[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive forms of squamous cell carcinomas. Common genetic lesions in ESCC include p53 mutations and EGFR overexpression, both of which have been implicated in negative regulation of Notch signaling. In addition, cyclin D1 is overexpressed in ESCC and can be activated via EGFR, Notch and Wnt signaling. To elucidate how these genetic lesions may interact during the development and progression of ESCC, we tested a panel of genetically engineered human esophageal cells (keratinocytes) in organotypic 3D culture (OTC), a form of human tissue engineering. Notch signaling was suppressed in culture and mice by dominant negative Mastermind-like1 (DNMAML1), a genetic pan-Notch inhibitor. DNMAML1 mice were subjected to 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral-esophageal carcinogenesis. Highly invasive characteristics of primary human ESCC were recapitulated in OTC as well as DNMAML1 mice. In OTC, cyclin D1 overexpression induced squamous hyperplasia. Concurrent EGFR overexpression and mutant p53 resulted in transformation and invasive growth. Interestingly, cell proliferation appeared to be regulated differentially between those committed to squamous-cell differentiation and those invading into the stroma. Invasive cells exhibited Notch-independent activation of cyclin D1 and Wnt signaling. Within the oral-esophageal squamous epithelia, Notch signaling regulated squamous-cell differentiation to maintain epithelial integrity, and thus may act as a tumor suppressor by preventing the development of a tumor-promoting inflammatory microenvironment.
American journal of cancer research. 01/2012; 2(4):459-75.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of advanced sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (RCC) effectively treated with sunitinib. A 77-year-old female who had gross hematuria and left lower abdominal pain was found to have a left renal tumor by computed tomography (CT) and was referred to our hospital. CT revealed a poorly enhanced mass in the left kidney and an enlarged paraaortic lymph node. The patient underwent laparoscopic left nephrectomy, and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as a sarcomatoid RCC. Sunitinib was administered to treat lymph node metastasis, postoperatively, and a partial response was observed after 4 courses. Sunitinib administration has been continued without tumor re-growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional molecule that acts as mitogen, motogen, and/or morphogen in a variety of cells. MET, a specific receptor tyrosine kinase for HGF, is upregulated in various tumors including squamous cell carcinoma of the human head and neck (HNSCC), but how HGF affects the expression of downstream functional genes has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the expression of microRNA (miRNA), non-coding small RNA that regulate cell proliferation and functions by interfering with the translation of target mRNA, with or without HGF stimulation in HNSCC cell line HSC3. Among several miRNAs, in which the expression was altered after HGF stimulation, we focused on miR-200c and miR-27b, both of which were drastically downregulated after HGF stimulation. Expression of ZEB1, a target mRNA for miR-200c, was upregulated 3 and 6 h after HGF stimulation, and that of E-cadherin, a downstream molecule of ZEB1, was downregulated 12 h after HGF stimulation. Expression of ST14/matriptase, an enzyme for extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and HGF activation and a target mRNA for miR-27b, was drastically upregulated in the protein level after HGF stimulation, although it was not statistically altered in the mRNA level. These results suggest that miR-200c and miR-27b downregulated by HGF might play an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediated by ZEB1/E-cadherin and ECM degradation and HGF autoactivation mediated by ST14/matriptase, respectively. Altered expression of miRNA directly regulated by HGF might contribute enhanced progressive and invasive characteristics of HNSCC by regulating the translation of HGF-induced functional molecules.
Cancer Science 09/2011; 102(12):2164-71. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Zinc finger E-box-binding (ZEB) proteins ZEB1 and ZEB2 are transcription factors essential in TGF-β-mediated senescence, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cancer stem cell functions. ZEBs are negatively regulated by members of the miR-200 microRNA family, but precisely how tumor cells expressing ZEBs emerge during invasive growth remains unknown. Here, we report that NOTCH3-mediated signaling prevents expansion of a unique subset of ZEB-expressing cells. ZEB expression was associated with the lack of cellular capability of undergoing NOTCH3-mediated squamous differentiation in human esophageal cells. Genetic inhibition of the Notch-mediated transcriptional activity by dominant-negative Mastermind-like 1 (DNMAML1) prevented squamous differentiation and induction of Notch target genes including NOTCH3. Moreover, DNMAML1-enriched EMT-competent cells exhibited robust upregulation of ZEBs, downregulation of the miR-200 family, and enhanced anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in nude mice. RNA interference experiments suggested the involvement of ZEBs in anchorage-independent colony formation, invasion, and TGF-β-mediated EMT. Invasive growth and impaired squamous differentiation were recapitulated upon Notch inhibition by DNMAML1 in organotypic three-dimensional culture, a form of human tissue engineering. Together, our findings indicate that NOTCH3 is a key factor limiting the expansion of ZEB-expressing cells, providing novel mechanistic insights into the role of Notch signaling in the cell fate regulation and disease progression of esophageal squamous cancers.
Cancer Research 09/2011; 71(21):6836-47. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas is characterized by mucin-producing columnar epithelium and an ovarian-type stroma. It occurs almost exclusively in women and is almost always located in the pancreatic body or tail. Here, we report a case of large MCN located in the pancreatic head but not in the body nor tail in a 32-year-old pregnant woman, which was thought to have grown rapidly during pregnancy. It was ruptured at 34 weeks of gestation and the patient was admitted to the emergency department of the University of Fukui Hospital with an acute abdomen. Emergency cesarean section followed by pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The tumor consisted of many small cysts lined by a single-layer of mucinous epithelium with papillary growth and partial solid parts showing invasive growth and sarcomatoid changes, indicating mucinous cystic neoplasm with an associated invasive carcinoma (previously referred as mucinous cystadenocarcinoma). Thickened septa revealed ovarian-type stroma strongly positive for α-inhibin and partly positive for progesterone receptor immunohistochemically. We also review and discuss previous reports of MCNs including those with an associated invasive carcinoma in pregnant patients.
Pathology International 01/2011; 61(1):28-33. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report 2 patients showing invasion of aspergillosis into the central nerve system (CNS). Patient 1, an 81-year-old woman, underwent surgery for sphenoidal sinusitis. She developed cerebral infarction with unconsciousness on 12th postoperative day. CSF examination demonstrated pleocytosis with increased protein and aspergillus antigen. She was diagnosed as having invasion of aspergillosis into the CNS, and was treated with voriconazole. Her clinical manifestations and CSF findings markedly improved. However, the effects of voriconazole gradually attenuated and she demonstrated recurrence of the cerebral infarction. After 2 months, she died of systemic aspergillosis and sepsis. Autopsy studies. Severe atherosclerotic changes with calcification were demonstrated in the bilateral carotid and basilar arteries, and many aspergillus were clustered in the vessel walls. Granulomatous inflammatory lesions with aspergillus were also demonstrated in the area surrounding the chiasm. There were no massive infarcts or bleeding in the brain, but multiple small infarcts were present. Patinet 2, a 64-year-old man, showing bilateral visual loss, was receiving treatment with corticosteroids under a diagnosis of optic neuritis. Two weeks later, he developed cerebral infarction. CSF examination showed pleocytosis with increased protein and aspergillus antigen. He was diagnosed as having invasive aspergillosis from the sphenoidal sinusitis into the CNS. He was treated with voriconazole, and unconsciousness and CSF findings improved transiently. However, he developed a recurrence of the brain infarction and pneumonia and finally died 6 months later. Treatment by voriconazole was definitely effective in both patients, but both patients died of recurrent cerebral infarction, possibly due to resistance for voriconazole, or developing multicellular filamentous biofilms. Voriconazole is recommended as the first choice of antifungal agents for aspergillosis. Aspergillus infection is strongly invasive into arterial vessels. It is important to consider the possible occurrence of cerebrovascular disease when treating invasion of aspergillosis into the CNS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A cell line designated NYGM was established from a human cerebral glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) obtained from a 75-year-old Japanese woman. The cell line has grown slowly without interruption and has been propagated continuously by serial passages (more than 80 passage) during the past 3 years. The cultured cells were fusiform or polyhedral in shape. The population doubling time was 24 hours. The chromosomal number varied between 77 and 88, with modal chromosomal number of 84. NYGM cells concomitantly expressed MET receptor tyrosine kinase (a product of c-met protooncogene) and its ligand HGF/SF (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor), as well as HGF activator and HGF activator inhibitors. The cells might be useful for the study of pericellular regulation of HGF/SF-MET signaling and HGF activation of GBM cells.
