Hironori Aramaki

Daiichi University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (52)167.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC), a major cannabinoid component in Cannabis Sativa (marijuana), significantly stimulated the expression of fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor  (PPAR) was previously implicated in this induction. However, the mechanisms mediating this induction have not been elucidated in detail. We performed a DNA microarray analysis of 9-THC-treated samples and showed the selective up-regulation of the PPAR isoform coupled with the induction of FA2H over the other isoforms ( and ). 9-THC itself had no binding/activation potential to/on PPAR, and palmitic acid (PA), a PPAR ligand, exhibited no stimulatory effects on FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells; thus, we hypothesized that the levels of PPAR induced were involved in the 9-THC-mediated increase in FA2H. In support of this hypothesis, we herein demonstrated that i) 9-THC activated the basal transcriptional activity of PPAR in a concentration-dependent manner, ii) the concomitant up-regulation of PPAR/FA2H was caused by 9-THC, iii) PA could activate PPAR after the PPAR expression plasmid was introduced, and iv) the 9-THC-induced up-regulation of FA2H was further stimulated by the co-treatment with L-663,536 (a known PPAR inducer). Taken together, these results support the concept that the induced levels of PPAR may be involved in the 9-THC up-regulation of FA2H in MDA-MB-231 cells.
    Toxicology. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Metastases are known to be responsible for approximately 90% of breast cancer-related deaths. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved not only in inflammatory processes, but also in the metastasis of cancer cells; it is expressed in 40% of human invasive breast cancers. To comprehensively analyze the effects of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a selective COX-2 inhibitor found in the fiber-type cannabis plant (Takeda et al., 2008), on COX-2 expression and the genes involved in metastasis, we performed a DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are invasive breast cancer cells that express high levels of COX-2, treated with CBDA for 48 hr at 25 µM. The results obtained revealed that COX-2 and Id-1, a positive regulator of breast cancer metastasis, were down-regulated (0.19-fold and 0.52-fold, respectively), while SHARP1 (or BHLHE41), a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis, was up-regulated (1.72-fold) and CHIP (or STUB1) was unaffected (1.03-fold). These changes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analyses. Taken together, the results obtained here demonstrated that i) CBDA had dual inhibitory effects on COX-2 through down-regulation and enzyme inhibition, and ii) CBDA may possess the ability to suppress genes that are positively involved in the metastasis of cancer cells in vitro.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2014; 39(5):711-6. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined xanthocidin, a biotic isolated from Streptomyces xanthocidicus in 1966, because its supply is limited. Based on its chemical structure, xanthocidin has the potential to become a lead compound in the production of agrochemicals and anti-cancer drugs; however, it is unstable under both basic and acidic conditions. We recently established the total synthesis of xanthocidin using the FeCl3-mediated Nazarov reaction, and obtained two stable derivatives (#1 and #2). The results of the present study demonstrated that these derivatives exhibited the inhibitory activity of topoisomerase IIα, known as a molecular target for cancer chemotherapy, and this was attributed to the respective exo-methylene ketone group without DNA intercalation. The results obtained also suggest that these derivatives may have value as lead compounds in the synthesis of topoisomerase IIα inhibitors.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2014; 37(2):331-4. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) has been reported as possessing anti-estrogenic activity, although the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly delineated. In this study, we used the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, as an experimental model and show that Δ(9)-THC exposures markedly suppress 17β-estradiol (E2)- induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these effects result from Δ(9)-THC's ability to inhibit E2-liganded ERα activation. Mechanistically, the data obtained from biochemical analyses revealed that: i) Δ(9)-THC up-regulates ERβ, a repressor of ERα, inhibiting the expression of E2/ERα-regulated genes that promote cell growth, and that ii) Δ(9)-THC induction of ERβ modulates E2/ERα signaling in the absence of direct interaction with the E2 ligand binding site. Therefore, the data presented support the concept that Δ(9)-THC's anti-estrogenic activities are mediated by the ERβ disruption of E2/ERα signaling. αααααααααα
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 05/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, we reported that (-)-xanthatin, a naturally occurring xanthanolide present in the Cocklebur plant, exhibits potent anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer cells, accompanied by an induction of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45γ (GADD45γ), recognized recently as a novel tumor suppressor gene. However, the mechanisms mediating this activation were unknown. Topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibition has been reported to produce a cell death response accompanied by an atypical DNA laddering fragmentation profile, similar to that noted previously for (-)-xanthatin. Therefore we hypothesized that (-)-xanthatin's GADD45γ activation was mediated through the Topo IIα pathway. Here, we identify that (-)-xanthatin does function as a catalytic inhibitor of Topo IIα, promoting DNA damage. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in cells treated with this agent. Mechanistically, it was determined that the induced levels of GADD45γ mRNA resulting from (-)-xanthatin exposures were stabilized by coordinately produced ROS, and that the consequent induction of GADD45γ mRNA, GADD45γ protein and ROS generation were abrogated by co-treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, the data support the concept that Topo IIα inhibition by (-)-xanthatin is a trigger that stimulates expression of DNA damage-inducible GADD45γ mRNA and that concomitantly produced ROS act downstream to further enhance the GADD45γ mRNA/GADD45γ protein induction process, resulting in breast cancer cell death.
