[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the acute gene expression responses of PGC-1 isoforms and PGC-1α target genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (cytochrome C), angiogenesis (VEGF-A), and muscle hypertrophy (myostatin), after a resistance or endurance exercise bout. In addition, the study aimed to elucidate whether the expression changes of studied transcripts were linked to phosphorylation of AMPK and MAPK p38. Nineteen physically active men were divided into resistance exercise (RE, n = 11) and endurance exercise (EE, n = 8) groups. RE group performed leg press exercise (10 × 10 RM, 50 min) and EE walked on a treadmill (~80% HRmax, 50 min). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before, 30 min, and 180 min after exercise. EE and RE significantly increased the gene expression of alternative promoter originated PGC-1α exon 1b- and 1bxs'-derived isoforms, whereas the proximal promoter originated exon 1a-derived transcripts were less inducible and were upregulated only after EE. Truncated PGC-1α transcripts were upregulated both after EE and RE. Neither RE nor EE affected the expression of PGC-1β. EE upregulated the expression of cytochrome C and VEGF-A, whereas RE upregulated VEGF-A and downregulated myostatin. Both EE and RE increased the levels of p-AMPK and p-MAPK p38, but these changes were not linked to the gene expression responses of PGC-1 isoforms. The present study comprehensively assayed PGC-1 transcripts in human skeletal muscle and showed exercise mode-specific responses thus improving the understanding of early signaling events in exercise-induced muscle adaptations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare activation of cellular signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle between resistance and endurance exercise. Moreover, the effect of resistance exercise volume was examined.
Three groups of male volunteers (26 ± 3 years) were examined: 5 × 10 repetition maximum (RM) resistance exercise (RE) with leg press device (5 × 10 RE; n = 8), 10 × 10 RE (n = 11), and endurance exercise (strenuous 50-min walking with extra load on a treadmill; EE; n = 8). Muscle biopsies were obtained from m.vastus lateralis 30 min pre- and post-exercise.
Downstream markers of mTORC1, p-p70S6K(Thr421/Ser424) and p-rpS6(Ser240/244), increased more after 10 × 10 RE than after 5 × 10 RE (p < 0.05) and EE (p < 0.01-0.001). Exercise-induced changes in p-IRS-I(Ser636/639) that inhibit IRS-I signaling via negative feedback from hyperactivated mTORC1 signaling were greater (p < 0.05) after 10 × 10 RE compared with 5 × 10 RE and EE. The changes in energy sensor p-AMPKα(Thr172) were greater after 10 × 10 RE and EE (p < 0.05-0.01) than after 5 × 10 RE. A major regulator of glucose uptake in muscle, p-AS160(Thr642), increased more after 10 × 10 RE than after 5 × 10 RE (p < 0.01) and EE (p < 0.05).
10 × 10 RE induced greater activation of important signaling proteins regulating glucose uptake (p-AS160) and protein synthesis (p-p70S6K, p-rpS6) than 5 × 10 RE and EE. The present findings further suggest that, especially after 10 × 10 RE, IRS-I signaling is downregulated and that AS160 is activated through AMPK signaling pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22uC (NT), and in 0uC (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.460.2uC whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.561.4uC and 9.362.5uC respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-c, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1b, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-c, MIP-1b, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exerciseinduced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse this benefit.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0110774 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To examine acute responses of force production and oxygen uptake to combined strength (S) and endurance-running (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs SE).
This crossover study design included recreationally endurance-trained men and women (age 21-45 y; n=12 men, 10 women) who performed ES and SE loadings. Force production of the lower extremities including countermovement-jump height (CMJ) and maximal isometric strength (MVC) was measured pre-, mid-, and post-ES and -SE, and ground-reaction forces, ground-reaction times, and running economy were measured during E.
A significant decrease in CMJ was observed after combined ES and SE in men (4.5%±7.0% and 6.6%±7.7%, respectively) but not in women (0.2%±8.5% and 1.4%±7.3% in ES and SE). MVC decreased significantly in both men (20.7%±6.1% ES and 19.3%±9.4% SE) and women (12.4%±9.3% ES and 11.6%±12.0% SE). Stride length decreased significantly in ES and SE men, but not in women. No changes were observed in ground-reaction times during running in men or women. Performing S before E caused greater (P<.01) oxygen uptake during running in both men and women than if E was performed before S, although heart rate and blood lactate were similar between ES and SE.
