[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From 2002 to 2007, the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial (ALL IC-BFM 2002) for the management of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in 15 countries on three continents. The aim of this trial was to explore the impact of differential delayed intensification (DI) on outcome in all risk groups.
For this trial, 5,060 eligible patients were divided into three risk groups according to age, WBC, early treatment response, and unfavorable genetic aberrations. DI was randomized as follows: standard risk (SR), two 4-week intensive elements (protocol III) versus one 7-week protocol II; intermediate risk (IR), protocol III × 3 versus protocol II × 1; high risk (HR), protocol III × 3 versus either protocol II × 2 (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP] option), or 3 HR blocks plus single protocol II (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster [BFM] option).
At 5 years, the probabilities of event-free survival and survival were 74% (± 1%) and 82% (± 1%) for all 5,060 eligible patients, 81% and 90% for the SR (n = 1,564), 75% and 83% for the IR (n = 2,650), and 55% and 62% for the HR (n = 846) groups, respectively. No improvement was accomplished by more intense and/or prolonged DI.
The ALL IC-BFM 2002 trial is a good example of international collaboration in pediatric oncology. A wide platform of countries able to run randomized studies in ALL has been established. Although the alternative DI did not improve outcome compared with standard treatment and the overall results are worse than those achieved by longer established leukemia groups, the national results have generally improved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure of remission-induction therapy is a rare but highly adverse event in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
We identified induction failure, defined by the persistence of leukemic blasts in blood, bone marrow, or any extramedullary site after 4 to 6 weeks of remission-induction therapy, in 1041 of 44,017 patients (2.4%) 0 to 18 years of age with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated by a total of 14 cooperative study groups between 1985 and 2000. We analyzed the relationships among disease characteristics, treatments administered, and outcomes in these patients.
Patients with induction failure frequently presented with high-risk features, including older age, high leukocyte count, leukemia with a T-cell phenotype, the Philadelphia chromosome, and 11q23 rearrangement. With a median follow-up period of 8.3 years (range, 1.5 to 22.1), the 10-year survival rate (±SE) was estimated at only 32±1%. An age of 10 years or older, T-cell leukemia, the presence of an 11q23 rearrangement, and 25% or more blasts in the bone marrow at the end of induction therapy were associated with a particularly poor outcome. High hyperdiploidy (a modal chromosome number >50) and an age of 1 to 5 years were associated with a favorable outcome in patients with precursor B-cell leukemia. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation from matched, related donors was associated with improved outcomes in T-cell leukemia. Children younger than 6 years of age with precursor B-cell leukemia and no adverse genetic features had a 10-year survival rate of 72±5% when treated with chemotherapy only.
Pediatric ALL with induction failure is highly heterogeneous. Patients who have T-cell leukemia appear to have a better outcome with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation than with chemotherapy, whereas patients who have precursor B-cell leukemia without other adverse features appear to have a better outcome with chemotherapy. (Funded by Deutsche Krebshilfe and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 04/2012; 366(15):1371-81. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1110169 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the ALL-BFM 95 trial for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, response to a prednisone pre-phase (prednisone response) was used for risk stratification in combination with age and white blood cell count at diagnosis, response to induction therapy and specific genetic high-risk features.
Cytomorphological marrow response was prospectively assessed on Day 15 during induction, and its prognostic value was analyzed in 1,431 patients treated on ALL-BFM 95.
The 8-year probabilities of event-free survival were 86.1%, 74.5%, and 46.4% for patients with M1, M2, and M3 Day 15 marrows, respectively. Compared to prednisone response, Day 15 marrow response was superior in outcome prediction in precursor B-cell and T-cell leukemia with, however, a differential effect depending on blast lineage. Outcome was poor in T-cell leukemia patients with prednisone poor-response independent of Day 15 marrow response, whereas among patients with prednisone good-response different risk groups could be identified by Day 15 marrow response. In contrast, prednisone response lost prognostic significance in precursor B-cell leukemia when stratified by Day 15 marrow response. Age and white blood cell count retained their independent prognostic effect.
Selective addition of Day 15 marrow response to conventional stratification criteria applied on ALL-BFM 95 (currently in use in several countries as regular chemotherapy protocol for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia) may significantly improve risk-adapted treatment delivery. Even though cutting-edge trial risk stratification is meanwhile dominated by minimal residual disease evaluation, an improved conventional risk assessment, as presented here, could be of great importance to countries that lack the technical and/or financial resources associated with the application of minimal residual disease analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous reports have been published on the association between kinetics of leukemic cells during early treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and therapeutic outcome. In contrast, little is known about the prognostic relevance of normal blood counts in this setting.
