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Publications (6)36.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: KikGR is a fluorescent protein engineered to display green-to-red photoconvertibility that is induced by irradiation with ultraviolet or violet light. Similar to Kaede and EosFP, two naturally occurring photoconvertible proteins, KikGR contains a His(62)-Tyr(63)-Gly(64) tripeptide sequence, which forms a green chromophore that can be photoconverted to a red one via formal beta-elimination and subsequent extension of a pi-conjugated system. Using a crystallizable variant of KikGR, we determined the structures of both the green and red state at 1.55 A resolution. The double bond between His(62)-C(alpha) and His(62)-C(beta) in the red chromophore is in a cis configuration, indicating that rotation along the His(62) C(alpha)-C(beta) bond occurs following cleavage of the His(62) N(alpha)-C(alpha) bond. This structural rearrangement provides evidence that the beta-elimination reaction governing the green-to-red photoconversion of KikGR follows an E1 (elimination, unimolecular) mechanism.
    Chemistry & biology 11/2009; 16(11):1140-7. · 6.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity has an impact on beta cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by BACE1 to generate amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be elucidated. Cholesterol dependency of beta cleavage prompted us to analyze immunoisolated APP-containing detergent-resistant membranes from rodent brains. We found syntaxin 1 as a key molecule for activity-dependent regulation of APP processing in cholesterol-dependent microdomains. In living cells, APP associates with syntaxin 1-containing microdomains through X11-Munc18, which inhibits the APP-BACE1 interaction and beta cleavage via microdomain segregation. Phosphorylation of Munc18 by cdk5 causes a shift of APP to BACE1-containing microdomains. Neuronal hyperactivity, implicated in Abeta overproduction, promotes the switching of APP microdomain association as well as beta cleavage in a partially cdk5-dependent manner. We propose that microdomain switching is a mechanism of cholesterol- and activity-dependent regulation of APP processing in neurons.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2008; 183(2):339-52. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACE1 (beta-secretase) is a transmembrane aspartic protease that cleaves the beta-amyloid precursor protein and generates the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). BACE1 cycles between the cell surface and the endosomal system many times and becomes activated interconvertibly during its cellular trafficking, leading to the production of Abeta. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytically active form of BACE1. The active form has novel structural features involving the conformation of the flap and subsites that promote substrate binding. The functionally essential residues and water molecules are well defined and play a key role in the iterative activation of BACE1. We further describe the crystal structure of the dehydrated form of BACE1, showing that BACE1 activity is dependent on the dynamics of a catalytically required Asp-bound water molecule, which directly affects its catalytic properties. These findings provide insight into a novel regulation of BACE1 activity and elucidate how BACE1 modulates its activity during cellular trafficking.
    Molecular and cellular biology 07/2008; 28(11):3663-71. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of intracellular aggregates is the hallmark of polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases. We analyzed the components of purified nuclear polyQ aggregates by mass spectrometry. As a result, we found that the RNA-binding protein translocated in liposarcoma (TLS) was one of the major components of nuclear polyQ aggregate-interacting proteins in a Huntington disease cell model and was also associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions of R6/2 mice. In vitro study revealed that TLS could directly bind to truncated N-terminal huntingtin (tNhtt) aggregates but could not bind to monomer GST-tNhtt with 18, 42, or 62Q, indicating that the tNhtt protein acquired the ability to sequester TLS after forming aggregates. Thioflavin T assay and electron microscopic study further supported the idea that TLS bound to tNhtt-42Q aggregates at the early stage of tNhtt-42Q amyloid formation. Immunohistochemistry showed that TLS was associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions of Huntington disease human brain. Because TLS has a variety of functional roles, the sequestration of TLS to polyQ aggregates may play a role in diverse pathological changes in the brains of patients with polyQ diseases.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2008; 283(10):6489-500. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, including Huntington’s disease (HD), are caused by expansion of polyQ-encoding repeats within otherwise unrelated gene products. The aggregation mechanism of polyQ diseases, the inhibition mechanism of Congo red, and the alleviation mechanism of trehalose were proposed here based on quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations and simulations revealed the following. The effective molecular bonding is between glutamine (Gln) and Gln (Gln + Gln), between Gln and Congo red (Gln + Congo red), and between Gln and trehalose (Gln + trehalose). The bonding strength is −13.1 kcal/mol for Gln + Gln, −24.4 kcal/mol for Gln + Congo red, and −12.0 kcal/mol for Gln + trehalose. In the polyQ region, both the number of intermolecular Gln + Gln formations and the total calories generated by the Gln + Gln formation are proportional to the number of repetitions of Gln. We propose an aggregation mechanism whose heat generated by the intermolecular Gln + Gln formation causes the pathogeny of polyQ disease. In our aggregation mechanism, this generated heat collapses the host protein and promotes fibrillogenesis. Without contradiction, our mechanism can explain all the experimental results reported to date. Our mechanism can also explain the inhibition mechanism by Congo red as an inhibitor of polyglutamine-induced protein aggregation and the alleviation mechanism by trehalose as an alleviator of that aggregation. The inhibition mechanism by Congo red is explained by the strong interaction with Gln and by the characteristic structure of Congo red.
    Journal of Molecular Structure THEOCHEM 01/2006; 778:85-95. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaede is a natural photoconvertible fluorescent protein found in the coral Trachyphyllia geoffroyi. It contains a tripeptide, His 62-Tyr 63-Gly 64, which acts as a green chromophore that is photoconvertible to red following (ultra-) violet irradiation. Here, we report the molecular cloning and crystal structure determination of a new fluorescent protein, KikG, from the coral Favia favus, and its in vitro evolution conferring green-to-red photoconvertibility. Substitution of the His 62-Tyr 63-Gly 64 sequence into the native protein provided only negligible photoconversion. On the basis of the crystal structure, semi-rational mutagenesis of the amino acids surrounding the chromophore was performed, leading to the generation of an efficient highlighter, KikGR. Within mammalian cells, KikGR is more efficiently photoconverted and is several-fold brighter in both the green and red states than Kaede. In addition, KikGR was successfully photoconverted using two-photon excitation microscopy at 760 nm, ensuring optical cell labelling with better spatial discrimination in thick and highly scattering tissues.
    EMBO Reports 04/2005; 6(3):233-8. · 7.19 Impact Factor