    Toxicology 01/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate gene(s) being regulated by ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆(9)-THC), we performed DNA microarray analysis of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, which are poorly differentiated breast cancer cells, treated with ∆(9)-THC for 48 hr at an IC50 concentration of approximately 25 µM. Among the highly up-regulated genes (> 10-fold) observed, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) was significantly induced (17.8-fold). Although the physiological role of FA2H has not yet been fully understood, FA2H has been shown to modulate cell differentiation. The results of Oil Red O staining after ∆(9)-THC exposure showed the distribution of lipid droplets (a sign of the differentiated phenotype) in cells. Taken together, the results obtained here indicate that FA2H is a novel ∆(9)-THC-regulated gene, and that ∆(9)-THC induces differentiation signal(s) in poorly differentiated MDA-MB-231 cells.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2013; 38(2):305-308. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reported that (-)-xanthatin, a xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone present in the Cocklebur plant, exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects on human breast cancer cells, in which GADD45γ, a novel tumor suppressor gene, was induced. Mechanistically, topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) inhibition by (-)-xanthatin was shown to be the upstream trigger that stimulated the expression of GADD45γ mRNA and concomitantly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain this expression. Since the anti-cancer drug etoposide, a selective Topo IIα inhibitor, has also been shown to induce intracellular ROS, (-)-xanthatin may exert its anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells in a similar manner to those of etoposide. In the present study, to generalize its applicability to cancer therapy, we further investigated the biological activities of (-)-xanthatin by comparing its activities to those of the established anti-cancer drug etoposide. After the exposure of breast cancer cells to (-)-xanthatin or etoposide, a prolonged and marked up-regulation in the expression of c-fos, a proapoptotic molecule, was detected together with GADD45γ; and the expression of these molecules was stabilized by ROS and abrogated by the pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a potent ROS scavenger. (-)-Xanthatin in particular exhibited stronger anti-proliferative potential than that of etoposide, which underlies the marked induction of c-fos/GADD45γ and ROS production.
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 01/2013; 38(4):547-57. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, has been reported to possess diverse biological activities, including anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), few studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. Results of the current investigation revealed that CBDA inhibits migration of the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. It is established that activation of the RhoA signaling pathway leads to inhibition of the mobility of various cancer cells, including MDA-MB-231 cells. The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers.
    Toxicology Letters 09/2012; 214(3):314-319. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A repressor composed of homodimeric subunits, as is often found in bacteria, possesses two effector-binding sites per molecule, enabling sophisticated regulation by the cooperative binding of two effector molecules. Positive cooperativity generates a narrower region of effector concentration for switching, but little is known about the role of negative cooperativity. d-camphor, an inducer for Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam hydroxylase operon (camDCAB), binds to the homodimeric cam repressor (CamR). Here, we report solid evidence that the complex of CamR and an operator DNA is not dissociated by the first binding of d-camphor but, at a higher concentration, is dissociated by the second binding. d-camphor thus binds to the CamR in two steps with negative cooperativity, yielding two distinct dissociation constants of K(d1 ) =( ) 0.064 ± 0.030 and K(d2 ) =( ) 14 ± 0.3 μm, as well as the Hill coefficient of 0.56 ± 0.05 (<1). The first binding guarantees the high specificity of the inducer by the high affinity, although the second binding turns on the gene expression at a 200-fold higher concentration, a more suitable switching point for the catabolism of d-camphor.
    Genes to Cells 11/2011; 16(12):1200-7. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: exo-Methylene lactone group-containing compounds, such as (--)-xanthatin, are present in a large variety of biologically active natural products, including extracts of Xanthium strumarium (Cocklebur). These substances are reported to possess diverse functional activities, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, and anticancer potential. In this study, we synthesized six structurally related xanthanolides containing exo-methylene lactone moieties, including (--)-xanthatin and (+)-8-epi-xanthatin, and examined the effects of these chemically defined substances on the highly aggressive and farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI)-resistant MDA-MB-231 cancer cell line. The results obtained demonstrate that (--)-xanthatin was a highly effective inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell growth, inducing caspase-independent cell death, and that these effects were independent of FTase inhibition. Further, our results show that among the GADD45 isoforms, GADD45γ was selectively induced by (--)-xanthatin and that GADD45γ-primed JNK and p38 signaling pathways are, at least in part, involved in mediating the growth inhibition and potential anticancer activities of this agent. Given that GADD45γ is becoming increasingly recognized for its tumor suppressor function, the results presented here suggest the novel possibility that (--)-xanthatin may have therapeutic value as a selective inducer of GADD45γ in human cancer cells, in particular in FTI-resistant aggressive breast cancers.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2011; 24(6):855-65. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Both enzymatic (15-LOX) and non-enzymatic (Cu(2+)) mechanisms have been proposed for the production of ox-LDL. We have recently reported that cannabidiol-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of 15-LOX-catalyzed linoleic acid oxygenation (Takeda et al., Drug Metab. Dispos., 37, 1733-1737 (2009)). In the LDL, linoleic acid is present as cholesteryl linoleate, the major fatty acid esterified to cholesterol, and is susceptible to oxidative modification by 15-LOX or Cu(2+). In this investigation, we examined the efficacy of CBDD on i) 15-LOX-catalyzed oxygenation of cholesteryl linoleate, and ii) ox-LDL formation catalyzed by 15-LOX versus Cu(2+)-mediated non-enzymatic generation of this important mediator. The results obtained demonstrate that CBDD is a potent and selective inhibitor of ox-LDL formation generated by the 15-LOX pathway. These studies establish CBDD as both an important experimental tool for characterizing 15-LOX-mediated ox-LDL formation, and as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2011; 34(8):1252-6. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is one of the key enzymes responsible for the formation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, a major causal factor for atherosclerosis. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major component of marijuana, has suggested to suppress atherosclerosis. Although Δ(9)-THC seems to be attractive for the prevention of atherosclerosis, there is no information about whether or not 15-LOX isoform can be inhibited by Δ(9)-THC. In the present study, Δ(9)-THC was found to be a direct inhibitor for 15-LOX with an IC(50) (50% inhibition concentration) value of 2.42 μM. Furthermore, Δ(9)-THC-11-oic acid, a major and nonpsychoactive metabolite of Δ(9) -THC, but not another Δ(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-Δ(9)-THC (psychoactive), was revealed to inhibit 15-LOX. Taken together, it is suggested that Δ(9) -THC can abrogate atherosclerosis via direct inhibition of 15-LOX, and that Δ(9)-THC-11-oic acid is shown to be an "active metabolite" of Δ(9) -THC in this case.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10/2010; 100(3):1206-11. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In clinical practice, glucocorticoids are often used with the aim of modulating the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. However, how glucocorticoids modulate the pharmacological action of chemotherapeutic agents remains to be clarified. In this study, we generated glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-deficient rat-1 cells to investigate the role of GR in the regulation of cellular sensitivity to irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11). Treatment of wild-type rat-1 cells with dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effect of CPT-11, whereas the treatment had little effect on the cytotoxicity of CPT-11 in GR-deficient cells. Topoisomerase-I activity in wild-type cells after concomitant treatment with DEX and CPT-11 was significantly lower than that after treatment with CPT-11 alone. DEX treatment also enhanced the inhibitory action of CPT-11 on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway in wild-type cells, accompanied by facilitating caspase-3 activity. These modulatory effects of DEX on the CPT-11-induced cytotoxicity were not observed in GR-deficient cells. Our present findings reveal the underlying mechanism by which GCs enhance the chemotherapeutic effect of CPT-11 and indicate the possibility that the dosage of CPT-11 could be reduced by the combination treatment with GCs, which may attenuate the adverse effect without decreasing anti-tumor activity.
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 03/2009; 109(2):265-74. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered homeostatic regulation, including the disturbance of circadian rhythms, is often observed in patients undergoing interferon (IFN) therapy. We reported previously that IFN-alpha has the ability to modulate the circadian clock function at the molecular level and that the alteration of clock function could be overcome by changing the dosing schedule. In this study, we investigated the influence of IFN-alpha on the intrinsic biological rhythms in mice by comparing two dosing schedules, continuous administration and repetitive injection. Continuous administration of IFN-alpha to mice decreased the rhythm amplitude of locomotor activity, body temperature, leukocyte counts, and plasma corticosterone levels. The treatment also suppressed the oscillation in the expression of clock genes in the liver. On the other hand, modulation effects were scarcely observed in mice treated with repetitive injection of IFN-alpha. These results indicate that treatment with IFN-alpha does not always modulate the circadian clock function. This notion was also supported by in vitro findings that the inhibitory action of IFN-alpha on the expression of clock genes was dependent on its exposure time to cells. The alteration of clock function induced by IFN-alpha could be avoided by optimizing the dosing schedule.
    Life Sciences 10/2008; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered homeostatic regulation, including the disturbance of circadian rhythms, is often observed in patients undergoing interferon (IFN) therapy. We reported previously that IFN-alpha has the ability to modulate the circadian clock function at the molecular level and that the alteration of clock function could be overcome by changing the dosing schedule. In this study, we investigated the influence of IFN-alpha on the intrinsic biological rhythms in mice by comparing two dosing schedules, continuous administration and repetitive injection. Continuous administration of IFN-alpha to mice decreased the rhythm amplitude of locomotor activity, body temperature, leukocyte counts, and plasma corticosterone levels. The treatment also suppressed the oscillation in the expression of clock genes in the liver. On the other hand, modulation effects were scarcely observed in mice treated with repetitive injection of IFN-alpha. These results indicate that treatment with IFN-alpha does not always modulate the circadian clock function. This notion was also supported by in vitro findings that the inhibitory action of IFN-alpha on the expression of clock genes was dependent on its exposure time to cells. The alteration of clock function induced by IFN-alpha could be avoided by optimizing the dosing schedule.
    Life Sciences 09/2008; 83(15-16):574-80. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feast/famine regulatory proteins (FFRPs) comprise a single group of transcription factors systematically distributed throughout archaea and eubacteria. In the eubacterial domain in Escherichia coli, autotrophic pathways are activated and heterotrophic pathways are repressed by an FFRP, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), in some cases in interaction with other transcription factors. By sensing the concentration of leucine, Lrp changes its association state between hexadecamers and octamers to adapt the autotrophic or heterotrophic mode. The lrp gene is regulated so that the concentration of Lrp decreases in the presence of rich nutrition. In the archaeal domain a large part of the metabolism of Pyrococcus OT3 is regulated by another FFRP, FL11. In the presence of rich nutrition, the metabolism is released from repression by FL11; transcription of fl11 is terminated by FL11 forming octamers in interaction with lysine. When the nutrient is depleted, the metabolism is arrested by a high concentration of FL11; FL11 disassembles to dimers in the absence of lysine, and repression of transcription of fl11 is relaxed. Common characteristics of the master regulations by FL11 and Lrp hint at the prototype regulation once achieved in the common ancestor of all extant organisms. Mechanisms of discrimination by FFRPs between DNA sequences and also between co-regulatory molecules, mostly amino acids, and variations of transcription regulations observed with archaea and eubacteria are reviewed.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 03/2008; 31(2):173-86. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered homeostatic regulation, including the disturbance of circadian rhythms, is often observed in patients undergoing interferon (IFN) therapy. We reported previously that IFN-α has the ability to modulate the circadian clock function at the molecular level and that the alteration of clock function could be overcome by changing the dosing schedule. In this study, we investigated the influence of IFN-α on the intrinsic biological rhythms in mice by comparing two dosing schedules, continuous administration and repetitive injection. Continuous administration of IFN-α to mice decreased the rhythm amplitude of locomotor activity, body temperature, leukocyte counts, and plasma corticosterone levels. The treatment also suppressed the oscillation in the expression of clock genes in the liver. On the other hand, modulation effects were scarcely observed in mice treated with repetitive injection of IFN-α. These results indicate that treatment with IFN-α does not always modulate the circadian clock function. This notion was also supported by in vitro findings that the inhibitory action of IFN-α on the expression of clock genes was dependent on its exposure time to cells. The alteration of clock function induced by IFN-α could be avoided by optimizing the dosing schedule.