Normal hematopoiesis during and after induction treatment (days 8, 15 and 33) was correlated with therapeutic outcome in a cohort of 256 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in one of three consecutive ALL-BFM trials at a single institute. Replication analysis of positive findings was performed in an independent cohort of 475 patients from the ALL-BFM 2000 multicenter trial.
A platelet count in the first quartile on treatment day 33 and a neutrophil count above the median on day 8 were significantly associated with treatment outcome, conferring multivariate risk ratios for an event of 3.27 (95% confidence interval 1.60-6.69) and 2.26 (95% confidence interval 1.23-4.29), respectively. Replication analysis confirmed the prognostic effect of platelet count on treatment day 33 and demonstrated a strong association with minimal residual disease-based risk group distribution (P<0.00001).
Platelet counts after induction treatment may improve treatment stratification for patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and be of particular interest in non-minimal residual disease-based trials. (ALL-BFM 2000 is registered at: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00430118. National Cancer Institute: Protocol ID 68529).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Between 1981 and 2000, 6609 children (<18 years of age) were treated in five consecutive trials of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) study group for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients were treated in up to 82 centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Probability of 10-year event-free survival (EFS) (survival) improved from 65% (77%) in study ALL-BFM 81 to 78% (85%) in ALL-BFM 95. In parallel to relapse reduction, major efforts focused on reducing acute and late toxicity through advanced risk adaptation of treatment. The major findings derived from these ALL-BFM trials were as follows: (1) preventive cranial radiotherapy could be safely reduced to 12 Gy in T-ALL and high-risk (HR) ALL patients, and eliminated in non- HR non-T-ALL patients, if it was replaced by high-dose and intrathecal (IT) MTX; (2) omission of delayed re-intensification severely impaired outcome of low-risk patients; (3) 6-month-less maintenance therapy caused an increase in systemic relapses; (4) slow response to an initial 7-day prednisone window was identified as adverse prognostic factor; (5) condensed induction therapy resulted in significant improvement of outcome; (6) the daunorubicin dose in induction could be safely reduced in low-risk patients and (7) intensification of consolidation/re-intensification treatment led to considerable improvement of outcome in HR patients.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 12/2009; 24(2):265-84. DOI:10.1038/leu.2009.257 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT)is involved in the metabolism of thiopurines such as 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine. TPMT activity is significantly altered by genetics, and heterozygous and even more homozygous variant people reveal substiantially decreased TPMT activity. Treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) regularly includes the use of thiopurine drugs. Importantly, childhood ALL patients with low TPMT activity have been considered to be at increased risk of developing therapy-associated acute myeloid leukemia and brain tumors. In the present study, we genotyped 105 of 129 patients who developed a secondary malignant neoplasm after ALL treatment on 7 consecutive German Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster trials for all functionally relevant TPMT variants. Frequencies of TPMT variants were similarly distributed in secondary malignant neoplasm patients and the overall ALL patient population of 814 patients. Thus, TPMT does not play a major role in the etiology of secondary malignant neoplasm after treatment for childhood ALL, according to Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trial ALL-BFM 95 for treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia was designed to reduce acute and long-term toxicity in selected patient groups with favorable prognosis and to improve outcome in poor-risk groups by treatment intensification. These aims were pursued through a stratification strategy using white blood cell count, age, immunophenotype, treatment response, and unfavorable genetic aberrations providing an excellent discrimination of risk groups. Estimated 6-year event-free survival (6y-pEFS) for all 2169 patients was 79.6% (+/- 0.9%). The large standard-risk (SR) group (35% of patients) achieved an excellent 6y-EFS of 89.5% (+/- 1.1%) despite significant reduction of anthracyclines. In the medium-risk (MR) group (53% of patients), 6y-pEFS was 79.7% (+/- 1.2%); no improvement was accomplished by the randomized use of additional intermediate-dose cytarabine after consolidation. Omission of preventive cranial irradiation in non-T-ALL MR patients was possible without significant reduction of EFS, although the incidence of central nervous system relapses increased. In the high-risk (HR) group (12% of patients), intensification of consolidation/reinduction treatment led to considerable improvement over the previous ALL-BFM trials yielding a 6y-pEFS of 49.2% (+/- 3.2%). Compared without previous trial ALL-BFM 90, consistently favorable results in non-HR patients were achieved with significant treatment reduction in the majority of these patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the prevalence, clinical pattern, and prognostic impact of CNS involvement in a large cohort of children and adolescents diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), with special attention to differences according to NHL subtype.
