[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene HCCR-1 functions as a negative regulator of the p53 and contributes to tumorigenesis of various human tissues. However, it is unknown how HCCR-1 contributes to the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of human tumorigenesis.
In this study, we showed how the expression of HCCR-1 is modulated. The luciferase activity assay indicated that the HCCR-1 5'-flanking region at positions -166 to +30 plays an important role in HCCR-1 promoter activity. Computational analysis of this region identified two consensus sequences for the T-cell factor (TCF) located at -26 to -4 (Tcf1) and -136 to -114 (Tcf2). Mutation at the Tcf1 site led to a dramatic decrease in promoter activity. Mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed that nuclear proteins bind to the Tcf1 site, but not to the Tcf2 site. LiCl, Wnt signal activator by GSK-3beta inhibition, significantly increased reporter activities in wild-type Tcf1-containing constructs, but were without effect in mutant Tcf1-containing constructs in HEK/293 cells. In addition, endogenous HCCR-1 expression was also increased by treatment with GSK-3beta inhibitor, LiCl or AR-A014418 in HEK/293 and K562 cells. Finally, we also observed that the transcription factor, TCF, and its cofactor, beta-catenin, bound to the Tcf1 site.
These findings suggest that the Tcf1 site on the HCCR-1 promoter is a major element regulating HCCR-1 expression and abnormal stimulation of this site may induce various human cancers.