamol into radioactive metabolites was faster than that of [(11)C]PIB. [(18)F]Flutemetamol cleared more slowly from the brain than [(11)C]PIB, particularly from white matter, in line with its higher lipophilicity. Effective dose estimates for [(11)C]PIB and [(18)F]flutemetamol were 2.28 and 6.65 μSv/MBq, respectively. Autoradiographs showed [(18)F]flutemetamol binding to fibrillar Aβ deposits in the brain of Tg2576 mice. Based on its pharmacokinetic profile, [(18)F]flutemetamol showed potential as a PET tracer for preclinical imaging. It showed good brain uptake and was bound to Aβ deposits in the brain of Tg2576 mice. However, its high lipophilicity might complicate the analysis of PET data, particularly in small-animal imaging.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2012; 39(11):1784-95. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biopanning of tumor cells was used in order to identify matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) targeting peptides. The tumor cell targeting peptide (TCTP-1) and two modified versions thereof were evaluated as imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET) using a rat melanoma xenograft model. For the PET imaging purposes, the 3 peptides were 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclo-dodecane-N',N'',N''',N''''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated and labeled with Gallium-68 ((68)Ga) and preliminarily evaluated: (1) cyclic (68)Ga-DOTA-TCTP-1 with cystine bridge, (2) cyclic (68)Ga-DOTA-lactam-TCTP-1 with a lactam bridge, and (3) linear (68)Ga-DOTA-lin-TCTP-1. The whole-body distribution kinetics and tumor targeting of the intravenously administered (68)Ga-DOTA-peptides were evaluated in vivo by PET and ex vivo by measuring the radioactivity of excised tissues. In addition, the in vivo stability of the radiolabeled peptides in rat plasma, tumor tissue, and urine was studied. All (68)Ga-DOTA-peptides were cleared via the liver and kidneys, and approximately 44% of injected radioactivity was excreted in urine during 120 min after injection. Ex vivo biodistribution studies showed a tumor-to-muscle ratio of 5.5 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD) for (68)Ga-DOTA-TCTP-1, 3.2 ± 0.2 for (68)Ga-DOTA-lactam-TCTP-1, and 3.2 ± 0.6 for (68)Ga-DOTA-lin-TCTP-1 at 120 min after injection. The (68)Ga-DOTA-lactam-TCTP-1 peptide appeared to be the most stable in vivo. The fraction of intact (68)Ga-DOTA-lactam-TCTP-1 in tumor was 59 ± 4.2% at 120 min after injection. The stability was moderate for (68)Ga-DOTA-TCTP-1 and poor for (68)Ga-DOTA-lin-TCTP-1. The possibility of imaging tumors that overexpress MMP-9, such as melanoma, by using radiolabeled TCTP peptides in PET imaging makes these peptides highly attractive for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, further modifications to improve the stability and affinity of the peptides are needed.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 09/2010; 21(9):1612-21. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Increased expression of αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin is involved in angiogenesis and the inflammatory process in atherosclerotic plaques. The novel 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide binds with high affinity to αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of the 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: Uptake of intravenously administered 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 atherosclerotic mice. The uptake of the tracer in aortic cryosections was examined by using digital autoradiography. Subsequently, the autoradiographs were combined with histological and immunohistological analysis of the sections. RESULTS: DOTA-RGD peptide was successfully labelled with the generator-produced 68Ga. The tracer had reasonably good specific radioactivity (8.7 ± 1.1 GBq/μmol) and was quite stable in vivo. According to ex vivo biodistribution results, 68Ga-DOTA-RGD was cleared rapidly from the blood circulation and excreted through the kidneys to the urine with high radioactivity in the intestine, lungs, spleen and liver. Autoradiography results showed significantly higher uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in the atherosclerotic plaques compared to healthy vessel wall (mean ratio ± SD 1.4 ± 0.1, p = 0.0004). Conclusion We observed that 68Ga-DOTA-RGD is accumulated into the plaques of atherosclerotic mice. However, this data only shows the feasibility of the approach, while the clinical significance still remains to be proven. Further studies are warranted to assess the uptake of this tracer into human atherosclerotic plaques.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 12/2009; 36(12):2058-67. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased expression of αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin is involved in angiogenesis and the inflammatory process in atherosclerotic plaques. The novel 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide binds with high affinity to αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of the 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in atherosclerotic plaques. Uptake of intravenously administered 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 atherosclerotic mice. The uptake of the tracer in aortic cryosections was examined by using digital autoradiography. Subsequently, the autoradiographs were combined with histological and immunohistological analysis of the sections. DOTA-RGD peptide was successfully labelled with the generator-produced 68Ga. The tracer had reasonably good specific radioactivity (8.7 ± 1.1 GBq/μmol) and was quite stable in vivo. According to ex vivo biodistribution results, 68Ga-DOTA-RGD was cleared rapidly from the blood circulation and excreted through the kidneys to the urine with high radioactivity in the intestine, lungs, spleen and liver. Autoradiography results showed significantly higher uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-RGD peptide in the atherosclerotic plaques compared to healthy vessel wall (mean ratio ± SD 1.4 ± 0.1, p = 0.0004). Conclusion We observed that 68Ga-DOTA-RGD is accumulated into the plaques of atherosclerotic mice. However, this data only shows the feasibility of the approach, while the clinical significance still remains to be proven. Further studies are warranted to assess the uptake of this tracer into human atherosclerotic plaques.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 08/2009; 36(12):2058-67. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ligand [(11)C]PK11195 binds with high affinity and selectivity to peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, expressed in high amounts in macrophages. In humans, [(11)C]PK11195 has been used successfully for the in vivo imaging of inflammatory processes of brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of [(11)C]PK11195 in imaging inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of PK11195 binding sites in the atherosclerotic plaques was verified by examining the in vitro binding of [(3)H]PK11195 onto mouse aortic sections. Uptake of intravenously administered [(11)C]PK11195 was studied ex vivo in excised tissue samples and aortic sections of a LDLR/ApoB48 atherosclerotic mice. Accumulation of the tracer was compared between the atherosclerotic plaques and non-atherosclerotic arterial sites by autoradiography and histological analyses. The [(3)H]PK11195 was found to bind to both the atherosclerotic plaques and the healthy wall. The autoradiography analysis revealed that the uptake of [(11)C]PK11195 to inflamed regions in plaques was more prominent (p = 0.011) than to non-inflamed plaque regions, but overall it was not higher than the uptake to the healthy vessel wall. Also, the accumulation of (11)C radioactivity into the aorta of the atherosclerotic mice was not increased compared to the healthy control mice. Our results indicate that the uptake of [(11)C]PK11195 is higher in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques containing a large number of inflammatory cells than in the non-inflamed plaques. However, the tracer uptake to other structures of the artery wall was also prominent and may limit the use of [(11)C]PK11195 in clinical imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 09/2008; 36(1):73-80. · 4.53 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimer's and Dementia 07/2008; 4(4). · 17.47 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2008; 4(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have increased risk to develop Alzheimer disease (AD). In AD increased brain amyloid burden has been demonstrated in vivo with PET using N-methyl-[(11)C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([(11)C]PIB) as a tracer. To investigate whether patients with amnestic MCI would show increased [(11)C]PIB uptake, indicating early AD process. We studied 13 patients with amnestic MCI and 14 control subjects with PET using [(11)C]PIB as tracer. Parametric images were computed by calculating the region-to-cerebellum ratio in each voxel over 60 to 90 minutes. Group differences in [(11)C]PIB uptake were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and automated region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. The SPM analysis showed that patients with MCI had significantly higher [(11)C]PIB uptake vs control subjects in the frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal cortices as well as in the posterior cingulate showing the most prominent differences. These results were supported by the automated ROI analysis in which MCI patients showed in comparison with healthy control subjects increased [(11)C]PIB uptake in the frontal cortex (39% increase from the control mean, p < 0.01), the posterior cingulate (39%, p < 0.01), the parietal (31%, p < 0.01) and lateral temporal (28%, p < 0.001) cortices, putamen (17%, p < 0.05), and caudate (25%, p < 0.05). Individually, in the frontal cortex and posterior cingulate, 8 of 13 patients with MCI had [(11)C]PIB uptake values above 2 SD from the control mean. MCI subjects having at least one APOE epsilon4 allele tended to have higher [(11)C]PIB uptake than MCI subjects without APOE epsilon4. At group level the elevated N-methyl-[(11)C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([(11)C]PIB) uptake in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) resembled that seen in Alzheimer disease (AD). At the individual level, about half of the MCI patients had [(11)C]PIB uptake in the AD range, suggestive of early AD process.
