Heidi M Connolly

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (213)1597.16 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Approximately 20% to 30% of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) have asymmetric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). The role of surgical myectomy in such patients is unknown. We sought to compare clinical features and outcomes of patients with NS and LVOTO with age- and gender-matched patients with nonsyndromic, obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) after myectomy. Two cohorts were selected and retrospectively analyzed using Mayo Clinic databases from 1996 to 2014. Subjects included patients with NS with LVH and LVOTO and nonsyndromic controls with obstructive HC. Twenty-three patients with NS and LVH were identified, of whom 12 (8 males) underwent myectomy (10 septal and 2 combined septal/apical) for severe LVOTO (10 pediatric and 2 adults; 13 ± 10 year old [range 1 to 39]). Similar echocardiographic improvements were noted in both groups. There were no perioperative deaths. Residual gradients were slightly higher in patients with NS. No improvement was noted in left atrial volume after myectomy in patients with NS. At early follow-up, the majority showed improvement in the New York Heart Association class (88% in NS vs 82% in HC, median of 6 and 2 months, respectively). At late follow-up (median of 7 years), the survival rate was 92% in NS and 100% in HC. In patients with NS with LVH and symptomatic LVOTO, myectomy reduces both gradient and the New York Heart Association class, similar to patients with nonsyndromic obstructive HC. Residual gradients were slightly higher, and left atrial dilation persisted in patients with NS. In conclusion, myectomy should be considered in patients older than 1 year with NS and symptomatic LVOTO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of cardiology 07/2015; 116(7). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.06.037 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with Marfan syndrome are at increased risk of aortic events during pregnancy. We present the case of a ruptured descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in a woman with Marfan syndrome who was 25 weeks pregnant. Emergent intervention was performed using an endovascular repair as a bridge to allow continuation of pregnancy, decreasing fetal morbidity, and allow subsequent later definitive open aortic repair. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2015; 100(1):304-7. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.09.073 · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • M. Lyle · E. Fenstad · K. Arendt · R. Frantz · H. Connolly · C. Warnes · G. Kane
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 04/2015; 34(4):S338-S339. DOI:10.1016/j.healun.2015.01.964 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with severe aortic stenosis (sAS) and preserved LVEF, those with low-flow, low-gradient sAS (LFLG-sAS) have an adverse prognosis. It has been proposed that LFLG-sAS represents an end-stage point of sAS, but longitudinal information has not been described. The aim was to determine whether LFLG-sAS represents an end-stage consequence of normal-flow, high-gradient sAS (NFHG-sAS) or a different entity. From our transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) database, we identified patients with sAS (aortic valve area <1 cm(2)) and preserved LVEF (≥50%), and from these, patients with LFLG-sAS (stroke volume index <35 mL/m(2) and mean transvalvular gradient <40 mm Hg) who had ≥1 additional TTE within five years prior to the index TTE. Patients were age/sex/date matched 2:1 with patients with NFHG-sAS and normal-flow, low-gradient (NFLG)-sAS who also had ≥1 TTE. Included were 1203 TTEs (383 index studies and 820 preceding studies). In 78 patients with LFLG-sAS, an HG stage preceded the index TTE in only 4 (5%). During the five years preceding the index TTE, patients with LFLG-sAS developed increasing relative wall thickness (0.42 to 0.49; p<0.001) without change in LV mass index. Patients with NFHG-sAS had a marked increase in LV mass index (87 to 115 g/m(2); p<0.001). Patients with LFLG-sAS demonstrated the greatest reduction in LV end-diastolic diameters (-3 vs -1 for NFLG-sAS vs +2 mm for NFHG-sAS; p=0.001), deceleration time (-55 vs -3 vs +3 ms, respectively; p<0.01) and LVEF (-4 vs 0 vs 0%, respectively; p=0.01). LFLG-sAS is a distinct presentation of sAS preceded by a unique remodelling pathway and is uncommonly preceded by an HG stage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 03/2015; 101(13). DOI:10.1136/heartjnl-2014-306838 · 5.60 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 03/2015; 149(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.012 · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10_S). DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60555-1 · 16.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A524. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60524-1 · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A1800. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)61800-9 · 16.50 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A496. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60496-X · 16.50 Impact Factor
