[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The secreted proteins from goblet cells compose the intestinal mucus. The aims of this study were to determine how they exist in two intestinal mucus layers.
The intestinal mucosa was fixed with Carnoy solution and immunostained. Mucus from the loose layer, the firm layer was gently suctioned or scraped, respectively, lysed in SDS sample buffer with or without DTT, then subjected to the western blotting of rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP or rMuc2. The non-reduced or reduced soluble mucus samples in RIPA buffer were co-immunoprecipitated to investigate their possible interactions. Polyclonal antibodies for rTFF3, the rIgGFcγBP C-terminal domain and the rMuc2 C-terminal domain confirmed their localization in the mucus layer and in the mucus collected from the rat intestinal loose layer or firm layer in both western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments. A complex of rTFF3, which was approximately 250 kDa, and a monomer of 6 kDa were present in both layers of the intestinal mucus; rIgGFcγBP was present in the complex (250-280 kDa) under non-reducing conditions, but shifted to 164 kDa under reducing conditions in both of the layers. rMuc2 was found mainly in a complex of 214-270 kDa under non-reducing conditions, but it shifted to 140 kDa under reducing conditions. The co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that binding occurs among rTFF3, rIgGFcγBP and rMuc2 in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus. Blocking the covalent interaction by 100 mM DTT in the RIPA buffer soluble intestinal mucus disassociated their binding.
Rat goblet cell-secreted TFF3, IgGFcγBP and Muc2, existing in the two intestinal mucus layers, are bound together by covalent interactions in the soluble fraction of intestinal mucus and form heteropolymers to be one of the biochemical mechanisms of composing the net-like structure of mucus.
PLoS ONE 05/2011; 6(5):e20334. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: rMuc3 is a typical transmembrane mucin and contains a 174 amino acid domain called an SEA module in its C-terminal domain which is cleaved in eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanism by which the rMuc3 SEA module is proteolyzed and its biological significance has to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that the rMuc3 C-terminal domain was cleaved at LSKGSIVV motif within SEA module in prokaryotic cells, the time-dependence of the cleavage was found in the purified rMuc3 C-terminal domain carrying a mutated LSKASIVV motif expressed in bacteria. Thus, the cleavage of rMuc3 SEA module depended on autoproteolysis. The autoproteolysis of the SEA module of rMuc3 C-terminal domain played a critical role in the migration and invasion of the LoVo human colon cancer cells with rMuc3 C-terminal domain in vitro. The rMuc3 C-terminal domain induced a significant activation of HER/ErbB2 phosphorylated form (py1248) in LoVo cells. Inhibition of the phosphorylation by gefitinib (ZD1839) did attenuate migration and invasion of LoVo cells with rMuc3 C-terminal domain. Thus, rMuc3 C-terminal domain undergoes autoproteolysis at its SEA module, which maintains its availability for the potentiation of the signaling process that is modulated by HER/ErbB2 phosphorylation to promote the migration and invasion of LoVo cells.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 11/2010; 503(2):238-47. · 3.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SOX2 and Hath1 are transcription factors that are critical for the control of terminal cell differentiation in the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study investigated the correlations between SOX2 and Hath1 expression in gastric carcinoma and patients' clinicopathological features and prognosis.
Hath1 and SOX2 were detected by immunohistochemistry in gastric carcinoma (n = 50). Probability of survival of patients after surgery was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using Log-rank test.
Hath1 and SOX2 were inversely expressed in gastric carcinoma. Patients with strong SOX2 expression (++ to +++) showed lower incidences of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.007), deeper invasion (p = 0.010), and III-IV clinical stages (p = 0.011) compared to patients with low SOX2 expression (- to +). There was no significant difference in SOX2 and Hath1 expression in the cancerous tissues of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection (p > 0.05). The patients with strong expression of SOX2 in their cancerous tissues (++ to +++) had a better prognosis than those with low expression of SOX2 (- to +; p = 0.005). There was no correlation between Hath1 expression level and prognosis (p = 0.676).
SOX2 and Hath1 are inversely expressed in gastric carcinoma. SOX2 provides a survival advantage to patients of gastric carcinoma and appears to be associated with metastasis and clinical stages.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 08/2010; 14(8):1220-6. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prominent feature of the rodent Muc3 SEA module is the precursor cleavage event that segregates the O-glycosylated N-terminal fragment and transmembrane domain into the noncovalently attached heterodimer. There are seven potential N-glycosylation sites that occur in a cluster in the SEA module of Muc3. However, it is unknown if these sites are modified or what the function of these N-glycans may be in the SEA module. Our data show that the proteolytic cleavage of the rodent Muc3 SEA module was partially prevented by treatment with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. Each single mutant of the seven N-glycosylation sites (N1A, N2A, N3A, N4A, N5A, N6A, and N7A) and multiple mutants, including double (N34A) and triple (N345A) mutants, and mutants with four (N3457A), five (N34567A), six (N134567A and N234567A), seven (N1234567A) mutations, confirmed that all seven of these potential sites are N-glycosylated simultaneously. The proteolytic cleavage of the SEA module was not affected when it lacked only one, two, or three N-glycans, but was partially inhibited when lacking four, five, and six N-glycans. In all, 2%, 48%, 85%, and 73% of the products from N3457A, N34567A, N134567A, and N234567A transfectants, respectively, remained uncleaved. The proteolytic cleavage was completely prevented in the N1234567A transfectant, which eliminated all seven N-glycans in the SEA module. The interaction of the heterodimer was independent of the N-glycans within the rodent Muc3 SEA module. Thus, the N-glycosylation pattern constituted a control point for the modulation of the proteolytic cleavage of the SEA module.