[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats.
Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days.
Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 +/- 0.40, ISO: 4.43 +/- 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 +/- 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 +/- 0.16, p < 0.05). Cardiac catheterization revealed that vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4.
Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platypnea-orthodeoxia is a rare condition characterized by dyspnea and oxygen desaturation induced by the upright position and relieved by recumbency. The most common cause of this syndrome is right-to-left shunt through interatrial communications such as patent foramen ovale (PFO) or atrial septal defect (ASD). In addition, this syndrome can be caused by other extracardiac components, including pulmonary emphysema, pericardial disease, and prominent Eustachian valve. We experienced 3 cases of this syndrome, including 1 patient with PFO and 2 patients with ASD. Computer tomography imaging revealed aortic elongation and compression of the right atrium by ascending aorta in all of 3 patients. Transcatheter closure of PFO or ASD was successfully performed in all patients, including immediate improvements of symptoms and oxygen saturation without any complications.
Cardiovascular intervention and therapeutics. 01/2014;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective The discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) increases the risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. Some patients must discontinue DAPT due to gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease; however, the type of examination that is most useful for detecting GI tract diseases has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) can be used to predict GI tract disease-related DAPT discontinuation following stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods A total of 181 consecutive DAPT-naïve patients who underwent coronary stenting were divided into two groups according to the results of iFOBTs: a positive iFOBT group (n=32) and a negative iFOBT group (n=149). During the 12-month follow-up period, the DAPT discontinuation rate was lower in the negative iFOBT group than in the positive iFOBT group (3.4 vs. 18.8%, p=0.005). Kaplan-Meier event-free curves showed that the DAPT discontinuation rate in the negative iFOBT group was lower than that observed in the positive iFOBT group (log-rank test: p=0.001). Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed that a positive iFOBT result was the strongest predictor of the risk of DAPT discontinuation after coronary stenting. Conclusion A positive iFOBT result is associated with DAPT discontinuation following coronary stenting.
Internal Medicine 01/2014; 53(5):375-81. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To determine the diagnostic performance of non-invasive FFR derived from standard acquired coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets (FFRCT) for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is the gold standard for lesion-specific coronary revascularization decisions in patients with stable CAD. The potential for FFRCT to non-invasively identify ischemia in patients with suspected CAD has not been sufficiently investigated.
This prospective multicenter trial included 254 patients scheduled to undergo clinically indicated ICA for suspected CAD. Coronary CTA was performed prior to ICA. Evaluation of stenosis (>50% lumen reduction) in coronary CTA was performed by local investigators and in ICA by an independent Core Laboratory. FFRCT was calculated and interpreted in a blinded fashion by an independent Core Laboratory. Results were compared to invasively measured FFR, with ischemia defined as FFRCT or FFR ≤0.80.
The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (95% CI) for FFRCT was 0.90 (0.87-0.94) versus 0.81 (0.76-0.87) for coronary CTA (p=0.0008). Per-patient sensitivity and specificity to identify myocardial ischemia were 86% (95% CI: 77%-92%) and 79% (72%-84%) for FFRCT versus 94% (86%-97%) and 34% (27%-41%) for coronary CTA, and 65% (53%-74%) and 83% (77%-83%) for ICA, respectively. In patients (n=235) with intermediate stenosis (30%-70%) the diagnostic accuracy of FFRCT remained high.
FFRCT provides high diagnostic accuracy, and discrimination for the diagnosis of hemodynamically significant CAD with invasive FFR as the reference standard. When compared to anatomic testing by coronary CTA, FFRCT leads to a marked increase in specificity.
Clinical trial info
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling. We have reported that high-dose prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) therapy markedly improved hemodynamics in IPAH patients and that PGI2 induced apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells obtained from IPAH patients. PGI2 is thought to have reverse remodeling effects, although it has not been histologically confirmed. In a case series, we examined the reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling effects of PGI2 in lung tissues obtained from an IPAH patient treated with high-dose PGI2 and an IPAH patient not treated with PGI2. Apoptotic cells were detected in small pulmonary arteries of the IPAH patient treated with high-dose PGI2 but not in those from the IPAH patient not treated with PGI2. Media of peripheral pulmonary arteries were thick in the IPAH patient not treated with PGI2. On the other hand, media of peripheral pulmonary arteries were thin in the IPAH patient treated with high-dose PGI2. The single case report suggested that high-dose PGI2 therapy has the potential for reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling by induction of apoptosis and reduction of medial hypertrophy. Accumulation of cases is needed for the application to generalized effect of high-dose PGI2.
<Learning objective: Reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling would provide further improvement in patients with IPAH. High-dose PGI2 therapy has the potential for reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling in patients with IPAH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is an anti-inflammatory adipokine that is associated with insulin resistance in animals. To extend these observations to humans, we investigated the association of serum SFRP5 levels in subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD).
