ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the proteases involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. MMP-1 is thought to be one of the key enzymes acting in fibrolysis, a process closely related to tissue remodeling. In this study, we found that emodin, an anthraquinone which has been isolated from the rhizome of Rheum palmatum, significantly inhibited TNF alpha-induced MMP-1 gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, we have attempted to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of emodin in TNF alpha-induced MMP-1 expression. Emodin was determined to inhibit TNF alpha-induced activation of AP-1 promoter, an important nuclear transcription factor in MMP-1 expression. Additionally, we detected that emodin suppressed the TNF alpha-induced phosphorylation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but it did not suppress the TNF alpha-induced phosphorylation of p38 kinase. In a consistent result, the TNF alpha-induced MMP-1 expression was inhibited by PD98059 (MEK/ERK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), but was not inhibited by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that emodin suppresses TNF alpha-induced MMP-1 expression through the inhibition of the AP-1 signaling pathway.
Life Sciences 12/2006; 79(26):2480-5. · 2.53 Impact Factor