Performing S before E increased oxygen uptake during E, which is explained, in part, by a decrease in MVC in both men and women, decreased CMJ and stride length in men, and/or an increase in postexercise oxygen consumption.
International journal of sports physiology and performance 10/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2014-0316 · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to study associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with inflammatory biomarkers independent of cardiorespiratory fitness in those with and without abdominal obesity. 686 young healthy men participated (25±5 years). Maximal strength was measured via isometric testing using dynamo-meters to determine maximal strength index. Muscular endurance index consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect cycle ergometer test until exhaustion was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). Participants were stratified according to those with (>102 cm) and those without abdominal obesity (<102 cm) based on waist circumference. Inflammatory factors (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) were analysed from serum samples. Maximal strength and muscular endurance were inversely associated with IL-6 in those with (β=-0.49, -0.39, respectively) (p<0.05) and in those without abdominal obesity (β=-0.08, -0.14, respectively) (p<0.05) adjusted for smoking and cardio-respiratory fitness. After adjusting for smoking and cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal strength and muscular endurance were inversely associated with CRP only in those without abdominal obesity (β=-0.11, -0.26, respectively) (p<0.05). This cross-sectional study demonstrated that muscular fitness is inversely associated with C-reactive protein and IL-6 concentrations in young adult men independent of cardiorespi-ratory fitness.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 09/2014; 35(14). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1375615 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cheung, Stephen S, Niina E. Mutanen, Heikki M. Karinen, Anne S. Koponen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Heikki O. Tikkanen, and Juha E. Peltonen. Ventilatory chemosensitivity, cerebral and muscle oxygenation, and total hemoglobin mass before and after a 72-day Mt. Everest expedition. High Alt Med Biol. 15:000–000, 2014.—. doi:10.1089/ham.2013.1153. Sept. 11, 2014, epub ahead of print.
Background: We investigated the effects of chronic hypobaric hypoxic acclimatization, performed over the course of a 72-day self-supported Everest expedition, on ventilatory chemosensitivity, arterial saturation, and tissue oxygenation adaptation along with total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) in nine experienced climbers (age 37±6 years, 55±7 mL·kg−1·min−1).
Methods: Exercise-hypoxia tolerance was tested using a constant treadmill exercise of 5.5 km·h−1 at 3.8% grade (mimicking exertion at altitude) with 3-min steps of progressive normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia. Breath-by-breath ventilatory responses, Spo2, and cerebral (frontal cortex) and active muscle (vastus lateralis) oxygenation were measured throughout. Acute hypoxic ventilatory response (AHVR) was determined by linear regression slope of ventilation vs. Spo2. PRE and POST (<15 days) expedition, tHb-mass was measured using carbon monoxide-rebreathing.
Results: Post-expedition, exercise-hypoxia tolerance improved (11:32±3:57 to 16:30±2:09 min, p<0.01). AHVR was elevated (1.25±0.33 to 1.63±0.38 L·min−1.%−1 Spo2, p<0.05). Spo2 decreased throughout exercise-hypoxia in both trials, but was preserved at higher values at 4800 m post-expedition. Cerebral oxygenation decreased progressively with increasing exercise-hypoxia in both trials, with a lower level of deoxyhemoglobin POST at 2400, 3500 and 4800 m. Muscle oxygenation also decreased throughout exercise-hypoxia, with similar patterns PRE and POST. No relationship was observed between the slope of AHVR and cerebral or muscle oxygenation either PRE or POST. Absolute tHb-mass response exhibited great individual variation with a nonsignificant 5.4% increasing trend post-expedition (975±154 g PRE and 1025±124 g POST, p=0.17).
Conclusions: We conclude that adaptation to chronic hypoxia during a climbing expedition to Mt. Everest will increase hypoxic tolerance, AHVR, and cerebral but not muscle oxygenation, as measured during simulated acute hypoxia at sea level. However, tHb-mass did not increase significantly and improvement in cerebral oxygenation was not associated with the change in AHVR.
High altitude medicine & biology 09/2014; doi:10.1089/ham.2013.1153.(epub ahead of print). DOI:10.1089/ham.2013.1153. · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
There is limited evidence available regarding the relationship between physical fitness, especially muscular fitness, and the mental well-being among young healthy men. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of measured cardiovascular and muscle fitness and self reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA) on outcomes of stress and mental resources in Finnish young men.
In a cross-sectional study, 831 men (mean age 25 y) underwent cardiovascular and muscle fitness test and completed LTPA and Occupational Stress Questionnaires (OSQ). For analysis, the subjects were divided to LTPA, CVF and MFI tertiles.
The group with low LTPA reported 6% and 13% more stress (ANCOVA using age, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use as covariates, P<0.05 in both) and 6% and 12% (P<0.05 in both) less mental resources than the moderate and high LTPA groups, respectively. The group having low cardiovascular fitness experienced 8% and 9% (P<0.001 in both) more stress and 7% and 7% (P<0.05 in both) less mental resources than moderate and high cardiovascular fitness groups. The low muscle fitness index (MFI) group reported 7% (P<0.01) less mental resources than those with moderate MFI and 8% (P<0.001) more stress and 8% (P<0.001) less mental resources than those with high MFI.
Both good aerobic and muscular fitness together with high LTPA are associated with low stress and high mental resources.
The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness 08/2014; 54(4):545-51. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a four-week weight reduction period (WRP) with high protein and reduced carbohydrate intake on body composition, explosive power, speed, serum hormones and acid-base balance in male track and field jumpers and sprinters. Eight participants were assigned to a high weight reduction group (HWR; energy restriction 750 kcal / day), and seven to a low weight reduction group (LWR; energy restriction 300 kcal / day). Energy and carbohydrate intake decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR by 740 ± 330 kcal / day and 130 ± 29 g / day, respectively. Furthermore, total body mass and fat mass decreased (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR by 2.2 ± 1.0 kg and 1.7 ± 1.6 kg, respectively. Fat-free mass (FFM), serum testosterone, cortisol, and SHBG did not change significantly. Caion and pH decreased (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR (3.1 ± 2.8 % and 0.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively), whereas HCO3- declined (p ≤ 0.05) in both groups by 19.3 ± 6.2 % in HWR and by 13.1 ± 8.5 % in LWR. The counter-movement jump and 20-m sprint time improved consistently (p ≤ 0.05) only in HWR, by 2.6 ± 2.5 cm and 0.04 ± 0.04 s, respectively. Finally, athletes with a fat percentage 10% or over at the baseline were able to preserve FFM. In conclusion, altered acid-base balance but improved weight bearing power performance was observed without negative consequences on serum hormones and FFM after a four-week weight reduction of 0.5 kg / week achieved via reduced carbohydrate but maintained high protein intake.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 07/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000619 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic exercise and whole-body cooling independently increase skeletal muscle tissue deoxygenation, yet their combined effects in muscular circulation are unknown. We investigated the effects of a cold environment on skeletal muscle blood volume and deoxygenation in eleven participants at 50% (walking) or 70% (running) of their peak VO2 for 60 min, in 22°C (NT), and 0°C without (CO) and with (PC) a pre-exercise whole-body cooling, which induced an increase in VO2 to 15%VO2peak. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) derived signals for hemoglobin changes were measured continuously with NIRS on the vastus lateralis (VL) and the gastrocnemius (GM) muscles to determine changes in oxygenated (O2Hb), deoxygenated (HHb: indicating deoxygenation) and total (tHb: indicating blood volume) myo/hemoglobin concentrations (ΔµM.L-1). Total Hb was lower in PC (-10.1±5.9 and -8.0±7.1 µM.L-1) compared to NT (-3.9±3.1 and -1.8±4.8 µM.L-1) and CO (-3.9±6.6 and 1.9±6.3 µM.L-1) in walking and running respectively, in the VL but not in GM (p≤0.001). This change in tHb was matched by O2Hb (p≤0.001). No differences between conditions were observed in HHb. In conclusion, pre-exercise whole-body cooling decreased skeletal muscle blood volume which limited oxygenated hemoglobin availability but deoxygenation of the muscle during submaximal exercise was unaffected by the cold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Full text: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/6WNS9HjT5iaSAFY6hDXs/full
Participating in competitive sport increases the risk for injuries and musculoskeletal pain among adolescent athletes. There is also evidence that the use of prescription drugs has increased among sport club athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of painkillers among young male ice hockey players (IHP) in comparison to schoolboys (controls) and its relation to the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and problems during activities and sleeping. Information was gathered through a questionnaire, completed by 121 IHP and compared to the responses of 618 age-matched controls. Results showed that monthly existing pain was at 82% for IHP, and 72% for controls, though IHP had statistically more musculoskeletal pain in their lower limbs (56% versus 44%), lower back (54% versus 35%), and buttocks (26% versus 11%). There were no group differences in the neck, upper back, upper limb, or chest areas. The disability index was statistically similar for both groups, as musculoskeletal pain causing difficulties in daily activities and sleeping was reported by a minority of subjects. Despite