Human Cell 10/2008; 17(3):145 - 150. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)/spint-1 is a membrane-bound protease inhibitor that is thought to regulate the activities of hepatocyte growth factor activator, matriptase, hepsin, and prostasin. In this study, we show that the membrane form of HAI-1 was significantly upregulated immunohistochemically in epithelial cells under adverse conditions including tissue injury, necroinflammatory reactions, and invasion of carcinomas. To analyze the mechanism underlying these in vivo observations, we examined the effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress on HAI-1 expression in vitro, using three human cell lines, HLC-1, WiDr, and HeLa. Hypoxic condition significantly enhanced the expression of HAI-1 in these cells. Oxidative stress also enhanced HAI-1 expression. Promoter analyses of the human HAI-1/spint-1 gene revealed overlapping binding site for Egr-1-3 and Sp1 near the transcription start site as the key domain for HAI-1/spint-1 transcription. This site was also critical in both hypoxic- and oxidative stress-induced HAI-1 upregulation. In fact, in vivo immunohistochemical studies indicated that areas with HAI-1 upregulation tended to express markers associated with hypoxia and oxidative stress. These observations suggest that the tissue microenvironment regulates the cell surface expression of HAI-1, and thereby may regulate proteolysis and processing of bioactive molecules on the cellular surface.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 10/2008; 453(4):347-57. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) has been divided into four subtypes up to now: (i) acute; (ii) lymphoma; (iii) chronic; and (iv) smoldering. Skin lesion(s) may be present and the cases showing less than 5% abnormal T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood without involvement of other organs, have been classified as smoldering ATLL. However, this type of ATLL with skin manifestations had a worse prognosis than that without skin lesions. This study aimed to define and distinguish cutaneous ATLL lacking nodal lymphoma and leukemic change from smoldering ATLL. We propose an entity of cutaneous ATLL, which has less than 5% abnormal T lymphocyte in peripheral blood, a normal lymphocyte count (i.e. <4 x 10(9)/L), no hypercalcemia and lactate dehydrogenase values of up to 1.5 times the normal upper limit. At least one of the histologically proven skin lesions should be present accompanying monoclonal integration of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral DNA in the skin lesion. Blood samples were collected from 41 HTLV-1-infected patients, 21 asymptomatic carriers, 16 patients with cutaneous ATLL and four patients with smoldering ATLL. HTLV-1 proviral loads, soluble interleukin-2 receptors and other parameters were examined in each case. HTLV-1 proviral DNA loads in smoldering ATLL group are significantly higher than those in asymptomatic carrier and cutaneous ATLL group. Cutaneous ATLL may be a distinct entity that should be separated from smoldering ATLL clinically and virologically.
The Journal of Dermatology 05/2008; 35(5):270-5. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2-related small peptide (H2RSP) is a recently identified nuclear peptide that is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H2RSP in normal and injured intestinal mucosa in a murine experimental colitis induced by oral administration of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate. Results of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that H2RSP was expressed predominantly in the epithelium of normal intestine. Whereas H2RSP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells in the crypt, it was translocated into the nuclei of the surface epithelial cells. In injured intestine, H2RSP was detected in the cytoplasm of regenerating epithelial cells, and the nuclear translocation was impaired even in the surface epithelium. However, the mRNA level was not significantly altered in these cells by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using total RNAs obtained from the fractionated mucosal tissue samples prepared by laser-captured microdissection technique. On the other hand, H2RSP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the stromal cells of injured intestinal mucosa compared with those in normal mucosa, which shows cytoplasmic localization of H2RSP. These circumstantial evidences suggest that the nuclear translocation of H2RSP may be related to a signaling involved in the transition from cellular proliferation to differentiation.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 04/2006; 448(3):354-60. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a multifunctional growth factor that is involved in invasive growth of tumor cells via its receptor MET, a protein product of c-met proto-oncogene. HGF activator (HGFA) is a serine proteinase responsible for the activation of proform of HGF/SF (proHGF/SF). In our study, we examined the effects of engineered expression of HGFA on 2 human glioblastoma cell lines (YKG-1 and U251). Both cells expressed MET, while only YKG-1 expressed endogenous proHGF/SF. Enhanced MET phosphorylation and increased migratory activity were induced by the expression of HGFA in YKG-1 cells in vitro in the presence of thrombin, which is a known activator of proHGFA. In contrast, MET phosphorylation was consistently observed in U251 that lacked endogenous HGF/SF, suggesting ligand-independent activation of MET in this cell line. Consequently, the expression of HGFA in U251 did not enhance the MET phosphorylation and following cellular response even with the thrombin treatment. However, addition of exogenous proHGF/SF resulted in enhanced migratory activity of HGFA-expressing U251 cells in the presence of thrombin in vitro. The engineered HGFA expression resulted in significantly enhanced tumor growth with increased vascular density in vivo when YKG-1 cells were implanted in nude mouse brain. This effect was not observed in U251 lacking endogenous proHGF/SF. These results indicate the possible existence of multiple mechanisms of MET activation in glioblastomas and that the activation system of proHGF/SF is important in progression of glioblastomas that express endogenous proHGF/SF and require ligand-dependent MET activation.