J. J. Bock

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (423)798.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the XMM-Newton follow-up for validation of Planck cluster candidates. Twenty-five candidates have been observed to date using snapshot (~10 ksec) exposures: ten as part of a pilot programme to sample a low range of signal-to-noise ratios (45 candidates. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of XMM-Newton allows unambiguous discrimination between clusters and false candidates. A total of 21 candidates are confirmed as extended X-ray sources. Seventeen are single clusters, the majority of which are found to have highly irregular and disturbed morphologies. The remaining four sources are multiple systems, including the unexpected discovery of a supercluster at z=0.45. For most of the sources we are able to derive a redshift estimate from the X-ray Fe K line (albeit of variable quality). The new clusters span the redshift range 0.09 <~ z <~ 0.54 with a median redshift of z ~ 0.37. A first estimate is made of their X-ray properties including the characteristic size, which is used to improve the SZ Compton parameter estimate. The validation programme has helped to optimise the Planck candidate selection process. It has also provided a preview of the X-ray properties of these newly-discovered clusters, allowing comparison to their SZ properties, and to the X-ray and SZ properties of known clusters observed in the Planck survey. Our results suggest that Planck may have started to reveal a non-negligible population of massive dynamically perturbed objects that is under-represented in X-ray surveys. However, despite their particular properties, these new clusters appear to follow the Ysz-Yx relation established for X-ray selected objects.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first all-sky sample of galaxy clusters detected blindly by the Planck satellite through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect from its six highest frequencies. This Early SZ (ESZ) sample of 189 candidates comprises high signal-to-noise clusters, from 6 to 29. Its high reliability (purity above 95%) is further insured by an extensive validation process based on Planck-internal quality assessments and external cross-identification and follow-up observations. Planck provides the first measured SZ signal for about 80% of the 169 ESZ known clusters. Planck further releases 30 new cluster candidates among which 20 are within the ESZ signal-to-noise selection criterion. Eleven of these 20 ESZ candidates are confirmed using XMM-Newton snapshot observations as new clusters, most of them with disturbed morphologies and low luminosities. The ESZ clusters are mostly at moderate redshifts (86% with z below 0.3) and span over a decade in mass, up to the rarest and most massive clusters with masses above 10^15 Msol.
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    ABSTRACT: The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20K for LFI and 0.1K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. Active coolers were chosen to minimize straylight on the detectors and to maximize lifetime. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. This made use of a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, SPITZER, AKARI), infeasible. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4K and 0.1K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The bolometer plate of the High Frequency Instrument reached 93mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, and operates at a mean temperature of 384K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope baffle operates at 42.3K and the telescope primary mirror operates at 35.9K. The temperatures of key parts of the instruments are stabilized by both active and passive methods. Temperature fluctuations are driven by changes in the distance from the Sun, sorption cooler cycling and fluctuations in gas-liquid flow, and fluctuations in cosmic ray flux on the dilution and bolometer plates. These fluctuations do not compromise the science data.