this similarity, IHP used more painkillers than controls (18% versus 10%). Further nuanced research is encouraged to compare athletes and non-athletes in relation to painkillers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise and shivering rely on different metabolic pathways and consequently, fuel selection. The present study examined the effects of a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol on fuel selection during submaximal exercise in a cold environment. Nine male subjects exercised 4 times for 60 min at 50% (LOW) or 70% (MOD) of their peak oxygen consumption on a motorized treadmill in a climatic chamber set at 0 °C with (SHIV) and without (CON) a pre-exercise cooling protocol, inducing low-intensity shivering. Thermal, cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were measured every 15 min whereas blood samples were collected every 30 min to assess serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and plasma catecholamine concentrations. Rectal and skin temperatures were lower in the SHIV condition, within LOW and MOD conditions, during the first 45 min of exercise. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration was greater in SHIV vs. CON within LOW (1.39 ± 0.17 vs. 0.98 ± 0.17 ng·mL(-1)) and MOD (1.50 ± 0.20 vs. 1.01 ± 0.09 ng·mL(-1)), whereas NEFA, glycerol and BHB were greater in SHIV vs. CON (1060 ± 49 vs. 898 ± 78 μmol·L(-1); 0.27 ± 0.02 vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 mmol·L(-1); 0.39 ± 0.06 vs. 0.27 ± 0.04 mmol·L(-1), respectively) within MOD only. No changes were observed in fat or carbohydrate oxidation between SHIV and CON during exercise. Despite increases in NE, NEFA, glycerol and BHB from pre-exercise low-intensity shivering, fuel selection during short-term submaximal exercise in the cold was unaltered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery. MVC and CMJ were decreased (P < 0.05) at post-ES and SE sessions in men. Only MVC decreased in ES and SE women (P < 0.05). During recovery, no order differences in MVC were observed between sessions in men, but MVC and CMJ remained decreased. During recovery in women, a delayed decrease in CMJ was observed in ES but not in SE (P < 0.01), while MVC returned to baseline at 24 h. Creatine kinase increased (P < 0.05) during both ES and SE and peaked in all groups at 24 h. The present combined ES and SE sessions induced greater neuromuscular fatigue at post in men than in women. The delayed fatigue response in ES women may be an order effect related to muscle damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Typical military tasks include load carriage, digging, and lifting loads. To avoid accumulation of fatigue, it is important to know the energy expenditure of soldiers during such tasks. The purpose of this study was to measure cardiorespiratory responses during military tasks in field conditions. Unloaded (M1) and loaded (M2) marching, artillery field preparation (AFP), and digging of defensive positions (D) were monitored. 15 conscripts carried additional weight of military outfit (5.4 kg) during M1, AFP, and D and during M2 full combat gear (24.4 kg). Absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) of M1 (n = 8) were 1.5 ± 0.1 L min(-1), 19.9 ± 2.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (42 ± 7% VO2max), and 107 ± 8 beats min(-1) (55 ± 3% HRmax), respectively. VO2 of M2 (n = 8) was 1.7 ± 0.2 L min(-1), 22.7 ± 3.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (47 ± 6% VO2max) and HR 123 ± 9 beats min(-1) (64 ± 4% HRmax). VO2 of AFP (n = 5) and D (n = 6) were 1.3 ± 0.3 L min(-1), 18.0 ± 3.0 (37 ± 6% VO2max), and 1.8 ± 0.4 L min(-1), 24.3 ± 5.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (51 ± 9% VO2max), respectively. Corresponding HR values were 99 ± 8 beats min(-1) (50 ± 3% HRmax) and 132 ± 10 beats min(-1) (68 ± 4% HRmax), respectively. The mean work intensity of soldiers was close to 50% of their maximal aerobic capacity, which has been suggested to be maximal limit of intensity for sustained work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Participating in competitive sport increases the risk for injuries and musculoskeletal pain among adolescent athletes. There is also evidence that the use of prescription drugs has increased among sport club athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of painkillers among young male ice hockey players (IHP) in comparison to schoolboys (controls) and its relation to the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and problems during activities and sleeping. Information was gathered through a questionnaire, completed by 121 IHP and compared to the responses of 618 age-matched controls. Results showed that monthly existing pain was at 82% for IHP, and 72% for controls, though IHP had statistically more musculoskeletal pain in their lower limbs (56% versus 44%), lower back (54% versus 35%), and buttocks (26% versus 11%). There were no group differences in the neck, upper back, upper limb, or chest areas. The disability index was statistically similar for both groups, as musculoskeletal pain causing difficulties in daily activities and sleeping was reported by a minority of subjects. Despite this similarity, IHP used more painkillers than controls (18% versus 10%). Further nuanced research is encouraged to compare athletes and non-athletes in relation to painkillers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the relationships between different domains of physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness.
781 young men participated. Self-reported leisure-time (LTPA), commuting (CPA) and occupational (OPA) activity were determined. Blood pressure, s-HDL-cholesterol, s-triglyserides and s-LDL-cholesterol and glucose were measured. The continuous CVD risk factor score was calculated from the z-score mean of each cardiovascular risk factor. The cutpoint was defined as 1 standard deviation above the mean. Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were measured.
The likelihood of CVD risk factor score was higher in moderate [OR 1.99 (95 % CI 1.21-3.28)] and low [1.87 (1.16-3.02)] CPA groups compared to the high group, whereas neither low nor moderate LTPA or OPA groups showed similar associations after adjustments. Low OPA combined either with low LTPA [2.01 (1.08-3.74)] or low CPA [1.90 (1.05-3.44)] had a higher likelihood for CVD risk factor compared to combined moderate-high categories after adjustments. LTPA was positively associated with all physical fitness parameters, CPA with cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular endurance, and OPA with grip strength.
The results emphasize the beneficial role of CPA regarding CVD risk factor score and stress the avoidance of low physical activity in its different domains.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health 12/2013; 11(8). DOI:10.1123/jpah.2012-0504 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance with single and clustered cardiovascular risk factors. Muscular endurance, maximal strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference were measured in 686 young men (25±5 years). Cardiovascular risk factors (plasma glucose, serum high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure) were determined. The risk factors were transformed to z-scores and the mean of values formed clustered cardiovascular risk factor. Muscular endurance was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure (β=-0.09 to - 0.23, p<0.05), and positively with s-HDL cholesterol (β=0.17, p<0.001) independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Muscular endurance was negatively associated with the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (β=-0.26, p<0.05), whereas maximal strength was not associated with any of the cardiovascular risk factors or the clustered cardiovascular risk factor independent of cardiorespiratory fitness. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with triglycerides, s-LDL-cholesterol and the clustered cardiovascular risk factor (β=-0.14 to - 0.24, p<0.005), as well as positively with s-HDL cholesterol (β=0.11, p<0.05) independent of muscular fitness. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that in young men muscular endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness were independently associated with the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas maximal strength was not.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 09/2013; 35(4). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1349092 · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
We hypothesized that lower androgen status together with poor physical fitness associates with atherogenic lipid profile and oxidative stress.
Volunteered young men (N = 846, mean age 25.1 ± 4.6 years) were categorized into unfit, average fit, and fit groups according to tertiles of maximal oxygen uptake, series of muscle endurance tests, and maximal upper and lower body strength. Furthermore, concentrations of serum testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were determined to divide participants into lower and higher testosterone (loTT, hiTT) and free testosterone (loFT, hiFT) subgroups, using medians as cut-off points. The participants were divided into subgroups according to Fitness × Testosterone (Unfit/Average Fit/ Fit × Low/High TT/FT), and the concentrations of serum lipids and ox-LDL were measured.
The loTT/unfit cardiorespiratory subgroup had 29% higher concentration of ox-LDL compared with the loTT/fit cardiorespiratory subgroup (p = .044). The loTT / unfit cardiorespiratory subgroup had a significantly higher ratio of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol compared with the other five TT subgroups (p < .05, in all). While ox-LDL showed a gradual form of decrease from unfit to fit in loTT cardiorespiratory subgroups, no differences were seen in muscular fitness or maximal strength (upper and lower body) subgroups.
Young men with poor cardiorespiratory fitness together with lower levels of TT have higher concentrations of ox-LDL. Good cardiorespiratory fitness combined with lower androgen levels is not related to atherogenic lipid profile. The combination of poor muscular fitness, or maximal muscle strength, and lower TT levels does not cause atherogenic lipid profile.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 07/2013; 23(6). · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold exposure modulates the use of carbohydrates (CHOs) and fat during exercise. This phenomenon has mostly been observed in controlled cycling studies, but not during walking and running when core temperature and oxygen consumption are controlled, as both may alter energy metabolism. This study aimed at examining energy substrate availability and utilization during walking and running in the cold when core temperature and oxygen consumption are maintained. Ten lightly clothed male subjects walked or ran for 60-min, at 50% and 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, respectively, in a climatic chamber set at 0°C or 22°C. Thermal, cardiovascular, and oxidative responses were measured every 15-min during exercise. Blood samples for serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glycerol, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), plasma catecholamines, and serum lipids were collected immediately prior, and at 30- and 60-min of exercise. Skin temperature strongly decreased while core temperature did not change during cold trials. Heart rate (HR) was also lower in cold trials. A rise in fat utilization in the cold was seen through lower respiratory quotient (RQ) (-0.03 ± 0.02), greater fat oxidation (+0.14 ± 0.13 g · min(-1)) and contribution of fat to total energy expenditure (+1.62 ± 1.99 kcal · min(-1)). No differences from cold exposure were observed in blood parameters. During submaximal walking and running, a greater reliance on derived fat sources occurs in the cold, despite the absence of concurrent alterations in NEFAs, glycerol, or catecholamine concentrations. This disparity may suggest a greater reliance on intra-muscular energy sources such as triglycerides during both walking and running.
Frontiers in Physiology 05/2013; 4:99. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2013.00099 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cold exposure modulates the use of carbohydrates (CHOs) and fat during exercise. This phenomenon has mostly been observed in controlled cycling studies, but not during walking and running when core temperature and oxygen consumption are controlled, as both may alter energy metabolism. This study aimed at examining energy substrate availability and utilization during walking and running in the cold when core temperature and oxygen consumption are maintained. Ten lightly clothed male subjects walked or ran for 60-min, at 50% and 70% of maximal oxygen consumption, respectively, in a climatic chamber set at 0 • C or 22 • C. Thermal, cardiovascular, and oxidative responses were measured every 15-min during exercise. Blood samples for serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glycerol, glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), plasma catecholamines, and serum lipids were collected immediately prior, and at 30-and 60-min of exercise. Skin temperature strongly decreased while core temperature did not change during cold trials. Heart rate (HR) was also lower in cold trials. A rise in fat utilization in the cold was seen through lower respiratory quotient (RQ) (−0.03 ± 0.02), greater fat oxidation (+0.14 ± 0.13 g · min −1) and contribution of fat to total energy expenditure (+1 1 .62 ± 1.99 kcal · min −). No differences from cold exposure were observed in blood parameters. During submaximal walking and running, a greater reliance on derived fat sources occurs in the cold, despite the absence of concurrent alterations in NEFAs, glycerol, or catecholamine concentrations. This disparity may suggest a greater reliance on intra-muscular energy sources such as triglycerides during both walking and running.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), systemic inflammation, and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. We examined affiliations of these factors and the effect of muscular fitness on MetS in young healthy men.
Physical fitness, ox-LDL, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum lipids were measured in a nationally representative sample of Finnish young men with and without MetS. Participants (mean age 25.1years) performed tests of maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and muscle fitness, and were divided into MetS (n=54, IDF 2007 criteria) and non-MetS (n=790). Age, smoking and leisure-time physical activity were used as covariates (ANCOVA).
The MetS group had lower results in VO₂max and all of the muscular fitness tests (excluding grip strength) (P<0.0001, in all). Ox-LDL, ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol, ox-LDL/LDL-cholesterol, TNFα and IL-6 were all higher in the MetS group than in the non-MetS group (P<0.01, in all). In stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted to MetS criteria), higher ox-LDL (OR 1.118, 95% CI 1.078-1.160), lower VO₂max (OR 0.938, 95% CI 0.901-0.977) and lower sit-ups (OR 0.898, 95% CI 0.844-0.956) predicted MetS (p<0.05, in all).
Young men with MetS possess significantly poorer cardiorespiratory and muscle fitness, together with elevated systemic levels of ox-LDL, TNFα and IL-6 compared to non-MetS young men. Of these variables, ox-LDL, VO₂max and sit-ups predicted MetS. Based on these findings, poor physical fitness and elevated concentration of ox-LDL are significant predisposing factors in the development of MetS.