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2006; 118(3):583-92. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is a membrane-associated Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor that was initially identified as a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator. HAI-1 is also a cognate inhibitor of matriptase, a membrane-associated serine proteinase. HAI-1 is expressed predominantly in epithelial cells in the human body. Its mRNA is also abundant in human placenta, with HAI-1 specifically expressed by villous cytotrophoblasts. In order to address the precise roles of HAI-1 in vivo, we generated HAI-1 mutant mice by homozygous recombination. Heterozygous HAI-1+/- mice underwent normal organ development. However, homozygous HAI-1-/- mice experienced embryonic lethality which became evident at embryonic day 10.5 postcoitum (E10.5). As early as E9.5, HAI-1-/- embryos showed growth retardation that did not reflect impaired cell proliferation but resulted instead from failed placental development and function. Histological analysis revealed severely impaired formation of the labyrinth layer, in contrast all other placental layers, such as the spongiotrophoblast layer and giant cell layer, which were formed. Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/2005; 25(13):5687-98. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unusual case of glioblastoma with adenoid structures arising in a 30-year-old Japanese woman with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is reported. The patient was admitted to University of Miyazaki Hospital, complaining of headache, nausea and vomiting. From the neuroradiological findings the patient was diagnosed as having glioblastoma, and the tumor was surgically resected. Histologically, the tumor consisted mainly of dark basophilic cells showing prominent tubular or glandular structures surrounded by large eosinophilic cells, in addition to the typical glioblastoma features in the periphery of the tumor. Both cells showed strong stainability with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein immunohistochemically, so that the tumor was classified as adenoid glioblastoma. Several cases of glioblastoma have been reported to reveal the adenoid or epithelioid differentiation. The patients with NF1 are prone to develop malignant tumors including glioblastoma, but no cases representing adenoid glioblastoma associated with NF1 have been reported. This report is considered to be the first case of adenoid glioblastoma arising in a patient with NF1. The recognition of the existence of epithelial features of glioblastoma would be important in differential diagnosis of epithelioid tumors of the brain including metastatic carcinomas.
Pathology International 07/2005; 55(6):348-52. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serum proteinase that specifically converts an inactive single-chain form of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into an active 2-chain form. HGFA is produced in its precursor form and then activated in injured tissues. To address the precise role of HGFA and to investigate the mechanisms of HGF activation in injured tissues, we generated mice deficient in HGFA.
HGFA-deficient mice were generated using targeted gene disruption. The regenerating process of intestinal mucosa damaged by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or by rectal administration of acetic acid was examined in both HGFA-deficient and control mice. HGF processing activity was analyzed using Western blotting and an HGF activation assay.
Homozygous mutant mice were viable and fertile without obvious abnormalities. When mice were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 6 days followed by distilled water without DSS, 72% of HGFA-deficient mice died through day 12 while 75% of control mice survived injury. Similar results were also observed in the acetic acid-induced intestinal injury; the survival rate was 36.6% in HGFA-deficient mice and 84.2% in control mice. In HGFA-deficient mice, the injured mucosa was not sufficiently covered by regenerated epithelium and the activation of HGF was impaired in the injured colon.
These results indicate that HGFA is required for repair of injured intestinal mucosa but is not essential for normal development during embryogenesis or after birth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated significantly decreased immunoreactivity of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1), an integral membrane protein that exhibits potent inhibitory activity against hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) and matriptase, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. In this report, we describe further detailed analysis of HAI-1 expression in colorectal adenocarcinoma by using three kinds of anti-HAI-1 antibodies, each of which recognizes a distinct epitope of the HAI-1 molecule, and also by in-situ hybridization for HAI-1 mRNA. The results indicated that the decreased immunoreactivity of HAI-1 in colorectal carcinoma cells is largely a result of enhanced ectodomain shedding of HAI-1 in these cells. In contrast, immunoreactivity of mature membrane-form HAI-1 was paradoxically en-hanced in cancer cells at the invasion front, showing intense cell-stroma interactions and/or sprouting invasion. This finding indicates that these invading cells showed decreased ectodomain shedding of HAI-1 and consequently might require the existence of the membrane-form HAI-1. Of particular interest was the observation of a possible inverse correlation between paradoxical up-regulation of membrane-form HAI-1 expression and membrane-associated E-cadherin in these cells. These membrane-form HAI-1-positive sprouting cancer cells were also negative for MIB-1 immunohistochemically, indicating a low-proliferating population. All these results suggest that HAI-1 may mediate diverse functions in regard to the progression of colorectal carcinomas, and the immunoreactivity of membrane-form HAI-1 may serve as a marker of invading cancer cells.
Cancer Science 10/2004; 95(9):728-35. · 3.48 Impact Factor