ABSTRACT: The incidence of prostate cancer in Japan is not very high but it is the most increasing malignant tumor form. To decrease the mortality from cancer, detection of early cancer and early treatment are most effective. As a primary screening for prostate cancer, measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen(PSA) added to the health checkup system has not been assessed.
Among males who received a health checkup during a 30-month period, serum PSA levels were measured in males who desired prostate cancer screening. The cut-off value for PSA was 4.0 ng/ml. Males with serum PSA levels exceeding this value were referred for further screening by digital rectal examination (DRE) and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). In secondary screening, in all males with PSA levels of 10.0 ng/ml or more and in males in whom PSA levels were within the gray zone (4.0-10.0 ng/ml) and either DRE or TRUS showed abnormal findings, systematic prostate sextant needle biopsy was performed.
Of 24528 males who received a health checkup, 1125 (4.6%) underwent prostate cancer screening. In 60 (5.3%) of these males, PSA levels exceeded the cut-off value. In 34 of 50 males who received further screening, prostate biopsy was performed. Seventeen males were diagnosed as having prostate cancer. Detection rates of prostate cancer were 1.53% (17/1125) in males overall and 2.1% (17/819) in males > or =50 years old. In 16 of 17 males, clinically localized cancer was suggested. In 12 of these patients, radical prostatectomy was performed. No lymph node metastasis was detected in any patient.
These results suggest that prostate cancer screening using PSA as a primary screening parameter during general health checkups is very useful for efficiently detecting early-stage prostate cancer.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2000; 30(2):95-100. · 1.78 Impact Factor