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    ABSTRACT: BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006 to 2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al. (2010), with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band-power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage which reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. (2010). We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 <= l <= 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15sigma. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 0.03+0.27-0.23, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 783(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/67 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of SPT-S J053816-5030.8, a gravitationally-lensed dusty star forming galaxy (DSFG) at z = 2.7817, first discovered at millimeter wavelengths by the South Pole Telescope. SPT 0538-50 is typical of the brightest sources found by wide-field millimeter-wavelength surveys, being lensed by an intervening galaxy at moderate redshift (in this instance, at z = 0.441). We present a wide array of multi-wavelength spectroscopic and photometric data on SPT 0538-50, including data from ALMA, Herschel PACS and SPIRE, Hubble, Spitzer, VLT, ATCA, APEX, and the SMA. We use high resolution imaging from HST to de-blend SPT 0538-50, separating DSFG emission from that of the foreground lens. Combined with a source model derived from ALMA imaging (which suggests a magnification factor of 21 +/- 4), we derive the intrinsic properties of SPT 0538-50, including the stellar mass, far-IR luminosity, star formation rate, molecular gas mass, and - using molecular line fluxes - the excitation conditions within the ISM. The derived physical properties argue that we are witnessing compact, merger-driven star formation in SPT 0538-50, similar to local starburst galaxies, and unlike that seen in some other DSFGs at this epoch.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a quantitative model of Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission throughout cosmic history and determine the prospects for intensity mapping of spatial fluctuations in the Ly-alpha signal. Since i) our model assumes at z>6 the minimum star formation required to sustain reionization and ii) is based at z<6 on a luminosity function extrapolated from the few observed bright Ly-alpha emitters, this should be considered a lower limit. Mapping the line emission allows probes of reionization, star formation, and large-scale structure (LSS) as a function of redshift. While Ly-alpha emission during reionization has been studied, we also predict the post-reionization signal to test predictions of the intensity and motivate future intensity mapping probes of reionization. We include emission from massive dark matter halos and the intergalactic medium (IGM) in our model. We find agreement with current, measured luminosity functions of Ly-alpha emitters at z<8. However, diffuse IGM emission, not associated with Ly-alpha emitters, dominates the intensity up to z~10. While our model is applicable for deep-optical or near-infrared observers like the SuMIre survey or the James Webb Space Telescope, only intensity mapping will detect the diffuse IGM emission. We also construct a 3D power spectrum model of the Ly\alpha emission, and characterize possible foreground contamination. Finally, we study the prospects of an intensity mapper for measuring Ly-alpha fluctuations while identifying interloper contamination for removal. Our results suggest that while the reionization signal is challenging, Ly-alpha fluctuations can be an interesting new probe of LSS at late times when used in conjunction with other lines like, e.g., H-alpha, to monitor low-redshift foreground confusion.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 786(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/786/2/111 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new measurements of CIB anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg^2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants, and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ell~150 to 2500, and ell~130 to 1100, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter halos hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter halos and their subhalos, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross- power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to z~2. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that CIB galaxies have warmer temperatures as redshift increases. The CIB bispectrum is steeper than that expected from the power spectrum, although well fitted by a power law; this gives some information about the contribution of massive halos to the CIB bispectrum.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; 571. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322093 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; 557:A52. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220941 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background generates a curl pattern in the observed polarization. This "B-mode" signal provides a measure of the projected mass distribution over the entire observable Universe and also acts as a contaminant for the measurement of primordial gravity-wave signals. In this Letter we present the first detection of gravitational lensing B modes, using first-season data from the polarization-sensitive receiver on the South Pole Telescope (SPTpol). We construct a template for the lensing B-mode signal by combining E-mode polarization measured by SPTpol with estimates of the lensing potential from a Herschel-SPIRE map of the cosmic infrared background. We compare this template to the B modes measured directly by SPTpol, finding a non-zero correlation at 7.7 sigma significance. The correlation has an amplitude and scale-dependence consistent with theoretical expectations, is robust with respect to analysis choices, and constitutes the first measurement of a powerful cosmological observable.
    Physical Review Letters 07/2013; 111(14). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.141301 · 7.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work we explore the impact of the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) on the mid- and far-infrared (IR) properties of galaxies as well as the effects of simultaneous AGN and starburst activity in these same galaxies. To do this we apply a multi-component, multi-band spectral synthesis technique to a sample of 250 micron selected galaxies of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, with IRS spectra available for all galaxies. Our results confirm that the inclusion of the IRS spectra plays a crucial role in the spectral analysis of galaxies with an AGN component improving the selection of the best-fit hot dust model (torus). We find a correlation between the obscured star formation rate (SFR) derived from the IR luminosity of the starburst component, SFR_IR and SFR_PAH, derived from the luminosity of the PAH features, L_PAH, with SFR_FIR taking higher values than SFR_PAH. The correlation is different for AGN- and starburst-dominated objects. The ratio of L_PAH to that of the starburst component, L_PAH/L_SB, is almost constant for AGN-dominated objects but decreases with increasing L_SB for starburst-dominated objects. SFR_FIR increases with the accretion luminosity, L_acc, with the increase less prominent for the very brightest, unobscured AGN-dominated sources. We find no correlation between the masses of the hot and cold dust components. We interpret this as a non-constant fraction of gas driven by the gravitational effects to the AGN while the starburst is ongoing. We also find no evidence of the AGN affecting the temperature of the cold dust component, though this conclusion is mostly based on objects with a non-dominant AGN component. We conclude that our findings do not provide evidence that the presence of AGN affects the star formation process in the host galaxy, but rather that the two phenomena occur simultaneously over a wide range of luminosities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 434(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt1177 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the procedure used to flux calibrate the three-band submillimetre photometer in the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This includes the equations describing the calibration scheme, a justification for using Neptune as the primary calibration source, a description of the observations and data processing procedures used to derive flux calibration parameters (for converting from voltage to flux density) for every bolometer in each array, an analysis of the error budget in the flux calibration for the individual bolometers, and tests of the flux calibration on observations of primary and secondary calibrators. The procedure for deriving the flux calibration parameters is divided into two parts. In the first part, we use observations of astronomical sources in conjunction with the operation of the photometer internal calibration source to derive the unscaled derivatives of the flux calibration curves. To scale the calibration curves in Jy/beam/V, we then use observations of Neptune in which the beam of each bolometer is mapped using Neptune observed in a very fine scan pattern. The total instrumental uncertainties in the flux calibration for the individual bolometers is ~0.5% for most bolometers, although a few bolometers have uncertainties of ~1-5% because of issues with the Neptune observations. Based on application of the flux calibration parameters to Neptune observations performed using typical scan map observing modes, we determined that measurements from each array as a whole have instrumental uncertainties of 1.5%. This is considerably less than the absolute calibration uncertainty associated with the model of Neptune, which is estimated at 4%.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 433(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stt948 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on CMB maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the ISW effect, i.e., the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4 sigma, depending on which method is used. We investigate three separate approaches, which cover essentially all previous studies, as well as breaking new ground. (i) Correlation of the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection is made using the lensing-induced bispectrum; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5 sigma. (ii) Cross-correlation with tracers of LSS, yielding around 3 sigma significance, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) Aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yields a 4 sigma signal when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale compared to expectations. Recent catalogues give more moderate results, ranging from negligible to 2.5 sigma at most, but with a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly above what is expected from numerical simulations within LCMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, which had already mapped these scales to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage confirms that the signal is achromatic, bolstering the case for ISW detection. As a final step we use tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, presenting maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results provide complementary and independent evidence for the existence of a dark energy component that governs the current accelerated expansion of the Universe.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 <= l <= 2500. The main source of error at l <= 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher l's. For l < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At l >= 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck by l <= 1500. For example, we report a 5.4 sigma deviation from n_s /= 1. Considering various extensions beyond the standard model, we find no indication of significant departures from the LCDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the best-fit LCDM model and the low-l spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at l <~ 40, significant at 2.5-3 sigma. We do not elaborate further on its cosmological implications, but note that this is our most puzzling finding in an otherwise remarkably consistent dataset. (Abridged)
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    ABSTRACT: Planck data have been used to provide stringent new constraints on cosmic strings and other defects. We describe forecasts of the CMB power spectrum induced by cosmic strings, calculating these from network models and simulations using line-of-sight Boltzmann solvers. We have studied Nambu-Goto cosmic strings, as well as field theory strings for which radiative effects are important, thus spanning the range of theoretical uncertainty in strings models. We have added the angular power spectrum from strings to that for a simple adiabatic model, with the extra fraction defined as $f_{10}$ at multipole $\ell=10$. This parameter has been added to the standard six parameter fit using COSMOMC with flat priors. For the Nambu-Goto string model, we have obtained a constraint on the string tension of $G\mu/c^2 < 1.5 x 10^{-7}$ and $f_{10} < 0.015$ at 95% confidence that can be improved to $G\mu/c^2 < 1.3 x 10^{-7}$ and $f_{10} < 0.010$ on inclusion of high-$\ell$ CMB data. For the abelian-Higgs field theory model we find, $G\mu_{AH}/c^2 < 3.2 x 10^{-7}$ and $f_{10} < 0.028$. The marginalized likelihoods for $f_{10}$ and in the $f_{10}$--$\Omega_b h^2$ plane are also presented. We have also obtained constraints on $f_{10}$ for models with semi-local strings and global textures for which $G\mu/c^2 < 1.1 x 10^{-6}$. We have made complementarity searches for the specific non-Gaussian signatures of cosmic strings, calibrating with all-sky Planck resolution CMB maps generated from networks of post-recombination strings. We have obtained upper limits on the string tension at 95% confidence of $G\mu/c^2 < 8.8 x 10^{-7}$ using modal bispectrum estimation and $G\mu/c^2 < 7.8 x 10^{-7}$ for real space searches with Minkowski functionals. These are conservative upper bounds because only post-recombination string contributions have been included in the non-Gaussian analysis.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; 571. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321621 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 56 pages; LaTeX; 42 figures
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    ABSTRACT: Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \Planck\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground contamination but moderate signal-to-noise ratio; Type 2 maps for the (1-0) and (2-1) transitions with a better signal-to-noise ratio; and one Type 3 map, a line composite map with the best signal-to-noise ratio in order to locate the faintest molecular regions. The maps are described in detail. They are shown to be fully compatible with previous surveys of parts of the Galactic Plane and also of fainter regions out of the Galactic plane. The Planck HFI velocity-integrated CO maps for the (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions provide an unprecedented all-sky CO view of the Galaxy. These maps are also of great interest to monitor potential CO contamination on CMB \Planck\ studies.
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    ABSTRACT: Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds. This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to l = 2000. The parameter constraints on LambdaCDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about beta = -4 to -2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequency components, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (beta < -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of beta > -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.
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    ABSTRACT: 25 pages, 28 figures, one of the papers associated with the 2013 Planck data release ; Received: 21 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\ell < 60$), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales ($\ell > 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\circ} \lesssim \theta \lesssim 3.0^{\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to obtain the following cosmological constraints: $\sigma_8(\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.28)^{3.2/8.1}=0.784 \pm 0.016 (68% C.L.). Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. These are used to place additional independent constraints on $\sigma_{8}$.
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    ABSTRACT: The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 < z <3) Universe. We use a three-point statistic optimized to detect the correlation between these two tracers. Following a thorough discussion of possible contaminants and a suite of consistency tests, using lens reconstructions at 100, 143 and 217 GHz and CIB measurements at 100-857 GHz, we report the first detection of the correlation between the CIB and CMB lensing. The well matched redshift distribution of these two signals leads to a detection significance with a peak value of 42 \sigma at 545 GHz and a correlation as high as 80% across these two tracers. Our full set of multi-frequency measurements (both CIB auto- and CIB-lensing cross-spectra) are consistent with a simple halo-based model, with a characteristic mass scale for the halos hosting CIB sources of log_{10}(M/M_sun) = 10.5 \pm 0.6. Leveraging the frequency dependence of our signal, we isolate the high redshift contribution to the CIB, and constrain the star formation rate (SFR) density at z>1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

Publication Stats

8k Citations
798.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2013
    • European Southern Observatory
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2011–2013
    • NASA
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • University of Wales
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2002
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Department of Physics
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2000
    • Institute for Advanced Study
      Princeton Junction, New Jersey, United States
  • 1994–1995
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Physics
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1993
    • Nagoya University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan