[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Recently, infant cases of acute heart failure attributable to rupture of the mitral chordae tendineae have been reported. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical course of this condition.
Methods and results:
Ninety-five children with rupture of mitral chordae tendineae were identified in nationwide surveys of Japan diagnosed from 1995 to 2013. The clinical manifestations, management strategies, and prognosis were investigated. Eighty-one (85%) patients were between 4 and 6 months (median, 5 months) of age. In 63 (66%) patients, rupture occurred during the spring or summer. The underlying conditions before rupture included Kawasaki disease (10 cases), maternally derived anti-SSA antibodies (2 cases), and infective endocarditis (1 case). Surgery was performed in 80 patients (94 operations), and the final operations included plasty of mitral chordae in 52 cases and mechanical valve replacement in 26 cases. The histopathologic examinations of the mitral valves and chordae (n=28) revealed inflammatory reactions with predominant mononuclear cell infiltration in 18 cases (64%) and increased fibrous and myxoid tissue in 11 cases (39%), suggesting that nonbacterial infectious or autoimmune endocarditis and myxoid changes are involved in the pathogenesis. Eight patients (8.4%) died before (n=6) and shortly after (n=2) the operation, and significant neurological complications persisted in 10 cases (11%).
Acute heart failure attributable to rupture of the mitral chordae tendineae in infants is a unique disease resulting from diverse causes. This condition should be recognized as a significant cardiovascular disorder that may cause sudden onset of cardiogenic shock and death in infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) by overexpression of cardiac transcription factors or microRNAs. However, induction of functional cardiomyocytes is inefficient, and molecular mechanisms of direct reprogramming remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that addition of miR-133a (miR-133) to Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) or GMT plus Mesp1 and Myocd improved cardiac reprogramming from mouse or human fibroblasts by directly repressing Snai1, a master regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. MiR-133 overexpression with GMT generated sevenfold more beating iCMs from mouse embryonic fibroblasts and shortened the duration to induce beating cells from 30 to 10 days, compared to GMT alone. Snai1 knockdown suppressed fibroblast genes, upregulated cardiac gene expression, and induced more contracting iCMs with GMT transduction, recapitulating the effects of miR-133 overexpression. In contrast, overexpression of Snai1 in GMT/miR-133-transduced cells maintained fibroblast signatures and inhibited generation of beating iCMs. MiR-133-mediated Snai1 repression was also critical for cardiac reprogramming in adult mouse and human cardiac fibroblasts. Thus, silencing fibroblast signatures, mediated by miR-133/Snai1, is a key molecular roadblock during cardiac reprogramming.
The EMBO Journal 06/2014; 33(14). DOI:10.15252/embj.201387605 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are associated with a poor prognosis and the therapeutic strategy remains controversial. We describe a pediatric patient with diffuse pulmonary AVMs associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), who presented with two cerebral AVMs in the parietal and occipital lobes as well. Of note, successful bilateral lung transplantation not only improved the hypoxemia but also resulted in size reduction of the cerebral AVMs. Although it is essential to consider involvements other than pulmonary AVMs, especially brain AVMs, to decide the indication, lung transplantation can be a viable therapeutic option for patients with diffuse pulmonary AVMs and HHT.
American Journal of Transplantation 10/2013; 13(12). DOI:10.1111/ajt.12499 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Owing to the limited regenerative capacity of heart tissue, cardiac regenerative therapy has emerged as an attractive approach. Direct reprogramming of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) into cardiomyocytes may hold great potential for this purpose. We reported previously that induced cardiomyocyte-like cells (iCMs) can be directly generated from mouse cardiac fibroblasts in vitro and vivo by transduction of three transcription factors: Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5, collectively termed GMT. In the present study, we sought to determine whether human fibroblasts also could be converted to iCMs by defined factors. Our initial finding that GMT was not sufficient for cardiac induction in HCFs prompted us to screen for additional factors to promote cardiac reprogramming by analyzing multiple cardiac-specific gene induction with quantitative RT-PCR. The addition of Mesp1 and Myocd to GMT up-regulated a broader spectrum of cardiac genes in HCFs more efficiently compared with GMT alone. The HCFs and human dermal fibroblasts transduced with GMT, Mesp1, and Myocd (GMTMM) changed the cell morphology from a spindle shape to a rod-like or polygonal shape, expressed multiple cardiac-specific proteins, increased a broad range of cardiac genes and concomitantly suppressed fibroblast genes, and exhibited spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. Moreover, the cells matured to exhibit action potentials and contract synchronously in coculture with murine cardiomyocytes. A 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay revealed that the iCMs thus generated do not pass through a mitotic cell state. These findings demonstrate that human fibroblasts can be directly converted to iCMs by defined factors, which may facilitate future applications in regenerative medicine.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; 110(31). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1304053110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with nemaline myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The combination of nemaline myopathy and cardiomyopathy is rare, and this is the first reported case of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with childhood-onset nemaline myopathy. A novel mutation, p.W358C, in ACTA1 was detected in this patient. An unusual feature of this case was that the patient's cardiac failure developed during early childhood with no delay of gross motor milestones. The use of a β-blocker did not improve his clinical course, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Congenital nonprogressive nemaline myopathy is not necessarily a benign disorder: deterioration can occur early in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy with neuromuscular disease, and careful clinical evaluation is therefore necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a group of disorders marked by the sustained overproduction of eosinophils, in which eosinophilic infiltration and inflammatory substance release cause damage to multiple organs. Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is an inflammatory disorder caused by eosinophilic infiltration of the bladder wall. Although EC is often associated with eosinophilia, it has been rarely reported as a manifestation of HES. We report a case of EC as a primary manifestation of HES. The patient was a 27-year-old male with a history of complete intracardiac repair of tetralogy of Fallot who presented with an acute onset of dysuria accompanied by eosinophilia (7.5 × 10(3)/μl, 60% of white blood cells). Ultrasonography and MRI of the bladder showed a bladder mass, a biopsy of which revealed eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation.
We performed a literature search in PubMed from 2001 to 2012 to find patients with EC who may have had HES.
There were 4 patients with HES who had EC including the present case. Of 14 patients reported as EC in whom the eosinophil count was described, 5 had eosinophils of ≥1,500/μl. None of the 5 patients had secondary causes for eosinophilia. Of the 9 patients with definite or probable HES, 7 patients (78%) were male and 5 patients (56%) showed a concomitant eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorder.
HES may not be uncommon as the cause of EC. Thorough evaluation and close monitoring are warranted in EC patients with elevated eosinophils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic basis of most congenital heart defects (CHDs), especially non-syndromic and non-familial conditions, remains largely unknown.
DNA samples were collected from immortalized cell lines and original genomes of 256 non-syndromic, non-familial patients with cardiac outflow tract (OFT) defects. Genes encoding NKX2.5, GATA4, GATA6, MEF2C, and ISL1, essential for heart development, were analyzed using PCR-based bidirectional sequencing. The transcriptional activity of proteins with identified sequence variations was analyzed using a luciferase assay. A novel sequence variant (A103V in MEF2C) was identified, in addition to 4 unreported non-synonymous sequence variants in 3 known causative genes (A6V in NKX2.5, T330R and S339R in GATA4, and E142K in GATA6) in 5 individuals. None of these was found in 500 controls without CHDs. In vitro functional assay showed that all proteins with identified sequence variations exhibited significant changes in transcriptional activity and/or synergistic activity with other transcription factors. Furthermore, overexpression of the A103V MEF2C variant in a fish system disturbed early cardiac development.
New mutations in the transcription factors NKX2.5, GATA4, GATA6, and MEF2C that affect their protein function were identified in 2.3% (6/256) of patients with OFT defects. Our results provide the first demonstration of MEF2C mutation and suggest that disturbances in the regulatory circuits involving these cardiac transcription factors may cause a subset of non-syndromic and non-familial CHDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linezolid, an oxazolidinone antibiotic, exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive bacteria. It has been licensed for adult use in Japan since 2006 for MRSA infections, and has also been used off-label for pediatric patients. At our university hospital, a total of 16 infants and children (including one non-Japanese Asian) were administered linezolid owing to infection with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, after consent had been provided. All patients had severe underlying diseases or indications for surgery. Eighty-eight percent of the causal microorganisms were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and all were sensitive to linezolid. Linezolid was administered because the antecedent anti-MRSA medications were ineffective or contraindicated, or intravenous-to-oral switch therapy was requested owing to cardiac or orthopedic surgical-site infections. The median duration of administration was 13 days (range 3-31 days). The overall efficacy was 91 % (10/11) in those for whom efficacy could be evaluated. Only two patients (both teen-aged) encountered linezolid-related adverse effects (13 %, 2/16). One patient showed elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), requiring that administration be withdrawn, but enzyme levels returned to normal after the patient had been switched to vancomycin. The other patient showed transiently decreased platelet counts. Linezolid is considered generally safe and effective for children in Japan, especially for those who cannot use other anti-MRSA medications or those who require oral antibiotics for infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2012; 18(4):591-6. DOI:10.1007/s10156-012-0405-8 · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle is a contractile tissue of animals, dedicated to produce force and cause motion. In higher animals, there are two types of muscle tissue: (a) striated muscle, including all voluntary skeletal muscles and involuntary cardiac muscle, and (b) smooth muscle consisting of involuntary muscles, including those of the viscera, blood vessels, and uterus. Although muscle growth and regeneration take place throughout vertebrate life, the heart is the first organ to start functioning, with continued development until delivery. Skeletal muscles, on the other hand, develop in four successive, temporally distinct phases of embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult muscle with the postnatal phase being basically hypertrophy. Unlike terminally differentiated skeletal and cardiac muscles in adults, smooth muscle cells retain their plasticity and the phenotype can change reversibly in response to environmental changes. For the past 20 years, the availability of gene recombination technology directed the focus of studies on transcription factors and signaling molecules, and we would like to review what has been explored by recent studies on myogenesis.
International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2012; 296:187-272. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-394307-1.00004-7 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are very common in patients with trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13). The surgical indication of CHD remains controversial since the natural history of these trisomies is documented to be poor. To investigate the outcome of CHD in patients with T18 and T13, we collected and evaluated clinical data from 134 patients with T18 and 27 patients with T13 through nationwide network of Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. In patients with T18, 23 (17%) of 134 were alive at this survey. One hundred twenty-six (94%) of 134 patients had CHDs. The most common CHD was ventricular septal defect (VSD, 59%). Sixty-five (52%) of 126 patients with CHD developed pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thirty-two (25%) of 126 patients with CHD underwent cardiac surgery and 18 patients (56%) have survived beyond postoperative period. While palliative surgery was performed in most patients, six cases (19%) underwent intracardiac repair for VSD. Operated patients survived longer than those who did not have surgery (P < 0.01). In patients with T13, 5 (19%) of 27 patients were alive during study period. Twenty-three (85%) of 27 patients had CHD and 13 (57%) of 27 patients had PH. Atrial septal defect was the most common form of CHD (22%). Cardiac surgery was done in 6 (26%) of 23 patients. In this study, approximately a quarter of patients underwent surgery for CHD in both trisomies. Cardiac surgery may improve survival in selected patients with T18.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 11/2011; 155A(11):2641-6. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.34285 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common type of human birth defect and result in significant mortality worldwide. Despite numerous epidemiologic studies in the past decades, few genetic causes have been identified until recently. CHD result from abnormal morphogenesis of the systematic cardiovascular construction during development. Recent advances in molecular embryology, including the discovery of a new source of cardiac progenitor cells termed the second heart field (SHF), have revealed that the heart arises from multiple distinct embryonic origins. Cells derived from the SHF contribute to the development of the cardiac outflow tract, together with the other progenitor cell lineage called cardiac neural crest cells. Numerous cardiac transcription factors regulate these progenitor cells during heart development. Elucidation of the transcriptional network for these cardiac progenitor cells is essential for further understanding cardiac development and providing new insights into the morphogenesis of CHD. This review outlines the recent discoveries of the molecular embryology of the normal heart and the genetic basis of CHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) occur in 0.5-1% of live births, yet the underlying genetic etiology remains mostly unknown. Recently, a new source of myocardial cells, namely the second heart field (SHF), was discovered in the splanchnic mesoderm. Abnormal development of the SHF leads to a spectrum of outflow tract defects, such as persistent truncus arteriosus and tetralogy of Fallot. Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is known to be essential for many aspects of heart biology including heart development, but its role in the SHF is uncertain. Here, we analyzed mice deficient for genes encoding inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs), which are intracellular Ca(2+) release channels on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum that mediate Ca(2+) mobilization. Mouse embryos that are double mutant for IP(3)R type 1 and type 3 (IP(3)R1(-/-)IP(3)R3(-/-)) show hypoplasia of the outflow tract and the right ventricle, reduced expression of specific molecular markers and enhanced apoptosis of mesodermal cells in the SHF. Gene expression analyses suggest that IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) signaling may involve, at least in part, the Mef2C-Smyd1 pathway, a transcriptional cascade essential for the SHF. These data reveal that IP(3)R type 1 and type 3 may play a redundant role in the development of the SHF.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 03/2011; 51(1):58-66. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.02.014 · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiogenesis involves the contributions of multiple progenitor pools, including mesoderm-derived cardiac progenitors known as the first and second heart fields. Disruption of genetic pathways regulating individual subsets of cardiac progenitors likely underlies many forms of human cardiac malformations. Hand2 is a member of the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors and is expressed in numerous cell lineages that contribute to the developing heart. However, the early embryonic lethality of Hand2-null mice has precluded lineage-specific study of its function in myocardial progenitors. Here, we generated and used a floxed allele of Hand2 to ablate its expression in specific cardiac cell populations at defined developmental points. We found that Hand2 expression within the mesoderm-derived second heart field progenitors was required for their survival and deletion in this domain recapitulated the complete Hand2-null phenotype. Loss of Hand2 at later stages of development and in restricted domains of the second heart field revealed a spectrum of cardiac anomalies resembling forms of human congenital heart disease. Molecular analyses of Hand2 mutant cells revealed several genes by which Hand2 may influence expansion of the cardiac progenitors. These findings demonstrate that Hand2 is essential for survival of second heart field progenitors and that the graded loss of Hand2 function in this cardiac progenitor pool can cause a spectrum of congenital heart malformation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During pregnancy, progesterone inhibits the growth-promoting actions of estrogen in the uterus. However, the mechanism for this is not clear. The attenuation of estrogen-mediated proliferation of the uterine epithelium by progesterone is a prerequisite for successful implantation. Our study reveals that progesterone-induced expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand2 in the uterine stroma suppresses the production of several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that act as paracrine mediators of mitogenic effects of estrogen on the epithelium. In mouse uteri lacking Hand2, continued induction of these FGFs in the stroma maintains epithelial proliferation and stimulates estrogen-induced pathways, resulting in impaired implantation. Thus, Hand2 is a critical regulator of the uterine stromal-epithelial communication that directs proper steroid regulation conducive for the establishment of pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Journal of Human Genetics, official journal of the Japan Society of Human Genetics, publishes original articles and reviews on all aspects of human genetics, including medical genetics and genomics
Journal of Human Genetics 10/2010; 55(10):637-8. DOI:10.1038/jhg.2010.105 · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R1, 2, and 3) are intracellular Ca2+ release channels that regulate various vital processes. Although the ryanodine receptor type 2, another type of intracellular Ca2+ release channel, has been shown to play a role in embryonic cardiomyocytes, the functions of the IP3Rs in cardiogenesis remain unclear.
We found that IP3R1(-/-)-IP3R2(-/-) double-mutant mice died in utero with developmental defects of the ventricular myocardium and atrioventricular (AV) canal of the heart by embryonic day (E) 11.5, even though no cardiac defect was detectable in IP3R1(-/-) or IP3R2(-/-) single-mutant mice at this developmental stage. The double-mutant phenotype resembled that of mice deficient for calcineurin/NFATc signaling, and NFATc was inactive in embryonic hearts from the double knockout-mutant mice. The double mutation of IP3R1/R2 and pharmacologic inhibition of IP3Rs mimicked the phenotype of the AV valve defect that result from the inhibition of calcineurin, and it could be rescued by constitutively active calcineurin.
Our results suggest an essential role for IP3Rs in cardiogenesis in part through the regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling.
PLoS ONE 09/2010; 5(9). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0012500 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with Down syndrome (DS) and a left-to-right shunt often develop early severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (PVOD); the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of these complications are yet to be determined. To investigate the mechanisms, we evaluated the biosynthesis of thromboxane (TX) A(2) and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) in four groups of infants, cross-classified as shown below, by measuring the urinary excretion levels of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1alpha): DS infants with a left-to-right shunt and PH (D-PH, n = 18), DS infants without congenital heart defect (D-C, n = 8), non-DS infants with a left-to-right shunt and PH (ND-PH, n = 12), and non-DS infants without congenital heart defect (ND-C, n = 22). The urinary excretion ratios of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) to 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in the D-PH, D-C, ND-PH, and ND-C groups were 7.69, 4.71, 2.10, and 2.27, respectively. The ratio of 11-dehydro-TXB(2) to 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1alpha) was higher in the presence of DS (P < 0.001), independently of the presence of PH (P = 0.297). The predominant biosynthesis of TXA(2) over PGI(2), leading to vasoconstriction, was observed in DS infants, irrespective of the presence/absence of PH. This imbalance in the biosynthesis of vasoactive eicosanoids may account for the rapid progression of PVOD in DS infants with a left-to-right shunt.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2010; 152A(8):1919-24. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.33555 · 2.16 Impact Factor