Subjects (n = 185, 68 ± 11 years, 79% male) suspected of having CAD were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups, CAD and non-CAD subjects, according to the results of their coronary angiographies. Serum SFRP5 levels of the subjects were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The serum SFRP5 levels in the subjects with CAD were significantly lower than those in the non-CAD subjects (median [interquartile range]: 47.7 [26.6] vs. 52.4 [29.6] ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.02). The serum SFRP5 levels significantly correlated with body mass index, the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance, adiponectin levels, and CAD severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a decreased serum SFRP5 level (log transformed) was independently associated with CAD for all subjects (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14–0.94; p = 0.03).
Serum SFRP5 levels are significantly associated with CAD in humans, suggesting that low SFRP5 levels may contribute to CAD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), catalyzing the conversion of Angiotensin II to Angiotensin 1-7. Apelin is a second catalytic substrate for ACE2 and functions as an inotropic and cardioprotective peptide. While an antagonistic relationship between the RAS and apelin has been proposed, such functional interplay remains elusive. Here we found that ACE2 was downregulated in apelin-deficient mice. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) rescued the impaired contractility and hypertrophy of apelin mutant mice, which was accompanied by restored ACE2 levels. Importantly, treatment with angiotensin 1-7 rescued hypertrophy and heart dysfunctions of apelin-knockout mice. Moreover, apelin, via activation of its receptor, APJ, increased ACE2 promoter activity in vitro and upregulated ACE2 expression in failing hearts in vivo. Apelin treatment also increased cardiac contractility and ACE2 levels in AT1R-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that ACE2 couples the RAS to the apelin system, adding a conceptual framework for the apelin-ACE2-angiotensin 1-7 axis as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases.
The Journal of clinical investigation 11/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the first case of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) with inferior and lateral early repolarization (ER) in which left ventricular (LV) epicardial electrogram recording was performed. The patient was a 42-year-old male with inferior and lateral ER on ECG and an episode of VF. In electrophysiological study, we recorded prominent J waves and potentials after the QRS complex at the epicardium of lateral LV, but not within the endocardium at the opposite area. These features were accentuated on pilsicainide administration but diminished on constant atrial pacing and isoproterenol administration. The epicardial J wave almost coincided with the ER on ECG. Atrial pacing and isoproterenol diminished ER; however, pilsicainide also diminished ER with accentuated S wave in lead V4. This might be due to the transmural or far-field conduction delay causing the J wave to merge with the S wave. VF was induced with programmed stimulation only from lateral LV epicardium. The epicardial myocardium of the LV might contribute to arrhythmogenesis in this patient.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 10/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
Nippon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine 09/2013; 71(9):1650-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies have shown an association between a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), there has been no definitive control study that demonstrated the benefit of percutaneous device closure of a PFO compared to medical therapy in patients with CVA. Additionally, few clinical data exist for Japanese patients in this field. We demonstrate the initial experiences in catheter closure of a PFO as secondary prevention of CVA in Japan. Catheter closure of a PFO was attempted in 7 patients who were diagnosed with cryptogenic CVA. Mean age at the procedure was 54 ± 19 years. The presence of spontaneous interatrial right-to-left shunts was demonstrated by transesophageal contrast echocardiography without Valsalva maneuver in all of the patients. Amplatzer Cribriform device (n = 4) or Amplatzer PFO Occluder (n = 3) was used for the procedure and was successfully deployed. Device-related complications were not observed at the time of the procedure or during the follow-up period (mean period of 16 ± 9 months). Catheter closure of a PFO could be safely performed with Amplatzer Cribriform or Amplatzer PFO Occluder. This procedure may contribute to prevention of recurrent cryptogenic CVA in Japanese patients.
