H Paris

University of Toulouse, Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France

Are you H Paris?

Claim your profile

Publications (78)282.5 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Functional selectivity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands toward different downstream signals has recently emerged as a general hallmark of this receptor class. However, pleiotropic and crosstalk signaling of GPCRs makes functional selectivity difficult to decode. To look from the initial active receptor point of view, we developed new, highly sensitive and direct bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based G protein activation probes specific for all G protein isoforms, and we used them to evaluate the G protein-coupling activity of [(1)Sar(4)Ile(8)Ile]-angiotensin II (SII), previously described as an angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor-biased agonist that is G protein independent but β-arrestin selective. By multiplexing assays sensing sequential signaling events, from receptor conformations to downstream signaling, we decoded SII as an agonist stabilizing a G protein-dependent AT(1A) receptor signaling module different from that of the physiological agonist angiotensin II, both in recombinant and primary cells. Thus, a biased agonist does not necessarily select effects from the physiological agonist but may instead stabilize and create a new distinct active pharmacological receptor entity.
    Nature Chemical Biology 05/2012; 8(7):622-30. DOI:10.1038/nchembio.961 · 12.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The imidazoline nucleus linked in position 2 via an oxyethylene bridge to a phenyl ring carrying an ortho substituent of moderate steric bulk provided alpha(2)-adrenergic (AR) ligands endowed with significant alpha(2C)-agonism/alpha(2A)-antagonism. Similar behavior was displayed by cirazoline (12). For their positive morphine analgesia modulation (due to alpha(2C)-AR stimulation) and sedation overcoming (due to alpha(2A)-AR antagonism), 8 and 11 might be useful as adjuvant agents in the management of pain with morphine.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 11/2009; 52(22):7319-22. DOI:10.1021/jm901262f · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The alpha(2B)-adrenoceptor (alpha(2B)-AR) mediates vasoconstriction and a common polymorphism (+901 Ins/Del), located in the coding region of the human alpha(2B)-AR gene (ADRA2B), has been demonstrated to affect receptor function in vitro. In this study, we have identified a novel polymorphism corresponding to the insertion of 12-nucleotides (GGGACGGCCCTG) at position -4825 relative to the start codon (-4825 del/ins) in the far upstream region of the ADRA2B promoter. The genotyping of 71 unrelated Finnish individuals showed that the -4825 ins polymorphism is common and in complete linkage with the Del polymorphism at position +901 and a G/C substitution at position -98. Transfection of various cell lines with luciferase constructs containing a 5.5 kb fragment of the ADRA2B promoter region indicated that the 12-nucleotide insertion at -4825 resulted in a large reduction of transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the two ADRA2B alleles demonstrated that the region where the -4825 del/ins variation occurs binds nuclear proteins and that the 12-nucleotide insertion affects the pattern of bound transcription factors. Altogether, the present findings show that the previously identified +901 Del polymorphism is linked with a variation in the ADRA2B promoter that affects transcriptional activity in vitro. The molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear but a possible impact of the -4825 ins polymorphism on alpha(2B)-AR expression would merit to be examined in vivo as a diminution of promoter activity may limit the functional consequences of the +901 Del polymorphism.
    Biochemical pharmacology 09/2009; 79(3):407-12. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.08.024 · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenergic agonists, through activation of intestinal epithelial alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2AR), inhibit electrolyte secretion and promote absorption. The mechanisms of action to promote basal Na(+) absorption and inhibit stimulated secretion are not understood completely. The effects of alpha2-agonists on Na(+) transport were studied in a cell line, Caco2-3B, derived from the Caco2 cell line engineered to permanently express human alpha2A-adrenergic receptors. Serosal, but not mucosal, addition of the alpha2AR agonist N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amine (clonidine) increased Caco2-3B apical (22)Na(+) uptake, an effect not seen in the Caco2 parent line that lacks alpha2AR expression. This effect was blocked by the alpha2AR antagonist 17alpha-yohmban-16alpha-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yohimbine). Increased Na(+) uptake was paralleled by increased apical surface abundance of the sodium/hydrogen exchangers NHE2 and NHE3. No changes in total cell NHE2 and NHE3 expression were observed. Clonidine also inhibited both cAMP and Ca(2+)-induced decreases in apical Na(+) uptake and apical membrane NHE2 and NHE3 endocytosis stimulated by these agents. alpha2AR actions were mediated via stimulation of phospholipase C, and metabolism of arachidonic acid by an epoxygenase activity followed epidermal growth factor release and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, resulting in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and Akt stimulation. In summary, activation of intestinal epithelial alpha2AR significantly blocks the inhibition of apical Na(+) transporters by cAMP- and Ca(2+)-mediated pathways and also directly increases apical sodium/hydrogen exchange activities. By both blocking electrolyte secretion and promoting absorption, alpha2-agonists could be potent antidiarrheal agents that could directly counteract the actions of toxigenic pathogens and other secretagogues causing secretory diarrhea.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2009; 330(3):818-25. DOI:10.1124/jpet.109.151910 · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors are expressed on intestinal cells and they participate in the control of epithelial functions such as solute and water transport or cell proliferation. In pathological conditions, pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by lymphocytes are responsible for modification of intestinal cell characteristics including phenotype switch and changes in the expression of pumps and ion channels. Using the HT29 cell line as a model, the present work examined the effect of two inflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), on the expression of the human alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor. Exposure of cells to either IFNgamma or TNFalpha resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent diminution of [(3)H]RX821002 binding sites, which is preceded by a large decrease in the amount of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor mRNA. The cytokines did not affect the receptor mRNA half-life, but inhibited the activity of a luciferase construct containing the promoter region of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor gene, indicating that a decrease in the transcription rate is primarily responsible for the diminution of receptor expression. Exposure of cells to either IFNgamma or TNFalpha caused increased production of reactive oxygen species and transient phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). The effect of cytokines was mimicked by H(2)O(2) but was unaffected by the addition of anti-oxidants. The blockade of Erk1/2 activation by PD98059 blunted the effect of TNFalpha but not of IFNgamma. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that IFNgamma and TNFalpha diminish the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor expression in HT29 cells by decreasing the transcription rate without modifying the stability of mRNA. The transcription inhibition is however triggered via different signalling pathways. The results suggest that cytokine-mediated down-regulation of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor could contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2008; 588(1):33-40. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.04.006 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intestinal cells express alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptors that stimulate sodium and peptide absorption and promote cell proliferation. Involved mechanisms are poorly understood and are not fully related to inhibition of cAMP production. Previous study using a clone of CaCo2 cells expressing the human alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor (CaCo2-3B) showed that alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists cause extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Present work examines the signaling pathway triggering ERK activation and investigates the consequence of alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor stimulation on cell migration. Treatment of CaCo2-3B with the alpha(2)-adrenoreceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino) quinoxaline (UK14304) induces not only ERK, but also Akt phosphorylation. Both effects are strongly attenuated by inhibition or desensitization of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) blockade, heparin-binding-EGF neutralization or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitors. Conditioned medium from UK14304-treated CaCo2-3B stimulates ERK in parental CaCo2 by a mechanism sensitive to EGF receptor and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Exposure of CaCo2-3B to UK14304 accelerates the wound healing. This effect is abolished by heparin-binding-EGF neutralization but not by mitomycin C, indicating that it results probably from increased cell spreading and/or migration. In conclusion, alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor activates ERK and Akt in intestinal cells by a common pathway which depends on PI3-kinase activation and results from EGF receptor transactivation, via an autocrine/paracrine pathway implying MMP activation and heparin-binding-EGF shedding. Therefore, alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptor could have a positive role in intestinal regeneration in vivo.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2007; 574(2-3):85-93. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.07.014 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: On incubation with epinephrine, PC12 cells stably expressing alpha2-adrenergic receptor (alpha2-AR) undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of neuron-like differentiation. The present study shows that alpha2-AR stimulation increases the phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), the activity of a CRE-reporter plasmid and the expression of cyclin D1 with subtype-dependent efficiency (alpha2A approximately alpha2C > alpha2B). The effects of epinephrine were mimicked by cell exposure to forskolin or to exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) and they were abrogated by prior treatment with the inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122) or the inhibitor of cytochrome P450-dependent epoxygenase, ketoconazole. On the other hand, treatment of the cells with epinephrine caused activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which was fully abolished by ketoconazole. Inhibition of PKA activity with H89 or ketoconazole abolished the effects of epinephrine on CREB, suggesting that activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway by AA epoxy-derivatives is responsible for CREB activation by alpha2-ARs. The effects of epinephrine were unaffected by LY294002. Furthermore, treatment with staurosporine, tyrphostin AG1478, PP1 or PD98059 did not change the extent of CREB phosphorylation but enhanced its transcriptional activity. Altogether, our results demonstrate that, in PC12 cells, the alpha2-AR subtypes cause phosphorylation and activation of CREB through a pathway involving stimulation of PLC, AA release, generation of epoxygenase derivative and increase of PKA activity. They also suggest attenuation of CREB transcriptional activity by mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C and Src kinases.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 11/2007; 103(3):882-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.04852.x · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the stereochemical requirements for efficient alpha2C-adrenoreceptor activation, the enantiomeric forms of m-nitrobiphenyline [(+/-)-5] were prepared and tested on cells expressing the human alpha2-adrenoreceptor subtypes. The importance of chirality was confirmed, since the enantiomer (R)-(+)-5 was much more efficient than (S)-(-)-5 in producing alpha2C-activation. Surprising reversal of enantioselectivity was observed with respect to structurally similar biphenyline [(+/-)-1] whose (S)-(-)-form proved the preferred alpha2C-configuration.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2007; 50(16):3964-8. DOI:10.1021/jm061487a · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in molecular biology and functional genomics have demonstrated that the "one gene-one phenotype-one drug" paradigm, that has dominated pharmaceutical industry and clinical pharmacology thinking, is too simplistic for management of complex polygenic traits. The traditional highly specific drugs with unique target have proven their clinical usefulness. However, they do not always display the required efficacy versus side-effect profile, in major part because polygenic traits are determined by redundant mechanisms. Simultaneously modulating multiple targets may enhance therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of a range of disorders. Multi-targeting can be achieved by the combination of different drugs having specific single target activity. This approach introduces potential problems with pharmacokinetic interactions, toxicity and patient compliance. High efficacy can be achieved, alternatively, by administering selectively non-selective drugs with complex pharmacological profiles directed towards various molecular targets and affording pleiotropic actions. Dual- or multiple-ligands can be discovered accidentally, but can also be rationally designed according to validated medicinal chemical approaches. The merits of multiple-target versus single-target approaches for cardiovascular disease traits are assessed in the present review. The main aim is to make evident the molecular biological basis of the possibility for targeting multiple sites and the subsequently emerging strategies for interventions with superior clinical value by harnessing receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as VEGFR, PDGFR, bFGFR, as well as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The premises for lead discovery in this new area and the challenges of medicinal chemistry behind the rational design of multitasked ligands are also discussed.
    Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents) 05/2007; 5(2):133-45. DOI:10.2174/187152507780363188
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are directly or indirectly involved in the control of a large panel of physiological functions and are the targets of drugs for the treatment of several common diseases including congestive heart failure, asthma or benign prostatic hyperplasia. The genotyping of human populations with diverse ethnicity has revealed that the genes encoding alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-, beta(1)-, beta(2)- and beta(3)-AR are polymorphic in their coding region as well as in their regulatory domains and non-coding regions. The functional consequences of these genetic variations include changes in expression at transcriptional or translational level, modification of coupling to heterotrimeric G-proteins resulting in a gain or a loss in function, and alteration of GRK-mediated receptor phosphorylation/desensitization or of agonist-promoted down-regulation. None of the mutations identified so far is per se a major risk factor for acquired or inherited disease; however, variants of alpha(2C)-AR and beta(1)-AR may act in synergy to determine the progression of heart failure and certain combinations of polymorphisms on beta(2)-AR correlate with asthmatic phenotypes or response to beta(2)-agonist therapy. Herein we summarize the present knowledge on AR gene polymorphisms, and discuss the putative consequences of variations resulting in receptor malfunction on pharmacogenomics and disease predisposition.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2007; 7(2):217-31. DOI:10.2174/156802607779318163 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The family of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) comprises three subtypes which are each endowed with specific functions. alpha(2)-agonists and alpha(2)-antagonists are part of the clinician armamentarium since several decades; however, none of the compounds so far available is subtype selective. For long, clonidine and yohimbine have been used for the treatment of hypertension and impotence respectively, but both have been superseded by newer drugs. This review attempts, by a comprehensive analysis of the literature, to cover the present clinical use and the potential therapeutic interest of alpha(2)-agonists or antagonists. From the clinical data, it is concluded that, with the exception of a few particular situations, alpha(2)-agonists are only of limited utility as a monotherapy. By contrast, they offer several powerful advantages when used in adjunctive therapy. In perioperative settings, alpha(2)-agonists are extremely valuable adjuncts to anesthetics and analgesics for the induction of anxiolysis, maintenance of sedation, management of pain and prevention of shivering. In the ophthalmic clinic, they are used to lower intra-ocular pressure during laser surgery of the eye. As a daily medication, alpha(2)-agonists are also of interest for the treatment of glaucoma, muscle spasticity, opiate withdrawal, and behavior disorders. The alpha(2)-antagonists are useful antidotes for reversing the threatening effects of agonist overdose, but currently there are very few indications. New applications are under investigation, and new molecules with more refined subtype-selectivity may emerge, so the clinical utility of both alpha(2)-agonists and antagonists will undoubtedly expand in the future.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2007; 7(2):187-94. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The family of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) comprises three subtypes which are each endowed with specific functions. alpha(2)-agonists and alpha(2)-antagonists are part of the clinician armamentarium since several decades; however, none of the compounds so far available is subtype selective. For long, clonidine and yohimbine have been used for the treatment of hypertension and impotence respectively, but both have been superseded by newer drugs. This review attempts, by a comprehensive analysis of the literature, to cover the present clinical use and the potential therapeutic interest of alpha(2)-agonists or antagonists. From the clinical data, it is concluded that, with the exception of a few particular situations, alpha(2)-agonists are only of limited utility as a monotherapy. By contrast, they offer several powerful advantages when used in adjunctive therapy. In perioperative settings, alpha(2)-agonists are extremely valuable adjuncts to anesthetics and analgesics for the induction of anxiolysis, maintenance of sedation, management of pain and prevention of shivering. In the ophthalmic clinic, they are used to lower intra-ocular pressure during laser surgery of the eye. As a daily medication, alpha(2)-agonists are also of interest for the treatment of glaucoma, muscle spasticity, opiate withdrawal, and behavior disorders. The alpha(2)-antagonists are useful antidotes for reversing the threatening effects of agonist overdose, but currently there are very few indications. New applications are under investigation, and new molecules with more refined subtype-selectivity may emerge, so the clinical utility of both alpha(2)-agonists and antagonists will undoubtedly expand in the future.
    Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 01/2007; 7(2):187-194. DOI:10.2174/156802607779318190 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by their cognate seven transmembrane domain receptors is believed to involve conformational changes propagated from the receptor to the G proteins. However, the nature of these changes remains unknown. We monitored the conformational rearrangements at the interfaces between receptors and G proteins and between G protein subunits by measuring bioluminescence resonance energy transfer between probes inserted at multiple sites in receptor-G protein complexes. Using the data obtained for the alpha(2A)AR-G alpha(i1) beta1gamma2 complex and the available crystal structures of G alpha(i1) beta1gamma2, we propose a model wherein agonist binding induces conformational reorganization of a preexisting receptor-G protein complex, leading the G alpha-G betagamma interface to open but not dissociate. This conformational change may represent the movement required to allow nucleotide exit from the G alpha subunit, thus reflecting the initial activation event.
    Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 10/2006; 13(9):778-86. DOI:10.1038/nsmb1134 · 11.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite an extraordinary investment in R&D the yield of successful new drugs has been disproportionately low in recent years, suggesting that the whole process of drug development requires rethinking and reform. Most analyses on this issue focus on molecular target discovery considerations. Target identification is characterized by a surplus of potential targets, but there is a translational bottleneck primarily due to limitations of currently employed target validation platforms. Meanwhile, the clinical entities, to which treatments are directed, are also highly complex in terms of pathophysiologic mechanisms and manifestations. In the present study we discuss the limitations of current molecular target discovery approaches mainly in regard to selectivity and efficacy. We also describe the constraints imposed on drug development by the current diagnostic constructs and the tendency towards dissecting the complex clinical phenotypes to component intermediate phenotypes. Finally, we describe how the reconsideration of molecular and clinical targets in polygenic diseases may lead to new strategies of pharmacological intervention directed against component dysfunctions, rather than the whole complex phenotype. Such strategies involve the combination of single ligands that act selectively on multiple molecules involved in a particular disease, or the employment of "multi-targeted" drugs, i.e. single drug molecules that hit selectively multiple receptors sharing common binding sites.
    Current topics in medicinal chemistry 08/2006; 6(16):1791-8. DOI:10.2174/156802606778194226 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous study carried out on PC12 cells expressing each alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtype individually (PC12/alpha(2A), /alpha(2B) or /alpha(2C)) have shown that epinephrine causes activation of PI3K and phosphorylation of Erk 1/2. The signal transduction mechanisms whereby each alpha(2)-AR subtype triggers these actions were investigated in the present study. In all three clones, epinephrine-induced phosphorylation of MAPK or Akt was abolished by prior treatment with ketoconazole, but not with indomethacin or nordihydroguaiaretic acid. On the other hand, treatment of the clones with epinephrine caused a rapid increase of AA release, which was fully abolished by the PLC inhibitor U73122, but was unaffected by the PLA(2) inhibitor quinacrine. The effects of epinephrine on MAPK and Akt were mimicked by cell exposure to exogenous AA. Furthermore, whereas U73122 abolished the effects of epinephrine, quinacrine only prevented the effects of epinephrine, suggesting that AA release through PLC and its metabolites are responsible for MAPK and Akt activation by alpha(2)-ARs. Treatment with 1,10-phenanthroline, CRM197, or tyrphostin AG1478 suppressed MAPK and Akt phosphorylation by epinephrine or AA, in a subtype-specific manner. Furthermore, conditioned culture medium from epinephrine-treated PC12/alpha(2) induced MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in wild-type PC12. Inhibition of NGFR tyrosine phosphorylation had no effect but the src inhibitor PP1 abolished MAPK and Akt phosphorylation in all three clones. Our results provide evidence for a putative pathway by which alpha(2)-ARs activate MAPK and Akt in PC12 cells, involving stimulation of PLC, AA release, AA metabolism by cytochrome P450-dependent epoxygenase, stimulation of matrix metalloproteinases and subtype-specific transactivation of EGFR through src activation and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor release.
    Cellular Signalling 06/2006; 18(5):729-39. DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2005.06.014 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the rat, the alpha2B-adrenergic receptor (alpha2B-AR) is encoded by the rat non-glycosylated (RNG) gene and is primarily expressed in the kidney, brain and liver of adult animals. High levels of alpha2B-AR are also found during fetal life in the placenta, liver and blood, where it is borne by cells of the erythropoietic lineage. As a first step to define the mechanisms responsible for the spatio-temporal pattern of alpha2B-AR expression, a genomic fragment containing 2.8 kb of the 5'-flanking region, the ORF and approximately 20 kb of the 3'-flanking region of the RNG gene was isolated. RNase protection assays performed on RNA from placenta or kidney using a series of riboprobes permitted to locate the transcription start site 372 bases upstream from the start codon. Transient transfection of various cells, including rat proximal tubule in primary culture, with constructs containing luciferase as a reporter gene demonstrated that: (i) the 5'-flanking region exhibited a strong and sense-dependent transcriptional activity and (ii) the 332 bp fragment (-732/-401 relative to the start codon), which lacks a TATA box but contains Sp1 sites, is sufficient to drive expression. Analysis of chromatin susceptibility to DNaseI digestion identified two hypersensitive sites (HS1 and HS2) located 1.7 and 1.0 kb, respectively, upstream from ATG and containing recognition sequences for erythroid transcription factors. EMSA showed specific binding of GATA1 and NF-E2 to these elements. Taken together, the results suggest that the chromatin environment in the vicinity of these boxes plays a critical role for alpha2B-AR expression during fetal life.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 09/2005; 70(4):606-17. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2005.05.024 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-ARs) are receptors for endogenous catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinephrine) that mediate a number of physiological and pharmacological responses such as hypotension and sedation. Three distinct subtypes, denoted alpha2A-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-AR, have been characterized and cloned. Employment of mutation screening in the study of human populations from various ethnic backgrounds has shown that alpha2-AR genes are polymorphic. The functional and biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms have been analyzed by expressing the wild-type receptors and their respective genetic variants in heterologous systems such as CHO and COS-7 cells. Changes include alteration in G-protein coupling and in agonist-promoted receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. Case-control and population-based studies have shown clinical association with cardiovascular risk. Further investigation of the genetic variants in specialized cells and transgenic animals will provide the molecular basis of cardiovascular disease and may reveal alpha2-AR variants as potential targets for selective pharmacological interventions.
    International Journal of Cardiology 01/2005; 97(3):367-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.10.014 · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of derivatives structurally related to biphenyline (3) was designed with the aim to modulate selectivity toward the alpha(2)-AR subtypes. The results obtained demonstrated that the presence of a correctly oriented function with positive electronic effect (+sigma) in portion X of the ligands is an important factor for significant alpha(2C)-subtype selectivity (imidazolines 5, 13, 16, and 19). Homology modeling and docking studies support experimental data and highlight the crucial role for the hydrogen bond between the pyridine nitrogen in position 3 of 5 and the NH-indole ring of Trp6.48, which is favorably oriented in the alpha(2C)-subtype, only.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2005; 47(25):6160-73. DOI:10.1021/jm0408215 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adrenoceptors (ARs) consist of nine subtypes (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-, beta(1)-, beta(2)-, beta(3)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-AR), which are involved in a wide spectrum of physiological functions and are the site of action for a considerable percentage of currently prescribed therapeutics. With the exception of alpha(1D), all AR subtypes are polymorphic with genetic variations in the coding and non-coding regions. This review discusses the biochemical consequences of these genetic variations and their impact in receptor function, disease pathophysiology, and drug response. Pharmacogenomic principles that have been discovered are also discussed.
    Pharmacogenomics 11/2004; 5(7):803-17. DOI:10.1517/14622416.5.7.803 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies on different animal species have demonstrated the predominant importance of (alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) in mediating the effects of catecholamines on intestinal functions. Several clinical trials have also pointed out the interest of proabsorptive and antisecretory properties of clonidine for the treatment of diabetic or cancer therapy-related diarrhea. Binding experiments and RNase protection assays showed that epithelial cells of human intestinal mucosa express alpha2A-AR subtype and that this receptor is abundant in immature and proliferative cells from the crypts. Although alpha2-agonists cause inhibition of cAMP production, the mechanisms whereby transepithelial transport of water and electrolytes is affected are not completely understood. The aim of this presentation is to review studies carried out on human cancerous intestinal cell-lines naturally expressing the alpha2A-AR or permanently transfected with the alpha2C10 gene. Beside confirming the inverse relationship between enterocytic differentiation and receptor expression, data obtained on these in vitro models provide insights into the signaling pathways and regulation of alpha2A-ARs in epithelial cells. They also support a role for this receptor in the control of proliferative and absorptive activity of intestinal epithelium.
    Medicinal Chemistry Research 03/2004; 13(3):158-169. DOI:10.1007/s00044-004-0022-x · 1.61 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
282.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • University of Toulouse
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 1980–2008
    • Paul Sabatier University - Toulouse III
      • Faculté de médecine Purpan
      Tolosa de Llenguadoc, Midi-Pyrénées, France
  • 2002–2007
    • University of Patras
      • School of Medicine
      Patrís, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece
  • 1993–2007
    • Institut Louis Bachelier
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991–2002
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      • Institute of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Diseases I2MC
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1992
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France