  • Yogesh N V Reddy · Naser Ammash · Heidi Connolly
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 03/2015; 65(10):A657. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(15)60657-X · 16.50 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 02/2015; 28(2):119-82. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2014.11.015 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Most patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) require pulmonary valve replacement (PVR), but the evaluation for and management of ventricular arrhythmia remains unclear. This study is aimed at clarifying the optimal approach to this potentially life-threatening issue at the time of PVR. -A retrospective analysis was performed on 205 patients with repaired TOF undergoing PVR at our institution between 1988 and 2010. Median age was 32.9 (range 25.6 years). Previous ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred in 16 patients (8%) and 37 (16%) had left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, defined as LV ejection fraction <50%. Surgical right ventricular outflow tract cryoablation was performed in 22 patients (10.7%). The primary outcome was a combined event including VT, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and sudden cardiac death. Freedom from the combined event at 5, 10, and 15 years was 95, 90, and 79%, respectively. In the first year following PVR, 2 events occurred. Conversely, in the 22 patients who underwent surgical cryoablation, a single event occurred 7 years after PVR. A history of VT and LV dysfunction were associated with higher risk for the combined event (HR 4.7, p=0.004 and HR 0.8, p=0.02 respectively). -Patients with repaired TOF undergoing PVR with history of VT and/or LV dysfunction appear to be associated with a higher risk of arrhythmic events after operation. Events in the first year after PVR are rare, and in select high risk patients, surgical cryoablation does not appear to increase arrhythmic events and may be protective.
    Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 11/2014; 8(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001975 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Novel echocardiographic techniques based on myocardial deformation have not been extensively evaluated to assess right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) response after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Methods: Between 2003 and 2012, 133 patients undergoing first-time PVR after tetralogy of Fallot repair underwent echocardiographic assessment at Mayo Clinic. The last echocardiogram before PVR and 1 year after surgery were retrospectively analyzed with Velocity Vector Imaging. Results: Mean age at PVR was 35.5 ± 16.2 years (54% women). Longitudinal peak systolic strain and strain rate before PVR were low: for the left ventricle, -14.8 ± 3.5% and -0.8 ± 0.2 sec(-1), and for the right ventricle, -16.2 ± 4.1% and -0.9 ± 0.3 sec(-1), respectively. There was no significant change in either parameter after surgery. A close correlation between LV and RV deformational parameters was found before PVR and was maintained after surgery. In the multivariate analysis, patients with better LV and RV peak systolic strain preoperatively were found to have better LV and RV peak systolic strain after surgery (P = .004 and P = .006, respectively). However, patients with the most improvement in deformation were those with worse RV function preoperatively (P = .002). Mean New York Heart Association class at early follow-up improved from 2.2 ± 0.8 to 1.2 ± 0.6 (P < .0001); RV peak systolic strain was the only factor associated with symptomatic improvement. Conclusion: LV and RV systolic and diastolic deformational parameters were decreased in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot undergoing PVR, and there was no significant change after surgery. However, preoperative systolic deformational parameters were predictive of postoperative ventricular function and New York Heart Association class after PVR and may be helpful to identify optimal timing for surgical intervention in this cohort.
    Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 10/2014; 27(12):1305-1310. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2014.09.012 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral valve regurgitation undergoing either valve repair or replacement and to compare them to patients undergoing repair for myxomatous mitral valve disease. Methods We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients with Marfan syndrome treated surgically between 03/17/1960 and 09/12/2011 for mitral regurgitation and performed a subanalysis of those with repairs compared to case-matched patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease who had repairs (03/14/1995-07/05/2013). Results Of 61 consecutive patients, 40 patients underwent mitral repair and 21 underwent mitral replacement (mean [SD] age, 40 [18] vs 31 [19] years; P=.09). Concomitant aortic surgery was performed to a similar extent (repair, 45% [18/40] vs replacement, 43% [9/21]; P=.87). Ten-year survival was significantly better in Marfan syndrome patients with mitral repair vs replacement (80% vs 41%; P=.01). Mitral reintervention did not differ between mitral repair and replacement (cumulative risk of reoperation, 27% vs 15%; P=.64). In the matched cohort, ten-year survival after repair was similar for patients with Marfan syndrome and myxomatous mitral disease (84% vs 78%; P=.63), as was cumulative risk of reoperation (17% vs 12%; P=.61). Conclusions Patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral regurgitation have better survival with repair than with replacement. Survival and risk of reoperation for patients with Marfan syndrome were similar to those for patients with myxomatous mitral disease. These results support the use of mitral valve repair in patients with Marfan syndrome and moderate or more mitral regurgitation, including those having composite replacement of the aortic root.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 09/2014; 148(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.06.046 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in previously repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is frequently required. There are few data in large series of patients with long-term follow-up. Our aim was to review our 40-year experience with PVR after TOF repair, and to evaluate prognostic factors for reintervention and death. Between 1973 and 2012, 278 patients with repaired TOF (53% males; 31.4±16.4 years of age) underwent first PVR 24±13 years after TOF repair. Three or more prior operations were performed in 17% of the patients and 42% were in NYHA class III/IV. PVR types included porcine (n=211), pericardial (n=37), homograft (n=27) and mechanical (n= 3). Early mortality was 1.4%. Mean follow-up was 7.3±6.8 years (maximum, 34 years). Overall survival at 5-10-15 years was 93%-83%-80% compared with 99%-97%-95% in a gender and age matched U.S. population, p<0.001. Independent risk factors for death were older age at complete repair (HR 1.2, p=0.012), ≥ 3 previous cardiac operations (HR 1.9, p = 0.019), NYHA class III/IV at PVR (HR 2.7, p=0.019) and large body surface area at PVR (HR 1.9, p<0.001). Reintervention after initial PVR occurred in 25 patients. Overall 5-10-15 year freedom from pulmonary valve reintervention was 97%-85%-75%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated older age at PVR to be protective from reintervention (HR 0.7, p<0.001). In conclusion, PVR is a safe operation with a low rate of reintervention in repaired TOF. The total number of cardiac operations, surgical timing, and the NYHA classification prior to PVR are important prognostic factors.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 09/2014; 114(6). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.06.023 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this review was to describe the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) in pregnancy and the postpartum period. We conducted a systematic review of Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus from January 1, 1988, through October 31, 2012. Included studies reported on women who met the modified Duke criteria for the diagnosis of IE and were pregnant or postpartum. We included 72 studies that described 90 cases of peripartum IE, mostly affecting native valves (92%). Risk factors associated with IE included intravenous drug use (14%), congenital heart disease (12%), and rheumatic heart disease (12%). The most common pathogens were streptococcal (43%) and staphylococcal (26%) species. Septic pulmonary, central, and other systemic emboli were common complications. Of the 51 pregnancies, there were 41 (80%) deliveries with survival to discharge, 7 (14%) fetal deaths, 1 (2%) medical termination of pregnancy, and 2 (4%) with unknown status. Maternal mortality was 11%. Infective endocarditis is a rare, life-threatening infection in pregnancy. Risk factors are changing with a marked decrease in rheumatic heart disease and an increase in intravenous drug use. The cases reported in the literature were commonly due to streptococcal organisms, involved the right-sided valves, and were associated with intravenous drug use.
