[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although more than 100 cases of hemangioma of the urinary bladder have been reported, capillary-type hemangiomas of the bladder are rare. Pyogenic granulomas, which are common tumor-like vascular lesions of the skin and oral mucous membranes, reveal histopathological findings similar to capillary-type hemangiomas and are differentiated from ordinary hemangiomas by clinical features and etiologic factors. Little is known regarding the occurrence of pyogenic granulomas in the urinary bladder.
We present the case of a 78-year-old Japanese man who had developed a hemangiomatous lesion in his bladder which led to acute clot retention. He had a recent history of chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer. A solitary pedunculated mass measuring 1.2 cm was observed in the bladder. Histopathological analysis of the resected mass revealed marked lobular capillary proliferation with surface erosions.
Cystoscopic and pathologic findings in addition to possible predisposing factors supported a diagnosis of pyogenic granuloma of the urinary bladder.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 06/2012; 6(1):149.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and Sjogren syndrome (SjS) that was treated with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor, etanercept (ETN). Both RA activity and transaminase levels improved as a result of treatment. Follow-up liver biopsy showed improvement of hepatitis. Although the efficacy of anti-TNF for RA patients with AIH remains controversial, this case suggests that treatment with ETN may result in a favorable clinical course in a certain subset of patients with RA and AIH.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(11):1245-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) is a Kunitz-type transmembrane serine proteinase inhibitor that inhibits trypsin-like serine proteinases, such as hepatocyte growth factor activator, matriptase, hepsin and prostasin. HAI-1 is expressed in polarized epithelial cells, in which HAI-1 is mainly located on the basolateral membrane. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and distribution of HAI-1 in respiratory epithelium. We found that HAI-1 is expressed by the bronchial respiratory epithelium with basal or basolateral localization and also by the alveolar epithelium. Bronchial expression of HAI-1 was also confirmed using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. The epithelial expression of HAI-1 was augmented in response to tissue injury such as cancer invasion and inflammation. Surprisingly, in the injured pulmonary tissue, HAI-1 showed distinct apical translocation in ciliated epithelial cells of the bronchiole. We suggest that, in addition to its basolateral surface localization, HAI-1 can transiently localize to the apical surface of respiratory ciliated epithelial cells under conditions of severe inflammation, possibly interacting with a specific cellular proteinase on the apical surface.
Human Cell 03/2009; 22(1):11-7. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)/spint-1 is a membrane-bound protease inhibitor that is thought to regulate the activities of hepatocyte growth factor activator, matriptase, hepsin, and prostasin. In this study, we show that the membrane form of HAI-1 was significantly upregulated immunohistochemically in epithelial cells under adverse conditions including tissue injury, necroinflammatory reactions, and invasion of carcinomas. To analyze the mechanism underlying these in vivo observations, we examined the effects of hypoxia and oxidative stress on HAI-1 expression in vitro, using three human cell lines, HLC-1, WiDr, and HeLa. Hypoxic condition significantly enhanced the expression of HAI-1 in these cells. Oxidative stress also enhanced HAI-1 expression. Promoter analyses of the human HAI-1/spint-1 gene revealed overlapping binding site for Egr-1-3 and Sp1 near the transcription start site as the key domain for HAI-1/spint-1 transcription. This site was also critical in both hypoxic- and oxidative stress-induced HAI-1 upregulation. In fact, in vivo immunohistochemical studies indicated that areas with HAI-1 upregulation tended to express markers associated with hypoxia and oxidative stress. These observations suggest that the tissue microenvironment regulates the cell surface expression of HAI-1, and thereby may regulate proteolysis and processing of bioactive molecules on the cellular surface.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 10/2008; 453(4):347-57. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a 42-year-old woman with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) arising from the cervical sympathetic nerve. A collar incision and partial sternotomy were performed at the second intercostal space. The mass was spindle shaped and connected to the sympathetic trunk on the cranial and caudal sides, and it compressed the left carotid sheath on the median side. After the patient's uneventful recovery from surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to the area of resection. The patient remains well 5 years after surgery with no evidence of recurrence.
Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery: official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia 09/2008; 14(4):246-8. · 0.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is a membrane-bound serine proteinase inhibitor having two extracellular Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor domains (KD) namely KD-1 and KD-2. It efficiently inhibits hepatocyte growth factor activator, matriptase, hepsin, prostasin and trypsin. We have previously reported that the expression of HAI-1 suppresses the in vitro invasive capability of human glioblastoma cells. In this study we examined the role of each KD in the anti-invasive effect of HAI-1. Engineered over-expression of the mature membrane-form HAI-1 suppressed in vitro fibrin gel invasion of two human glioblastoma cell lines, U251 and YKG-1. The migratory activity on type IV collagen was also suppressed by the HAI-1 expression. These effects were not affected by the deletion of intracytoplasmic domain of HAI-1. A truncated secreted form of HAI-1 also suppressed in vitro invasion of the cells, indicating that the extracellular portion of HAI-1 was responsible for the anti-invasive effect. To determine the roles of each KD in the anti-invasive effect of HAI-1 in vitro, we constructed expression plasmids for HAI-1 with or without mutation at the P1 position of the reactive site of each KD. The results revealed that the proteinase inhibitor activity of N-terminal KD (KD-1) is responsible for the anti-invasion effect of HAI-1.
Human Cell 12/2007; 20(4):100-6. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2-related small peptide (H2RSP) is a recently identified nuclear peptide that is abundantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H2RSP in normal and injured intestinal mucosa in a murine experimental colitis induced by oral administration of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate. Results of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that H2RSP was expressed predominantly in the epithelium of normal intestine. Whereas H2RSP was localized in the cytoplasm of cells in the crypt, it was translocated into the nuclei of the surface epithelial cells. In injured intestine, H2RSP was detected in the cytoplasm of regenerating epithelial cells, and the nuclear translocation was impaired even in the surface epithelium. However, the mRNA level was not significantly altered in these cells by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using total RNAs obtained from the fractionated mucosal tissue samples prepared by laser-captured microdissection technique. On the other hand, H2RSP mRNA was significantly upregulated in the stromal cells of injured intestinal mucosa compared with those in normal mucosa, which shows cytoplasmic localization of H2RSP. These circumstantial evidences suggest that the nuclear translocation of H2RSP may be related to a signaling involved in the transition from cellular proliferation to differentiation.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 04/2006; 448(3):354-60. · 2.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) is a serum proteinase that specifically converts an inactive single-chain form of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into an active 2-chain form. HGFA is produced in its precursor form and then activated in injured tissues. To address the precise role of HGFA and to investigate the mechanisms of HGF activation in injured tissues, we generated mice deficient in HGFA.
HGFA-deficient mice were generated using targeted gene disruption. The regenerating process of intestinal mucosa damaged by oral administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or by rectal administration of acetic acid was examined in both HGFA-deficient and control mice. HGF processing activity was analyzed using Western blotting and an HGF activation assay.
Homozygous mutant mice were viable and fertile without obvious abnormalities. When mice were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 6 days followed by distilled water without DSS, 72% of HGFA-deficient mice died through day 12 while 75% of control mice survived injury. Similar results were also observed in the acetic acid-induced intestinal injury; the survival rate was 36.6% in HGFA-deficient mice and 84.2% in control mice. In HGFA-deficient mice, the injured mucosa was not sufficiently covered by regenerated epithelium and the activation of HGF was impaired in the injured colon.
These results indicate that HGFA is required for repair of injured intestinal mucosa but is not essential for normal development during embryogenesis or after birth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple hepatic peribiliary cysts were found in three autopsy cases of patients who had had underlying liver diseases and obstructive jaundice. Macroscopically, the cysts were visible and present exclusively in the hepatic hilum and larger portal tracts. Histologically, the cysts were of varying size and were lined by a single layer of cuboidal or flattened epithelial cells without atypia. Intimate association between the cysts and peribiliary glands was found in the walls of large bile ducts. All three cases were associated with liver cirrhosis in patients with portal hypertension, and two of the patients had also had hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings support the previous assumption that multiple hepatic peribiliary cysts may be closely related to a portal hypertensive condition. Although peribiliary cysts have been considered to be clinically asymptomatic in general, in one of our patients, the cystic dilatation appeared to have been responsible for the progression of obstructive jaundice.
Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2004; 39(4):384-90. · 3.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported a novel small gene, designated hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI-2) related small peptide (H2RSP), in the process of the search for splicing variant forms of HAI-2 by 3(')-rapid amplification of cDNA ends method [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 288 (2001) 390]. Human H2RSP gene consisted of four exons spanning approximately 1kbp and was located in 11kbp downstream of HAI-2 gene. In this study, we cloned and characterized the mouse counterpart of H2RSP gene, which was located in 6.6kbp downstream of mouse HAI-2 gene, and analyzed the transcripts generated from both genes. Similar to human, mouse H2RSP mRNA (0.5kb) was detected abundantly in various tissues including the gastrointestinal tract, and has nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the lysine-rich region (exon 4), which was well-conserved between human and mouse genes. However, chimeric mRNA transcribed from both HAI-2 (exons 1-7) and H2RSP (exons 2-4) genes, which was found in the kidney, prostate, and placenta of human by Northern blot analysis, was not detected in mouse tissue even by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Instead of the chimeric mRNA, a novel splicing variant lacking putative transmembrane domain of HAI-2 was found in mouse but not in human as a putative secrete form of HAI-2. These results suggest that the organization of H2RSP and HAI-2 gene complex is well-conserved, but the usage of these genes was quite different between human and mouse.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2003; 302(2):345-53. · 2.41 Impact Factor