    Neurology 06/2007; 68(19):1603-6. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the PET amyloid imaging agent (11)C-PIB ((11)C-6-OH-BTA-1) (where BTA is benzothiazole) in humans. Previous radiation exposure estimates have been based on animal experiments. A dosimetry study in humans is essential for a balanced risk-benefit assessment of (11)C-PIB PET studies. We used data from 16 different (11)C-PIB PET scans on healthy volunteers to estimate radiation exposure. Six of these scans were dynamic imaging over the abdominal region: 3 covering the upper abdomen and 3 covering the middle abdomen. On average, 489 MBq of (11)C-PIB (range, 416-606 MBq) were injected intravenously, and dynamic emission scans were recorded for up to 40 min. Two subjects had whole-body imaging over the entire body to illustrate the biodistribution. PET brain scans and blood and urine radioactivity measurements from our previous (11)C-PIB studies were also analyzed. Thirteen source organs and the remainder of the body were studied to estimate residence times and mean radiation-absorbed doses. The MIRD method was used to calculate the radiation exposure of selected target organs and the body as a whole. There is a high degree of consistency between our human data and previous biodistribution information based on baboons. In our study, the highest radiation-absorbed doses were received by the gallbladder wall (41.5 microGy/MBq), liver (19.0 microGy/MBq), urinary bladder wall (16.6 microGy/MBq), kidneys (12.6 microGy/MBq), and upper large intestine wall (9.0 microGy/MBq). The hepatobiliary and renal systems were the major routes of clearance and excretion, with approximately 20% of the injected radioactivity being excreted into urine. The effective radiation dose was 4.74 microSv/MBq. The established clinical dose of (11)C-PIB required for 3-dimensional PET amyloid imaging has an acceptable effective radiation dose. This dose is comparable with the average exposure expected in other PET brain receptor tracer studies. (11)C-PIB is rapidly cleared from the body, largely by the kidneys. From the viewpoint of radiation safety, these results support the use of (11)C-PIB in clinical PET studies.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2007; 48(1):128-33. · 5.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [(18)F]FDG has been used as an inflammation marker and shown to accumulate in inflammatory atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake and location of [(18)F]FDG in atherosclerotic plaque compartments. The biodistribution of intravenously administered [(18)F]FDG was analysed in atherosclerotic LDLR/ApoB48 mice (n=11) and control mice (n=9). Digital autoradiography was used to detect the ex vivo distribution in frozen aortic sections. In vitro binding of [(18)F]FDG in human atherosclerotic arteries was also examined. The uptake of [(18)F]FDG was significantly higher in the aorta of atherosclerotic mice as compared with the control mice. Autoradiography of excised arteries showed higher [(18)F]FDG uptake in the plaques than in the healthy vessel wall (mean ratio +/-SD 2.7+/-1.1). The uptake of [(18)F]FDG in the necrotic, calcified sites of the advanced atherosclerotic lesions was 6.2+/-3.2 times higher than that in the healthy vessel wall. The in vitro studies of human arterial sections showed marked binding of [(18)F]FDG to the calcifications but not to other structures of the artery wall. In agreement with previous studies, we observed [(18)F]FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaques. However, prominent non-specific binding to calcified structures was found. This finding warrants further studies to clarify the significance of this non-specific binding in human plaques in vivo.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2007; 33(12):1461-7. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PET studies with N-methyl-[(11)C]2-(4':-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([(11)C]PIB) have revealed an increased tracer uptake in several brain regions in Alzheimer disease (AD). To employ voxel-based analysis method to identify brain regions with significant increases in [(11)C]PIB uptake in AD vs healthy control subjects, indicative of increased amyloid accumulation in these regions. We studied 17 patients with AD and 11 control subjects with PET using [(11)C]PIB as tracer. Parametric images were computed by calculating a region-to-cerebellum ratio over 60 to 90 minutes in each voxel. Group differences in [(11)C]PIB uptake were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and automated region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPM showed increased uptake (p < 0.001) in the frontal, parietal, and lateral temporal cortices as well as in the posterior cingulate and the striatum. No significant differences in uptake were found in the primary sensory and motor cortices, primary visual cortex, thalamus, and medial temporal lobe. These results were supported by automated ROI analysis, with most prominent increases in AD subjects in the frontal cortex ([(11)C]PIB uptake 163% of the control mean) and posterior cingulate (146%) followed by the parietal (146%) and temporal (145%) cortices and striatum (133%), as well as small increases in the occipital cortex (117%) and thalamus (115%). Voxel-based analysis revealed widespread distribution of increased [(11)C]PIB uptake in Alzheimer disease (AD). These findings are in accordance with the distribution and phases of amyloid pathology in AD, previously documented in postmortem studies.
    Neurology 12/2006; 67(9):1575-80. · 8.30 Impact Factor