    Life Sciences - LIFE SCI. 01/2008; 83(15):574-580.
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    ABSTRACT: Because a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in the mechanism of tumor progression, the development of a clinically useful tyrosine kinase inhibitor is expected as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of malignant cancers. Imatinib mesylate, known as Gleevec or STI-571, is a molecule that inhibits the function of various receptors with tyrosine kinase activity, such as Abl, the bcr-abl chimeric product, KIT, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors. In this study, we investigated the influence of dosing time on the ability of imatinib to inhibit tumor growth in mice. Tumor-bearing mice were housed under standardized light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 07:00 h, off at 19:00 h) with food and water ad libitum. The growth of tumor cells implanted in mice was more severely inhibited by the administration of imatinib (50 mg/kg, i.p.) in the early light phase than when it was administered in the early dark phase. The dosing time-dependency of anti-tumor effects was parallel to that of imatinib-induced anti-angiogenic effect. The inhibitory effect of imatinib on tyrosine kinase activity of PDGF receptors, but not of KIT and Abl, varied according to its administration time. The dosing time-dependency of imatinib-induced inhibition of PDGF receptor activity was closely related to that of its anti-tumor effects. Our results suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of imatinib is enhanced by administering the drug when PDGF receptor activity was increased. The potent therapeutic efficacy of the drug could be expected by optimizing the dosing schedule.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 12/2006; 72(10):1237-45. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of the exotoxin A gene (toxA) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a complicated process that involves several regulators, including ptxR, which enhances toxA expression by 4- to 5-fold. Available evidence suggests that ptxR is expressed from two separate promoters, P1 and P2. Previous evidence indicated the presence, within the ptxR upstream region, of binding sites for several regulatory proteins, including PtxS, which negatively regulates ptxR expression. We utilized nested deletion and in vitro transcription analyses to examine the regulation of ptxR expression. The results from nested deletion analysis suggest that under aerobic conditions in iron-deficient medium, ptxR expression follows a biphasic curve that involves the P1 promoter only. Iron eliminated the second peak of ptxR expression but did not affect expression from the P2 promoter. Under microaerobic conditions, iron represses ptxR expression from subclones that carry P1 alone or P2 alone at both early and late stages of growth. Under anaerobic conditions, ptxR expression increases considerably. In addition, our results suggest that different segments of the ptxR upstream region play specific roles in ptxR expression; their deletion caused variations in the level as well as the pattern of ptxR expression. Our results also indicate that negative regulation of ptxR expression by PtxS does not occur through the PtxS binding site within the ptxR-ptxS intergenic region. In vitro transcription analysis using sigma70-reconstituted P. aeruginosa RNA polymerase produced one transcript that closely resembles T1, indicating that P1 is recognized by sigma70. RNA polymerase reconstituted with either RpoS or AlgU produced no transcripts. However, a transcript was produced by RpoH-reconstituted RNA polymerase.
    Canadian Journal of Microbiology 05/2006; 52(4):343-56. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Feast/famine regulatory proteins comprise a diverse family of transcription factors, which have been referred to in various individual identifications, including Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein and asparagine synthase C gene product. A full length feast/famine regulatory protein consists of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-domain, which is involved in dimerization and further assembly, thereby producing, for example, a disc or a chromatin-like cylinder. Various ligands of the size of amino acids bind at the interface between feast/famine regulatory protein dimers, thereby altering their assembly forms. Also, the combination of feast/famine regulatory protein subunits forming the same assembly is altered. In this way, a small number of feast/famine regulatory proteins are able to regulate a large number of genes in response to various environmental changes. Because feast/famine regulatory proteins are shared by archaea and eubacteria, the genome-wide regulation by feast/famine regulatory proteins is traceable back to their common ancestor, being the prototype of highly differentiated transcription regulatory mechanisms found in organisms nowadays.
    FEMS Microbiology Reviews 02/2006; 30(1):89-108. · 13.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

591 Citations
167.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • Daiichi University
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1989–2009
    • Kyushu University
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2006–2008
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1993–2008
    • Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • Department of Microbiology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2000
    • Tokyo Women's Medical University
      • Department of Otolaryngology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1998–2000
    • National Institute of Genetics
      • Radioisotope Center
      Mishima, Shizuoka-ken, Japan
  • 1998–1999
    • Kochi Medical School
      Kôti, Kōchi, Japan