From October 1986 to December 2002, 2,381 patients (median age, 9.37 years; range, 0.2 to 23.8 years; female-to-male ratio, 1:2.7) from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were registered. A total of 2,086 patients were eligible for the consecutive multicenter protocols NHL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster [BFM] -86, NHL-BFM-90, and NHL-BFM-95, and could be evaluated for outcome.
CNS involvement was diagnosed in 141 (5.9%) of 2,381 patients and was associated with an advanced stage of NHL. The percentage of CNS-positive patients was 8.8% for Burkitt's lymphoma/Burkitt's leukemia (BL/B-ALL), 5.4% for precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (pB-LBL), 3.3% for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, 3.2% for T-cell-LBL, 2.6% for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 0% for primary mediastinal large B-cell NHL (P < .001). Most CNS-positive patients with pB-LBL, T-LBL, or BL/B-ALL had meningeal disease. The probability of event-free survival (pEFS; +/- SE) at 5 years was 85% +/- 1% for the 2,086 protocol patients (median follow-up, 6.5 years; range, 0.3 to 17.7 years). For the 112 CNS-positive patients, pEFS was 64% +/- 5%, compared with 86% +/- 1% for the 1,927 CNS-negative patients (P < .001). Although CNS disease had no impact on pEFS for advanced-stage T-LBL patients, CNS-positive patients with BL/B-ALL had a worse average outcome than CNS-negative patients with stage IV BL/B-ALL (60% +/- 5% v 81% +/- 3%; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, CNS disease was the strongest predictor for relapse in BL/B-ALL patients with advanced-stage disease.
Six percent of childhood/adolescent NHL patients were CNS positive. However, the prevalence, pattern, and prognostic impact of CNS involvement differed among NHL subtypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy of childhood and is treated with chemotherapy alone or, in particular subgroups, with additional radiation therapy and/or stem cell transplantation. The treatment intensity is adjusted according to prognostic factors associated with the risk of ALL recurrence. On Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) protocols, the widely applicable early in vivo response to treatment as measured by the reduction of leukemic cells in the blood or bone marrow is currently the most important prognostic factor. However, although overall long-term cure rates for childhood ALL treated on risk-adapted protocols have dramatically improved over the last decades and, to date, are higher than 75%, a significant number of patients still die due to recurrent disease or the toxicity of treatment applied. One goal in future BFM trials will be to take advantage of a better molecular understanding of leukemia and host characteristics to dissect the mechanisms underlying the differences in treatment response. This short review focuses on the evolution of treatment response in BFM trials and provides a perspective on our strategy for improving molecular characterization of childhood ALL and implementing more individualized and novel therapeutic approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that the outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) could be improved by intensification of conventional continuation chemotherapy with pulses of vincristine sulfate and steroids. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and toxic effects of vincristine-dexamethasone pulses as an addition to the continuation-therapy phase in a large cohort of children with intermediate-risk disease who were treated with the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) treatment strategy.
3109 children, diagnosed with ALL and intermediate-risk features, were enrolled by eight participating organisations in eleven countries. All were treated with very similar protocols based on the BFM treatment strategy, which included induction, consolidation, reinduction, and continuation-therapy phases. At the beginning of the continuation-therapy phase, those patients in complete remission were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a control group. Control patients were given conventional mercaptopurine and methotrexate chemotherapy only. Patients in the treatment arm were also given pulses of vincristine (1.5 mg/m2 weekly for 2 weeks) and dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 daily for 7 days) every 10 weeks for six cycles. The primary outcome measure was disease-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov with the identifier NCT00411541.
174 patients (5.6%) relapsed or died in complete remission before randomisation. Of the remaining 2935 patients, 2618 (89.2%) were randomly assigned: 1325 to the treatment group and 1293 to the control group. With median follow-up of 4.8 years, 240 children in the treatment group and 241 in the control group had relapses; 15 in the treatment group and 14 controls died in complete remission or developed second malignant neoplasms. The 5-year and 7-year disease-free survival estimates were 79.8% (SE 1.2) and 77.5% (1.5) in the treatment group and 79.2% (1.2) and 78.4% (1.3) in the control group, respectively. Treatment with pulses of vincristine and dexamethasone was associated with a non-significant 3% relative-risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% CI 0.81-1.15; p=0.70).
Children with intermediate-risk ALL who received intensive chemotherapy based on BFM protocols did not benefit from intensification of the continuation-therapy phase with a schedule of pulses of vincristine and dexamethasone.
The Lancet 02/2007; 369(9556):123-31. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60073-7 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) in first complete remission (CR1) for children with very high-risk (VHR) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is still under critical discussion.
In the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 90 and ALL-BFM 95 trials, 387 patients were eligible for SCT if there was a matched sibling donor (MSD). T-cell ALL (T-ALL) patients with poor in vivo response to initial treatment represented the largest homogeneous subgroup within VHR patients.
Of 191 high-risk (HR) T-ALL patients, 179 patients (94%) achieved CR1. Twenty-three patients received an MSD-SCT. Furthermore, in trial ALL-BFM 95, eight matched unrelated donors (MUDs) and five mismatched family donors (MMFDs) were used. The median time to SCT was 5 months (range, 2.4 to 10.8 months) from diagnosis. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 67% +/- 8% for 36 patients who received an SCT in CR1 and 42% +/- 5% for the 120 patients treated with chemotherapy alone having an event-free survival time of at least the median time to transplantation (Mantel-Byar, P = .01). Overall survival (OS) rate for the SCT group was 67% +/- 8% at 5 years, whereas patients treated with chemotherapy alone had an OS rate of 47% +/- 5% at 5 years (Mantel-Byar, P = .01). Outcome of patients who received MSD-SCT versus MUD-/MMFD-SCT was comparable (DFS, 65% +/- 10% v 69% +/- 13%, respectively). However, relapses only occurred after MSD-SCT (eight of 23 patients), whereas treatment-related mortality only occurred after MUD-/MMFD-SCT (four of 13 patients).
SCT in CR1 is superior to treatment with chemotherapy alone for childhood HR-T-ALL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (NHL-BFM) 95 trial, we tested, against the historical control of the combined trials NHL-BFM90 and NHL-BFM86, whether prophylactic cranial radiotherapy (PCRT) can be omitted for CNS-negative patients with stage III or IV lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) with sufficient early response.
Apart from the removal of PCRT in NHL-BFM95, the chemotherapy of the three trials was identical except for the amount of l-asparaginase and daunorubicin during induction. The therapy in NHL-BFM95 was accepted to be noninferior when compared with trials NHL-BFM90/86 if the lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference in the 2-year probability of event-free-survival (pEFS) between target patients of NHL-BFM95 and the historical controls of NHL-BFM90/86 did not exceed -14%. The target patient group consisted of stage III and IV patients who were CNS negative and responded well to induction therapy.
The number of target patients was 156 in NHL-BFM95 (median age, 8.6 years; range, 0.2 to 19.5 years) and 163 in NHL-BFM90/86 (median age, 8.4 years; range, 0.6 to 16.6 years). For the target group, the pEFS rates at 2 and 5 years were 86% +/- 3% and 82% +/- 3%, respectively, in NHL-BFM95 (median follow-up time, 5.1 years; range, 2.1 to 9.1 years) compared with 91% +/- 2% and 88% +/- 3%, respectively in NHL-BFM90/86 (median follow-up time, 10.7 years; range, 5 to 15.4 years). The lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference in pEFS was -11% at 2 years and -13% at 5 years. In NHL-BFM95, one isolated and two combined CNS relapses occurred compared with one combined CNS relapse in NHL-BFM90/86. Five-year disease-free-survival rate was 88% +/- 3% in NHL-BFM95 compared with 91% +/- 2% in NHL-BFM90/86.
For CNS-negative patients with stage III or IV LBL and sufficient response to induction therapy, treatment without PCRT may be noninferior to treatment including PCRT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Die akute lymphoblastische Leukämie ist die häufigste Krebserkrankung bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Die Entwicklung der intensiven
Polychemotherapie seit Anfang der 70er-Jahre und die konsequente Mitbehandlung der so genannten Extrakompartimente (in erster
Linie des Zentralnervensystems) hat zu der entscheidenden Verbesserung der Heilungsrate geführt. Neue präzise Methoden zur
Bestimmung der In-vivo-Therapieresistenz erlauben eine zuverlä ssigere Aussage zur Prognose als die meisten Parameter zum
Zeitpunkt der Diagnose. Das bessere Verständnis der Biologie der Leukämiezelle lässt Rückschlüsse auf die Pathogenese zu,
trägt aber auch zur Entwicklung spezifischer Therapieansätze bei. Trotz aller Fortschritte ist die erste Behandlung bei einem
Viertel der Kinder nicht erfolgreich. Darüber hinaus ist die derzeit verfügbare Therapie durch die Therapiedauer und durch
einzelne, teilweise schwerwiegende und unerwartete Nebenwirkungen sehr belastend.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 1111 children with acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML) were treated in four consecutive Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) studies from 1978 to 1998. The first cooperative trial AML-BFM 78 established intensive chemotherapy with seven drugs, CNS irradiation and 2-year maintenance, achieving a long-term survival (overall survival (OS)) of 40%. Induction intensification in AML-BFM 83 resulted in significant improvement of disease-free survival (DFS). The risk of haemorrhage, especially in children with hyperleukocytosis, proved the high relevance of supportive care. In AML-BFM 87, the benefit of CNS irradiation in preventing CNS/systemic relapses was demonstrated. In AML-BFM 93, the introduction of idarubicin during first induction followed by intensification with HAM increased the 5-year EFS, DFS and OS to 50+/-2, 61+/-3 and 57+/-2%, respectively. Stem cell transplantation (SCT), as applied in high-risk patients with a matched related donor, did not significantly improve the outcome compared to chemotherapy alone. In spite of treatment intensification, the therapy-related death rate decreased from trial to trial, mainly during induction. The future aim is to reduce long-term sequelae, especially cardiotoxicity, by administration of less cardiotoxic drugs, and toxicity of SCT by risk-adapted indications. The AML-BFM studies performed in three European countries with >70 cooperating centres have significantly improved the outcome in AML children; nevertheless, increasing experience with these intensive treatment regimens is of fundamental importance to reduce fatal complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Large progress has been made in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood and adolescence over the past 30 years. Eighty percent of the patients can be cured, but clinical subgroups with a dismal outcome can still be identified. In this study, we investigated the association of age with prognosis in 5 181 patients with ALL under 18 years (y) of age enrolled in the three consecutive treatment trials ALL-BFM 86, 90 and 95 in more than 80 centers. Event-free survival (pEFS) of the total group was significantly associated with age. The most unfavorable outcome was found in infancy and the best results were achieved at toddler and pre-school age. Beyond 5 y of age, survival probability decreased (pEFS at 8 y: < 1 y = 0.45; 1-5 y = 0.82; 6-9 y = 0.75; 10-14 y = 0.63; > or = 15 y = 0.59). The proportion of T-ALL as compared to precursor B-cell ALL (pB-ALL) was lower in younger children, due to an incidence peak of pB-ALL in toddlers and at pre-school age compared to a constant incidence of T-ALL. Within the T-ALL group, no correlation of age with sex, initial white blood cell count, CNS disease, or early treatment response was found. Children under 10 y of age had a slightly lower relapse rate compared to older patients. Within pB-ALL patients, the proportion as well as the absolute incidence of TEL/AML1 rearrangement and DNA index of > or = 1.16 was higher in the younger children. A lower proportion of BCR/ABL-positive ALL was observed in the age group of < 6 y when compared to patients aged > or = 6 y, but the absolute incidence was constant across the age groups after the first year of life. More than half of the infants had a CD10-negative pB-ALL. The incidence was constant after a peak in the first year of life, yet the percentage of CD10 negativity increased with rising age in this subgroup. Adolescents with pB-ALL had a significantly higher proportion of prednisone poor-responders. Accordingly, outcome was worse in older patients. This pattern was also evident in the biologically heterogeneous group of patients with a DNA index of > or = 1.16. In contrast, no significant age-related outcome differences could be shown within TEL/AML1- or BCR/ABL-positive patients, as well as within CD10-negative pB-ALL beyond infant age. Analysis of the pB-ALL group in a Cox's regression model including age and the above-listed biological factors revealed age < 1 year and > or = 10 years as independent risk factors. This is in line with the poorer prognosis of these age groups in the pB-ALL subgroup without specific biological characteristics. This subgroup also had an incidence peak at toddler age, presumably containing other favorable biological subsets. An independent prognostic impact of age in pediatric ALL cannot be excluded by this study. However, our analyses show that the age-associated different prognosis in childhood ALL is at least partly related to the different distribution of relevant prognostic subgroups between the age groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed the impact of age and gender on biology and outcome of 2084 patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) between October 1986 and December 2002 and treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) multicentre protocols NHL-BFM-86, -90 and -95. Median age at diagnosis was 8.0 years for 97 precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (pB-LBL) patients, 8.8 years for 335 T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) patients, 8.4 years for 1004 Burkitt's lymphoma/leukaemia (BL/B-AL) patients, 11.4 years for 173 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (centroblastic subtype) (DLBCL-CB) patients, 13.2 years for 40 primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBL) patients and 10.8 years for 215 anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients (P < 0.00001). The male:female ratio was 0.9:1 for pB-LBL and PMLBL, 1.7:1 for DLBCL-CB, 1.8:1 for ALCL, 2.5:1 for T-LBL and 4.5:1 for BL/B-AL (P < 0.00001). The probability of event-free survival at 5 years (5-year pEFS) was 85 +/- 1% for all 2084 patients [median follow-up 5.7 (0.1-15.9) years], and was significantly superior for male T-LBL and DLBCL-CB patients. Comparing age-groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-18 years, pEFS was inferior for the youngest patients only in the pB-LBL- and ALCL-groups. T-LBL and DLBCL-CB adolescent females had worse outcome than younger girls while age had no impact on pEFS for boys. We conclude that the distribution of age and gender differed between NHL-subtypes. The impact of gender on outcome differed between NHL subgroups. The prognostic impact of age differed not only by NHL-subtype but also according to gender in some subtypes.
British Journal of Haematology 10/2005; 131(1):39-49. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05735.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 95 (NHL-BFM95) study, we tested by randomization whether for patients with B-cell neoplasms methotrexate as intravenous infusion over 4 hours (MTX-4h) is not inferior to, but less toxic than, a 24-hour intravenous infusion (MTX-24h). Second, we investigated against the historical control of study NHL-BFM90, whether for patients with moderate tumor mass MTX can be reduced from 5 g/m(2) to 1 g/m(2). Patients received 2 5-day therapy courses in risk group R1 (resected), 4 in R2 (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] < 500 U/L), 5 in R3 (LDH > 500 to < 1000 U/L) and 6 in R4 (LDH > 1000 U/L and/or central nervous system [CNS] disease). Courses contained MTX 1 g/m(2) in R1 + R2 and 5 g/m(2) in R3 + R4. Of 505 patients (April 1996 to March 2001), 364 were randomized to receive MTX-4h or MTX-24h. Failure-free survival (pFFS, 1 year) for arm MTX-4h versus MTX-24h, respectively, was 95% +/- 5% (n = 20) versus 100% (n = 19) in R1, 94% +/- 2% (n = 88) versus 96% +/- 2% (n = 95) in R2, and 77% +/- 5% (n = 62) versus 93% +/- 3% (n = 69) in R3 +/- R4 (per-protocol analysis). Incidence of mucositis grade III/IV was significantly lower with MTX-4h in all risk groups. For patients in R2, event-free survival (pEFS) was 95% +/- 2% (n = 222) in NHL-BFM95 (MTX 1 g/m(2)) and 97% +/- 1% (n = 154) in NHL-BFM90 (MTX 5 g/m(2)). In conclusion, MTX-4h was less toxic than MTX-24h. MTX-4h was noninferior to MTX-24h for limited stage B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) but not for advanced disease. For limited disease, MTX 1 g/m(2) is noninferior to 5 g/m(2).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Additional chromosomal aberrations occur frequently in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood. The treatment outcome of these patients is heterogeneous. This study assessed whether such clinical heterogeneity could be partially explained by the presence and characteristics of additional chromosomal abnormalities. Cytogenetic descriptions were available for 249 of 326 children with Ph+ ALL, diagnosed and treated by 10 different study groups/large single institutions from 1986 to 1996. Secondary aberrations were present in 61% of the cases. Chromosomes 9, 22, 7, 14, and 8 were most frequently abnormal. Most (93%) karyotypes were unbalanced. Three main cytogenetic subgroups were identified: no secondary aberrations, gain of a second Ph and/or >50 chromosomes, or loss of chromosome 7, 7p, and/or 9p, while other secondary aberrations were grouped as combinations of gain and loss or others. Of the three main cytogenetic subgroups, the loss group had the worst event-free survival (P=0.124) and disease-free survival (P=0.013). However, statistical significance was not maintained when adjusted for other prognostic factors and treatment. Karyotypic analysis is valuable in subsets of patients identified by molecular screening, to assess the role of additional chromosomal abnormalities and their correlation with clinical heterogeneity, with possible therapeutic implications.