Cardiovascular intervention and therapeutics. 07/2013;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diastolic dysfunction of the heart is correlated with cardiac mortality. Serum cystatin C (CysC) is an endogenous marker of kidney function. It is not clear whether serum CysC is associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with varying cardiac conditions with concomitant diastolic abnormalities and preserved ejection fraction (EF). The authors measured serum CysC levels in patients with cardiac diseases and examined the relationships between serum CysC levels and diastolic function. Serum CysC was measured and echocardiography was performed in 124 consecutive patients with cardiac diseases. Transmitral flow (TMF) patterns surrogating diastolic function were categorized into two groups: a normal group and an abnormal group. Serum CysC and BNP showed a significant positive correlation. There were no significant differences in serum CysC among those cardiac diseases. Seventy-eight patients with cardiac disease and preserved EF (left ventricular EF ≥50%) and without renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) ) were examined. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that left atrium diameter and abnormal TMF patterns were independent determinants of serum CysC. Furthermore, patients with elevated serum CysC levels had poor prognosis. Serum CysC is associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with various cardiac diseases and preserved EF. Serum CysC might be a biomarker of cardiac diastolic dysfunction in patients with preserved EF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Relationships between myocardial scintigraphic parameters and renal function have not been fully determined. We investigated correlations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function using stress electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). METHODS: We enrolled 136 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who were assessed using technetium-99m stress ECG-gated myocardial SPECT. We evaluated SPECT images using 17-segment defect scores graded on a 5-point scale, summed stress score, summed rest score and summed difference score (SDS). The parameters for assessing LV diastolic function were peak filling rate (PFR), 1/3 mean filling rate and time to peak filling. The CAD was defined as SDS ≥2. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Patients were assigned to the following four groups (no CAD/no CKD: control group, n = 68; CAD/no CKD: CAD group, n = 24; no CAD/CKD: CKD group, n = 34; CAD/CKD: CAD + CKD group, n = 10). RESULTS: The PFR was significantly impaired after stress in the CKD and CAD + CKD groups compared with controls (p < 0.001 for both). Furthermore, PFR at rest positively correlated with eGFR (r = 0.29, p < 0.001) and inversely correlated with SDS (r = -0.18, p < 0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis independently associated eGFR with PFR (β coefficient = 0.260, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that impaired renal function is a significant determinant of LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with suspected CAD.
Annals of Nuclear Medicine 05/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been shown to be increased in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the plasma BNP level and heart rate variation in patients with AF. HYPOTHESIS: The plasma BNP level is associated with heart rate variation in patients with AF. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with AF and preserved LVEF were included from 2 hospitals. The ambulatory electrocardiographic recording and measurement of plasma BNP levels were performed simultaneously. Echo-Doppler parameters were measured as the average of 10 consecutive cardiac cycles. RESULTS: A difference in the mean heart rate between night and day (DIFF) and the standard deviation of the 5-miniute mean R-R interval (SDARR) were significantly associated with log-transformed BNP levels (r = -0.411, P < 0.001 and r = -0.243, P = 0.049, respectively). In echocardiography, the ratio of E velocity to early diastolic velocity, which reflects left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, was significantly correlated with the DIFF and SDARR, along with the log-transformed BNP level. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the DIFF and age were independent factors related with the BNP level (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The reduced diurnal variation of heart rate was significantly associated with increased BNP, which is linked to LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with AF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDS: Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the prognostic significance of early repolarization (ER) in infero-lateral leads in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) and documented ventricular fibrillation (VF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 10 different twelve-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded on different days for each patient to identify the presence of ER, which was defined as J-point elevation of ≥ 0.1 mV in inferior (II, III, aVf) or lateral leads (I, aVL, V4-6) in 49 individuals (46 males, 46±13 years) with a type 1 ECG of BrS and previous history of VF. The ER was observed persistently (in all ECGs) in 15 patients (31%, P group), intermittently (at least one, but not in all ECGs) in 16 patients (33%, I group), and not observed in 18 patients (37%, N group), yielding an overall ER incidence of 63% (31/49). During follow up period (7.7 years), recurrence of VF was documented in all 15 patients (100%) with P group, and less in 12 patients (75%) with I group and in 8 patients (44%) with N group. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, P group showed a worse prognosis than N group. (p=0.0001) Either persistent or intermittent ER in infero-lateral lead was an independent predictor of fatal arrhythmic events (Hazard Ratio, 4.88; 95% CI, 2.02 to 12.7, p=0.0004, 2.50; 95%CI, 1.03-6.43, p=0.043, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ER in infero-lateral leads was high, and especially persistent form of ER was associated with a worse outcome in BrS patients with documented VF.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 04/2013; · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are frequently administered to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and vascular inflammation, because LDL-C and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are associated with high risk for cardiovascular events. When statins do not reduce LDL-C to desired levels in high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), ezetimibe can be added or the statin dose can be increased. However, which strategy is more effective for treating patients with CAD has not been established. The present study compares anti-inflammatory effects and lipid profiles in patients with CAD and similar LDL-C levels who were treated by increasing the statin dose or by adding ezetimibe to the original rosuvastatin dose to determine the optimal treatment for such patients. METHODS: 46 patients with high-risk CAD and LDL-C and hs-CRP levels of >70 mg/dL and >1.0 mg/L, respectively, that were not improved by 4 weeks of rosuvastatin (2.5 mg/day) were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg (R10, n = 24) of rosuvastatin or 2.5 mg/day of rosuvastatin combined with 10 mg/day of ezetimibe (R2.5/E10, n = 22) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in hs-CRP. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics did not significantly differ between the groups. At 12 weeks, LDL-C and inflammatory markers (hs-CRP, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and pentraxin 3) also did not significantly differ between the two groups (LDL-C: R10 vs. R2.5/E10: -19.4 +/- 14.2 vs. -22.4 +/- 14.3 mg/dL). However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly improved in the R10, compared with R2.5/E10 group (4.6 +/- 5.9 vs. 0.0 +/- 6.7 mg/dL; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Both enhanced therapies exerted similar anti-inflammatory effects under an equal LDL-C reduction in patients with high-risk CAD despite 2.5 mg/day of rosuvastatin. However, R10 elevated HDL-C more effectively than R2.5/E10.Trial registration: UMIN000003746.
Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2013; 12(1):9. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Centrilobular ground-glass opacity (GGO) is one of the characteristic findings in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and patients with pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH). However, clinical differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult and has not been established. In order to clarify their differences, we compared the sizes of GGOs in chest HRCT and the sizes of capillary assemblies in pulmonary vascular casts between patients diagnosed pathologically with PVOD and PCH. METHODS: We evaluated chest HRCT images for four patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), three patients with PVOD and three patients with PCH, and we evaluated pulmonary vascular casts of lung tissues obtained from those patients at lung transplantation or autopsy. RESULTS: Centrilobular GGOs in chest HRCT were observed in patients with PVOD and patients with PCH but not in patients with IPAH. We measured the longest diameter of the GGOs. The size of centrilobular GGOs was significantly larger in patients with PCH than in patients with PVOD (5.60±1.43 mm versus 2.51±0.79 mm, P<.01). We succeeded in visualization of the 3-dimensional structures of pulmonary capillary vessels obtained from the same patients with PVOD and PCH undergoing lung transplantation or autopsy and measured the diameters of capillary assemblies. The longest diameter of capillary assemblies was also significantly larger in patients with PCH than in patients with PVOD (5.44±1.71 mm versus 3.07±1.07 mm, P<.01). CONCLUSION: Measurement of the sizes of centrilobular GGOs in HRCT is a simple and useful method for clinical differential diagnosis of PVOD and PCH.
Cardiovascular pathology: the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology 01/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperlipidemia impairs endothelial function and participates in the development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the postprandial effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, alogliptin, on endothelial dysfunction and the lipid profile. METHODS: A randomized cross-over trial design in 10 healthy volunteers (8 males and 2 females, 35 +/- 10 years) was performed. The postprandial effects before and after a 1-week treatment of 25 mg/day alogliptin on endothelial function were assessed with brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and changing levels of lipids, apolipoprotein B48 (apoB-48), glucose, glucagon, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) during fasting and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after a standard meal loading test. RESULTS: Alogliptin treatment significantly suppressed the postprandial elevation in serum triglyceride (incremental area under the curve [AUC]; 279 +/- 31 vs. 182 +/- 32 mg h/dl, p = 0.01), apoB-48 (incremental AUC; 15.4 +/- 1.7 vs. 11.7 +/- 1.1 mug h/ml, p = 0.04), and remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) (incremental AUC: 29.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 17.6 +/- 3.3 mg h/dl, p = 0.01). GLP-1 secretion was significantly increased after alogliptin treatment. Postprandial endothelial dysfunction (maximum decrease in%FMD, from -4.2 +/- 0.5% to -2.6 +/- 0.4%, p = 0.03) was significantly associated with the maximum change in apoB-48 (r = -0.46, p = 0.03) and RLP-C (r = -0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Alogliptin significantly improved postprandial endothelial dysfunction and postprandial lipemia, suggesting that alogliptin may be a promising anti-atherogenic agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klotho was originally identified in a mutant mouse strain unable to express the gene that consequently showed shortened life spans. In humans, low serum Klotho levels are related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in community-dwelling adults. However, it is unclear whether the serum Klotho levels are associated with signs of vascular dysfunction such as arterial stiffness, a major determinant of prognosis, in human subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
We determined the levels of serum soluble Klotho in 114 patients with CKD using ELISA and investigated the relationship between the level of Klotho and markers of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and various types of vascular dysfunction, including flow-mediated dilatation, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, ankle-brachial pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of atherosclerosis, and the aortic calcification index (ACI), a marker of vascular calcification.
The serum Klotho level significantly correlated with the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and inversely correlated with the parathyroid hormone level and the fractional excretion of phosphate. There were significant decreases in serum Klotho in patients with arterial stiffness defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/sec, atherosclerosis defined as maximum IMT≥1.1 mm and vascular calcification scores of ACI>0%. The serum Klotho level was a significant determinant of arterial stiffness, but not endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis or vascular calcification, in the multivariate analysis in either metabolic model, the CKD model or the CKD-MBD model. The adjusted odds ratio of serum Klotho for the baPWV was 0.60 (p = 0.0075).
Decreases in the serum soluble Klotho levels are independently associated with signs of vascular dysfunction such as arterial stiffness in patients with CKD. Further research exploring whether therapeutic approaches to maintain or elevate the Klotho level could improve arterial stiffness in CKD patients is warranted.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e56695. · 3.73 Impact Factor