[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porencephaly was observed in a female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) aged 5 years and 7 months. The cerebral hemisphere exhibited diffuse brownish excavation with partial defects of the full thickness of the hemispheric wall, and it constituted open channels between the lateral ventricular system and arachnoid space. In addition, the bilateral occipital lobe was slightly atrophied. Histopathologically, fibrous gliosis was spread out around the excavation area and its periphery. In the roof tissue over the cavity, small round cells were arranged in the laminae. They seemed to be neural or glial precursor cells because they were positive for Musashi 1 and negative for NeuN and GFAP. In the area of fibrous gliosis, hemosiderin or lipofuscin were deposited in the macrophages, and activated astroglias were observed extensively around the excavation area.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 03/2012; 25(1):45-9. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate morphologic alterations in the thyroid gland in the second generation in cynomolgus monkeys, pregnant dams were exposed to high doses of thiamazole. In Experiment A, dams received thiamazole intragastrically via a nasogastric catheter from gestation day (GD) 50 to GD 150 or on the day before delivery. Initially, the dose level was 20 mg/kg/day (10 mg/kg twice daily); however, the dose level was subsequently decreased to 5 mg/kg/day (2.5 mg/kg twice daily), since deteriorated general conditions were observed in two dams. Six out of seven neonates died on the day of birth. The cause of neonatal death was tracheal compression and suffocation from goiter. The transplacental exposure to thiamazole affected the fetal thyroid glands and induced goiter in all neonates. The surviving neonate was necropsied 767 days after discontinuation of thiamazole exposure and showed reversibility of the induced changes. In Experiment B, dams were intragastrically administered thiamazole at 5 mg/kg/day (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) for treatment periods from GDs 51 to 70, 71 to 90, 91 to 110, 111 to 130 and 131 to 150. All fetuses showed enlarged thyroid glands but were viable. Histopathologically, hypertrophy and/or hyperplastic appearance of the follicular epithelium of the thyroid gland was observed at the end of each treatment period. The most active appearance of the follicular epithelium, consisting of crowded pedunculated structure, was demonstrated at end of the treatment period from GD 131 to 150. This is the first report on the morphology of fetal and neonatal goiter in the cynomolgus monkey.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 12/2011; 24(4):215-22. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the effect of a large dose of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonist, on hepatic peroxisomes, we orally administered 1,000 mg/kg/day, once daily, to 3 male and 4 female cynomolgus monkeys for 28 days consecutively. Light-microscopic and electron microscopic examinations of the liver were carried out in conjunction with measurement of the hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation system (FAOS), carnitine acetyltransferase (CAT) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activities, which are peroxisomal and/or mitochondrial enzyme activities. Electron microscopically, enlargement of the mitochondria was observed with lamellar orientation of the cristae along the major axis. Although the number of peroxisomes showed a tendency to increase when compared with those in a biopsied specimen before treatment, no abnormality in morphology was observed. A slight increase in CPT activity was noted at termination. No changes were noted in hepatic FAOS or CAT activity. In conclusion, although repeated oral treatment of cynomolgus monkeys with a large dose of DEHP induced a subtle increase in the numbers of peroxisomes with slight enlargements of the mitochondria, this low-sensitivity response to peroxisome proliferators in cynomolgus monkeys was considered to be closer to the response in humans than that in rodents.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 06/2010; 23(2):75-83. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a seven-year-old male cynomolgus monkey, erythema of the upper eyelid and forehead and corneal opacity, edema and conical protrusion in the eye were observed. At necropsy, ophthalmological and serological examinations revealed binocular corneal opacity and conical protrusion and a high IgE level, respectively. Thinning of the epithelium and stroma of the cornea were noted histopathologically. At the center of the corneal epithelium, the number of epithelial cells was reduced, their cytoplasm was poorer and the basal cells were flatter than at the periphery. Bowman's membrane was folded with partial loss or breakage. Collagen fibers were compacted or disarranged, and the keratocytes were increased in the stroma, with focal pyknosis or loss of the endothelium and folding of Descemet's membrane. Electron microscopical examination revealed atrophy of the corneal epithelial basal cells. This is the first report of a case of keratoconus in a cynomolgus monkey.
Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 03/2010; 23(1):53-8. · 0.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, troponin T (TnT) and troponin I (TnI) have been reported as suitable biomarkers of myocardial injury for pre-clinical toxicity studies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of troponins as myocardial damage biomarkers in cynomolgus monkeys. Initially, tissue distribution of biomarkers was investigated in nine organs (including the heart, liver, and kidneys) collected from naive cynomolgus monkeys. The results showed that TnT and TnI were distributed specifically in the heart, and were not detected in other tissues. Secondly, changes in blood biomarker levels and histopathological changes in cardiac tissue were investigated following myocardial injury induced by concomitant administration of isoproterenol (ISO) and vasopressin (VASO). Compared with pre-dosing, TnT and TnI were markedly increased in the ISO + VASO groups, in which severe histopathological changes including necrosis and vacuolation of muscle fibers were observed. In order to investigate the relationship of biomarker levels with the severity of myocardial injury, Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated between C(max) and AUC and necrosis and vacuolation scores in the heart. A high correlation between necrosis and vacuolation in the heart and TnT and TnI levels was noted. These results suggest that TnT and TnI possess high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial injury in cynomolgus monkeys, and are useful biomarkers for detection of drug-induced myocardial injury in cynomolgus monkeys.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 12/2009; 34(6):589-601. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated structural alterations and the immunohistochemical expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PgR) in the mammary glands from surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Fourteen animals were divided into 2 groups. Seven animals underwent an ovariectomy (OVX), and the other 7 animals underwent a sham operation (sham). The in-life phase of study was 78 weeks. Atrophy in the mammary glands of OVX monkeys was similar to early postmenopausal atrophy of the human breast. The proportion of AR-positive cells in the OVX group was significantly higher than in the sham group, but the proportion of ER and PgR-positive cells was significantly lower. These results suggest that use of a primate model for hormone receptor expression has potential applications in basic human endocrinology, particularly in research in hormone receptor expression in mammary glands (both normal and neoplastic).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A spontaneous case of renal tumor was observed in a 7-year-old ovariectomized female pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Clinical signs included exhaustion, emaciation, anorexia, and stooping position. At necropsy, a solid and cystic mass replaced the left kidney and adrenal gland. The tumor was composed of pleomorphic epithelial cells with a large number of giant cells. Metastases were recognized in the lung, liver, greater omentum, right renal pelvis, and systemic lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical stains revealed that the tumor cells were positive for CD10, cytokeratin (CAM 5.2), and Ki-67 (MIB-1). On the basis of morphologic and immunohistochemical features, the tumor was diagnosed as a pleomorphic renal adenocarcinoma. This type of neoplasm is very rare in all species and has never been reported in a ferret.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A solid mass arising from the mammary gland was found in a 7-year-old female cynomolgus monkey. Histologically, the mass consisted of 2 components: spindle-shaped or ovoid sarcomatous cells and squamous epithelial cells. Metastatic nodules noted in the lung, liver and the gallbladder had the same histological features as the mammary mass. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the sarcomatous cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), vimentin, calponin, S-100 protein, epithelial membranous antigen (EMA), cytokeratin (large spectrum) and cytokeratin 14 (CK 14) in the cytoplasm, and p53, erbB-2 and progesterone receptor in the nuclei, but negative for desmin and estrogen receptor. The squamous epithelial cells were positive for EMA, cytokeratin (large spectrum) and CK 14, but negative for the rest. Both sarcomatous and squamous epithelial components were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Based on histological and immunohistochemical features, the present case was diagnosed as a malignant myoepithelioma with a squamous epithelial component in the mammary gland with distant metastases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spontaneous mammary tumors were seen in seven of the 12 breeding female rats aged 2 years. All mammary tumors were diagnosed as mammary dysplasia (MD). Bone mineral contents (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of their lumbar vertebrae and femur were determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). In rats with MD, body weight (BW), BMD of the lumbar vertebrae and BMC of the femur were significantly higher than in the rats without MD. Although corpus luteum (CL) and follicles were seen in the ovaries of all animals, the number of CL in rats with MD was significantly lower than the rats without MD. It was suggested that high BMD, BW and decreased CL promoted mammary tumors.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 21(4):583-6. · 1.22 Impact Factor