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings 07/2014; 89(8). DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.04.024 · 6.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To compare 1-year results after aortic valve-sparing (AVS) or valve-replacing (AVR) aortic root replacement from a prospective, international registry of 316 patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Methods Patients underwent AVS (n=239, 76%) or AVR (n=77, 24%) aortic root replacement at 19 participating centers between 2005 and 2010. One-year follow-up was completed for 312 patients (99%), with imaging available for 293 patients (94%). Time-to-events were compared between groups using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox Proportional Hazards models. Results Two patients (0.6%)—1 in each group—died within 30 days. There were no significant differences in early major adverse valve-related events (MAVRE) (P=0.6). Two AVS patients required early reoperation for coronary artery complications. One-year survival rates were similar in the AVR (97%) and AVS groups (98%); procedure type was not significantly associated with any valve-related events. At 1 year and beyond, aortic regurgitation of at least moderate severity (≥2+) was present in 16 patients in the AVS group (7%) but in no patients in the AVR group (P=0.02). One AVS patient required late AVR. Conclusions Valve-sparing aortic root replacement was not associated with higher 30-day mortality or morbidity rates than AVR root replacement. At 1 year, there were no differences in survival, valve-related morbidity, or MAVRE between the AVS and AVR groups. Of concern, 7% of AVS patients developed ≥2+ aortic regurgitation, emphasizing the importance of 5- to 10-year follow-up to learn the long-term durability of AVS versus AVR root replacement in patients with MFS.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2014; 147(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.02.021 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioprosthetic valve thrombosis (BPVT) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. Current guidelines favour surgery or thrombolysis as initial treatment. We set forth to characterize timing, diagnostic criteria and treatment strategies in BPVT. A free-text search tool was used to identify patients diagnosed with BPVT at Mayo Clinic between 1997 and 2013. We compared patients treated initially with vitamin K antagonists (VKA group; N = 15) versus surgery/thrombolysis (non-VKA group; N = 17). Peak incidence of BPVT was 13-24 months after implantation in both groups. VKA and surgery/thrombolysis decreased prosthetic mean gradients to a similar extent (VKA group: 13 ± 5 to 6 ± 2 mmHg in mitral position, 9 ± 3 to 5 ± 1 mmHg in tricuspid position and 39 ± 3 to 24 ± 7 mmHg in aortic/pulmonary position; non-VKA group: 16 ± 12 to 5 ± 1 mmHg in mitral, 10 ± 5 to 4 ± 1 mmHg in tricuspid and 57 ± 9 to 18 ± 6 mmHg in aortic position; P = 0.59 for group effect). NYHA class improved in 11 of 15 patients in the VKA group and 10 of 17 patients in the non-VKA group (P = 0.39). There were no deaths, strokes or recognized embolic events; 1 patient in each group experienced gastrointestinal bleeding requiring transfusion. Index transthoracic echocardiogram formally identified BPVT in a minority of patients. BPVT may occur late after surgical implantation. VKA therapy resulted in haemodynamic and clinical improvement with minimal risk, and should be considered the first-line therapy in haemodynamically stable patients. Echocardiographic criteria for improving BPVT diagnosis are proposed.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 05/2014; 47(4). DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezu201 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical correction of complex aortic coarctation can be associated with significant risks. Extraanatomic bypass may represent a safer alternative. Between January 1985 and December 2012, 80 consecutive patients with complex coarctation underwent ascending-to-descending aortic bypass through a median sternotomy. Patients were a median age of 42 years (range, 15 to 75 years), and 51 (64%) were males. Recurrent coarctation was present in 52 patients (65%), with 6 (8%) having undergone balloon dilatation. Uncontrolled hypertension was present in 63 patients (79%). The most common concomitant pathology was aortic valve stenosis in 21 patients (26%), subaortic stenosis in 10 (13%), and Shone complex in 4 (5%). There were no early deaths. The most common concomitant procedures were aortic valve replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting, and resection of subaortic stenosis. The mean aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 33 ± 40 and 106 ± 54 minutes, respectively. Morbidity included atrial fibrillation in 17 patients (21%) and reexploration for bleeding in 6 (8%). There was no paraplegia or stroke. Upper extremity blood pressure significantly improved (p < 0.001). Mean systolic blood pressure decreased from 153 ± 26 mm Hg preoperatively to 123 ± 15 mm Hg postoperatively. Mean follow-up was 7 ± 6 years (maximum, 22 years). Late deaths occurred in 5 patients (6%) and were not graft-related. Three patients (4%) required reoperation for repair of periprosthetic regurgitation in 2 and mitral valve replacement in 1. The ascending-to-descending aortic bypass can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. It is an effective solution to complex aortic coarctation and represents a safe single-stage approach for patients with concomitant cardiac pathology.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2014; 97(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.02.030 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2014; 63(12):A505. DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(14)60505-2 · 16.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,597.16 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Diseases
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2014
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • Children's National Medical Center
      • Division of Cardiology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2011
    • George Washington University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Division of Vascular Surgery
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2007
    • William Beaumont Army Medical Center
      El Paso, Texas, United States
  • 2000
    • Hannover Medical School
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany