[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many bacteria accumulate granules of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) within their cells, which confer resistance to nutritional depletion and other environmental stresses. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of the bacterial endocellular storage polymer, PHA, in an insect-bacterium symbiotic association. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a beneficial and specific gut symbiont of the β-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia, which is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment every generation and easily cultivable and genetically manipulatable. Biochemical and cytological comparisons between symbiotic and cultured Burkholderia detected more PHA granules consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and associated phasin (PhaP) protein in the symbiotic Burkholderia. Among major PHA synthesis genes, phaB and phaC were disrupted by homologous recombination together with the phaP gene, whereby ΔphaB, ΔphaC, and ΔphaP mutants were generated. Both in culture and in symbiosis, accumulation of PHA granules was strongly suppressed in ΔphaB and ΔphaC, but only moderately in ΔphaP. In symbiosis, the host insects infected with ΔphaB and ΔphaC exhibited significantly lower symbiont densities and smaller body sizes. These deficient phenotypes associated with ΔphaB and ΔphaC were restored by complementation of the mutants with plasmids encoding a functional phaB/phaC gene. Retention analysis of the plasmids revealed positive selection acting on the functional phaB/phaC in symbiosis. These results indicate that the PHA synthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are required for normal symbiotic association with the Riptortus host. In vitro culturing analyses confirmed vulnerability of the PHA gene mutants to environmental stresses, suggesting that PHA may play a role in resisting stress under symbiotic conditions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas leading to sulfate aerosol formation, thereby participating in the global radiation balance and ozone chemistry, but its biological sinks are not well understood. Thiobacillus thioparus strain THI115 can grow on thiocyanate (SCN-) as its sole energy source. Previously, we showed that SCN- is first converted to COS by thiocyanate hydrolase in T. thioparus strain THI115. In the present work, we purified, characterized, and determined the crystal structure of carbonyl sulfide hydrolase (COSase), which is responsible for the degradation of COS to H2S and CO2, the second step of SCN- assimilation. COSase is a homotetramer composed of a 23.4 kDa subunit containing a zinc ion in its catalytic site. The amino acid sequence of COSase is homologous to the β-class carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs). Although the crystal structure including the catalytic site resembles those of the β-CAs, CO2 hydration activity of COSase is negligible compared to those of the β-CAs. The α5 helix and the extra loop (Gly150-Pro158) near the N-terminus of the α6 helix narrow the substrate pathway, which could be responsible for the substrate specificity. The kcat/Km value, 9.6 × 105 s-1 M-1, is comparable to those of the β-CAs. COSase hydrolyzes COS over a wide concentration range, including the ambient level, in vitro and in vivo. COSase and its structurally related enzymes are distributed in the clade D in the phylogenetic tree of β-CAs, suggesting that COSase and its related enzymes are one of the catalysts responsible for the global sink of COS.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipoproteins are believed to exist in only one specific lipid-modified structure, such as the diacyl form or the triacyl form, in each bacterium. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, recent extensive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that S. aureus lipoproteins exist in the α-aminoacylated triacyl form. Here, we discovered conditions that induce the accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins that lack α-aminoacylation in S. aureus. The accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins required a combination of conditions, including acidic pH and a post-logarithmic-growth phase. High temperatures and high salt concentrations additively accelerated the accumulation of the diacyl lipoprotein form. Following a post-logarithmic-growth phase where S. aureus MW2 cells were grown at pH 6, SitC lipoprotein was found almost exclusively in its diacyl structure rather than in its triacyl structure. This is the first report showing that the environment mediates lipid-modified structural alterations of bacterial lipoproteins.
Journal of bacteriology 03/2012; 194(13):3299-306. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the "N-acetyl" lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2012; 287(16):13170-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the actions of Draper, a receptor responsible for the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells in Drosophila, we isolated proteins that bind to the extracellular region of Draper using affinity chromatography. One of those proteins has been identified to be an uncharacterized protein called Drosophila melanogaster calcium-binding protein 1 (DmCaBP1). This protein containing the thioredoxin-like domain resided in the endoplasmic reticulum and seemed to be expressed ubiquitously throughout the development of Drosophila. DmCaBP1 was externalized without truncation after the induction of apoptosis somewhat prior to chromatin condensation and DNA cleavage in a manner dependent on the activity of caspases. A recombinant DmCaBP1 protein bound to both apoptotic cells and a hemocyte-derived cell line expressing Draper. Forced expression of DmCaBP1 at the cell surface made non-apoptotic cells susceptible to phagocytosis. Flies deficient in DmCaBP1 expression developed normally and showed Draper-mediated pruning of larval axons, but a defect in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in embryos was observed. Loss of Pretaporter, a previously identified ligand for Draper, did not cause a further decrease in the level of phagocytosis in DmCaBP1-lacking embryos. These results collectively suggest that the endoplasmic reticulum protein DmCaBP1 is externalized upon the induction of apoptosis and serves as a tethering molecule to connect apoptotic cells and phagocytes for effective phagocytosis to occur.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(5):3138-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipoproteins are known to be diacylated or triacylated and activate mammalian immune cells via Toll-like receptor 2/6 or 2/1 heterodimer. Because the genomes of low G+C content gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, do not contain Escherichia coli-type apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase, an enzyme converting diacylated lipoproteins into triacylated forms, it has been widely believed that native lipoproteins of S. aureus are diacylated. However, we recently demonstrated that one lipoprotein SitC purified from S. aureus RN4220 strain was triacylated. Almost simultaneously, another group reported that another lipoprotein SA2202 purified from S. aureus SA113 strain was diacylated. The determination of exact lipidated structures of S. aureus lipoproteins is thus crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of host-microorganism interactions. Toward this purpose, we intensively used MS-based analyses. Here, we demonstrate that SitC lipoprotein of S. aureus RN4220 strain has two lipoprotein lipase-labile O-esterified fatty acids and one lipoprotein lipase-resistant fatty acid. Further MS/MS analysis of the lipoprotein lipase digest revealed that the lipoprotein lipase-resistant fatty acid was acylated to α-amino group of the N-terminal cysteine residue of SitC. Triacylated forms of SitC with various length fatty acids were also confirmed in cell lysate of the RN4220 and Triton X-114 phase in three other S. aureus strains, including SA113 strain and one Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. Moreover, four other major lipoproteins including SA2202 in S. aureus strains were identified as N-acylated. These results strongly suggest that lipoproteins of S. aureus are mainly in the N-acylated triacyl form.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides in response to microbial infections is under the control of the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathway. The Toll signaling pathway responds mainly to the lysine-type peptidoglycan of Gram-positive bacteria and fungal β-1,3-glucan, whereas the Imd pathway responds to the meso-diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-type peptidoglycan of Gram-negative bacteria and certain Gram-positive bacilli. Recently we determined the activation mechanism of a Toll signaling pathway biochemically using a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. However, DAP-type peptidoglycan recognition mechanism and its signaling pathway are still unclear in the fly and beetle. Here, we show that polymeric DAP-type peptidoglycan, but not its monomeric form, formed a complex with Tenebrio peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA, and this complex activated the three-step proteolytic cascade to produce processed Spätzle, a Toll receptor ligand, and induced Drosophila defensin-like antimicrobial peptide in Tenebrio larvae similarly to polymeric lysine-type peptidoglycan. Monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan induced Drosophila diptericin-like antimicrobial peptide in Tenebrio hemocytes. In addition, both polymeric and monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycans induced expression of Tenebrio peptidoglycan recognition protein-SC2, which is DAP-type peptidoglycan-selective N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase that functions as a DAP-type peptidoglycan scavenger, appearing to function as a negative regulator of the DAP-type peptidoglycan signaling by cleaving DAP-type peptidoglycan in Tenebrio larvae. Taken together, these results demonstrate that molecular recognition mechanism for polymeric DAP-type peptidoglycan is different between Tenebrio larvae and Drosophila adults, providing biochemical evidences of biological diversity of innate immune responses in insects.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(43):32937-45. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of unique codons have been employed to expand the genetic code. The use of the opal (UGA) codon is promising, but insufficient information is available about the UGA suppression approach, which facilitates the incorporation of non-natural amino acids through suppression of the UGA codon. In this study, the UGA codon was used to incorporate 4-iodo-l-phenylalanine into position 32 of the Ras protein in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system. The undesired incorporation of tryptophan in response to the UGA codon was completely repressed by the addition of indolmycin. The minor amount (3%) of contaminating 4-bromo-l-phenylalanine in the building block 4-iodo-l-phenylalanine led to the significant incorporation of 4-bromo-l-phenylalanine (21%), and this problem was solved by using a purified 4-iodo-l-phenylalanine sample. Optimization of the incubation time was also important, since the undesired incorporation of free phenylalanine increased during the cell-free translation reaction. The 4-iodo-l-phenylalanine residue can be used for the chemoselective modification of proteins. This method will contribute to advancements in protein engineering studies with non-natural amino acid substitutions.
Journal of biochemistry 08/2010; 148(2):179-87. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytic removal of cells undergoing apoptosis is necessary for animal development and tissue homeostasis. Draper, a homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans phagocytosis receptor CED-1, is responsible for the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in Drosophila, but its ligand presumably present on apoptotic cells remains unknown. An endoplasmic reticulum protein that binds to the extracellular region of Draper was isolated. Loss of this protein, which we name Pretaporter, led to a reduced level of apoptotic cell clearance in embryos, and the overexpression of pretaporter in the mutant flies rescued this defect. Results from genetic analyses suggested that Pretaporter functionally interacts with Draper and the corresponding signal mediators. Pretaporter was exposed at the cell surface after the induction of apoptosis, and cells artificially expressing Pretaporter at their surface became susceptible to Draper-mediated phagocytosis. Finally, the incubation with Pretaporter augmented the tyrosine-phosphorylation of Draper in phagocytic cells. These results collectively suggest that Pretaporter relocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface during apoptosis to serve as a ligand for Draper in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
The EMBO Journal 11/2009; 28(24):3868-78. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiocyanate hydrolase (SCNase) is a member of a family of nitrile hydratase proteins, each of which contains a unique noncorrin cobalt center with two post-translationally modified cysteine ligands, cysteine-sulfenic acid or -sulfenate (Cys-SO(H)), and cysteine-sulfininate (Cys-SO(2)(-)), respectively. We have found that a partially matured recombinant SCNase was activated during storage. The crystal structures of SCNase before and after storage demonstrated that Cys-SO(2)(-) modification of gammaCys131 proceeded to completion prior to storage, while Cys-SO(H) modification of gammaCys133 occurred during storage. SCNase activity was suppressed when gammaCys133 was further oxidized to Cys-SO(2)(-). The correlation between the catalytic activity and the extent of the gammaCys133 modification indicates that the cysteine sulfenic acid modification of gammaCys133 is of primary importance in determining the activity of SCNase.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2009; 131(41):14838-43. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some synthetic lipopeptides, in addition to native lipoproteins derived from both Gram-negative bacteria and mycoplasmas, are known to activate TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2). However, the native lipoproteins inherent to Gram-positive bacteria, which function as TLR2 ligands, have not been characterized. Here, we have purified a native lipoprotein to homogeneity from Staphylococcus aureus to study as a native TLR2 ligand. The purified 33-kDa lipoprotein was capable of stimulating TLR2 and was identified as a triacylated SitC lipoprotein, which belongs to a family of ATP binding cluster (ABC) transporter substrate-binding proteins. Analyses of the SitC-mediated production of cytokine using mouse peritoneal macrophages revealed that the SitC protein (3 nm) induced the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, analysis of knock-out mice showed that SitC required TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR1 or TLR6, for the induction of cytokines. In addition to the S. aureus SitC lipoprotein, we purified two other native ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoproteins from Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus, which were both shown to stimulate TLR2. These results demonstrate that S. aureus SitC lipoprotein is triacylated and that the ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoproteins of Gram-positive bacteria function as native ligands for TLR2.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2009; 284(13):8406-11. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new carbon-carbon bond has been regioselectively introduced into a target position (position 32 or 174) of the Ras protein by two types of organopalladium reactions (Mizoroki-Heck and Sonogashira reactions). Reaction conditions were screened by using a model peptide, and the stability of the Ras protein under the reaction conditions was examined by using the wild-type Ras protein. Finally, the iF-Ras proteins containing a 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine residue were subjected to organopalladium reactions with vinylated or propargylated biotin. Site-specific biotinylations of the Ras protein were confirmed by Western blot and LC-MS/MS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An Escherichia coli suppressor tRNA(Phe) (tRNA(Phe) (CUA)) was misacylated with 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine by using the A294G phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase mutant (G294-PheRS) from E. coli at a high magnesium-ion concentration. The preacylated tRNA was added to an E. coli cell-free system and a Ras protein that contained the 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine residue at a specific target position was synthesized. Site-specific incorporation of 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine was confirmed by using LC-MS/MS. Free tRNA(Phe) (CUA) was not aminoacylated by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) present in the E. coli cell-free system. Our approach will find wide application in protein engineering since an aryl iodide tag on proteins can be used for site-specific functionalization of proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiocyanate hydrolase (SCNase) is a cobalt-containing enzyme with a post-translationally modified cysteine ligand, gammaCys131-SO(2)H. When the SCNase alpha, beta and gamma subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli, the subunits assembled to form a hetero-dodecamer, (alphabetagamma)(4), like native SCNase but exhibited no catalytic activity. Metal analysis indicated that SCNase was expressed as an apo-form irrespective of the presence of cobalt in the medium. On the contrary, SCNase co-expressed with P15K, encoded just downstream of SCNase genes, in cobalt-enriched medium under the optimized condition (SCNase((+P15K))) possessed 0.86 Co atom/alphabetagamma trimer and exhibited 78% of the activity of native SCNase. SCNase((+P15K)) showed a UV-Vis absorption peak characteristic of the SCNase cobalt center. About 70% of SCNase((+P15K)) had the gammaCys131-SO(2)H modification. These results indicate that SCNase((+P15K)) is the active holo-SCNase. P15K is likely to promote the functional expression of SCNase probably by assisting the incorporation of cobalt ion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitrile hydratase (NHase) from Rhodococcus sp. N771 is a non-heme iron enzyme having post-translationally modified cysteine ligands, alphaCys112-SO2H and alphaCys114-SOH. We replaced alphaGln90, which is conserved in all known NHases and involved in the hydrogen-bond network around the catalytic center, with glutamic acid or asparagine. The kcat of alphaQ90E and alphaQ90N mutants decreased to 24% and 5% that of wild type respectively, but the effect of mutations on Km was not very significant. In both mutants, the alphaCys114-SOH modification appeared to be responsible for the catalysis as in native NHase. We crystallized the nitrosylated alphaQ90N mutant and determined its structure at a resolution of 1.43 A. The structure was basically identical to that of native nitrosylated NHase except for the mutated site and its vicinity. The structural difference between native and alphaQ90N mutant NHases suggested the importance of the hydrogen bond networks between alphaGln90 and the iron center for the catalytic activity.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 05/2006; 70(4):881-9. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palladium-catalyzed reactions have contributed to the advancement of many areas of organic chemistry, in particular, the synthesis of organic compounds such as natural products and polymeric materials. In this study, we have used a Mizoroki-Heck reaction for site-specific carbon-carbon bond formation in the Ras protein. This was performed by the following two steps: 1) the His6-fused Ras protein containing 4-iodo-L-phenylalanine at position 32 (iF32-Ras-His) was prepared by genetic engineering and 2) the aryl iodide group on the iF32-Ras-His was coupled with vinylated biotin in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The biotinylation was confirmed by Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The regioselectivity of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction was furthermore confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. However, in addition to the biotinylated product (bF32-Ras-His), a dehalogenated product (F32-Ras-His) was detected by LC-MS/MS. This dehalogenation resulted from the undesired termination of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction due to steric and electrostatic hindrance around residue 32. The biotinylated Ras showed binding activity for the Ras-binding domain as its downstream target, Raf-1, with no sign of decomposition. This study is the first report of an application of organometallic chemistry in protein chemistry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiocyanate hydrolase (SCNase) purified from Thiobacillus thioparus THI115 hydrolyzes thiocyanate to carbonyl sulfide and ammonia. DNA sequences of the cloned genes revealed the close relation of SCNase to nitrile hydratase (NHase). The consensus sequences for coordination of the metal ion found in NHases were also conserved in the gamma subunit of SCNase. Here, we showed that the SCNase contained one cobalt atom per alphabetagamma heterotrimer. UV-vis absorption spectrum suggested that the cobalt exists as a non-corrin ion. Reduced SCNase showed an ESR signal characteristic of low-spin Co2+, which closely resembled that of the Co-type NHases. Mass spectrometry for the peptide fragment containing the metal-binding motif of the SCNase gamma subunit indicated that the cysteine residue at position 131 was post-translationally oxidized to a cysteine-sulfinic acid. From these results, we concluded that SCNases and NHases form a novel non-corrin and/or non-heme protein family having post-translationally modified cysteine ligands.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2006; 128(3):728-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor