H W Verspaget

Leiden University Medical Centre, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (277)1474.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an uncommon autoimmune liver disease of unknown etiology. We used a genome-wide approach to identify genetic variants that predispose individuals to AIH. We performed a genome-wide association study of 649 adults in the Netherlands with AIH type-1 and 13,436 controls. Initial associations were further analyzed in an independent replication panel comprising 451 patients with AIH type-1 in Germany and 4103 controls. We also performed an association analysis in the discovery cohort using imputed genotypes of the MHC region. We associated AIH with a variant in the MHC region, at rs2187668 (P=1.5x10(-78)). Analysis of this variant in the discovery cohort identified HLA-DRB1*0301 (P = 5.3x10(-49)) as a primary susceptibility genotype and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P=2.8x10(-18)) as a secondary susceptibility genotype. We also associated AIH with variants of SH2B3 (rs3184504, 12q24; P=7.7x10(-8)) and CARD10 (rs6000782, 22q13.1; P=3.0x10(-6)). Furthermore, strong inflation of association signal was found with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with other immune-mediated diseases, including primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, but not with SNPs associated with other genetic traits. In a genome-wide association study, we associated AIH type-1with variants in the MHC region, and identified variants of SH2B3and CARD10 as likely risk factors. These findings support a complex genetic basis for AIH pathogenesis and indicate that part of the genetic susceptibility overlaps with that for other immune-mediated liver diseases.
    Gastroenterology 08/2014; 147(2):443-452. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SMAD4 is frequently lost from colorectal cancers (CRC), which is associated with the development of metastases and a poor prognosis. SMAD4 loss is believed to alter transforming growth factor (TGF)β signaling to promote tumor progression. However, SMAD4 is also a central component of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, implicated in CRC pathogenesis by human genetic studies. We investigated the effects of alterations in BMP signaling on the invasive and metastatic abilities of CRC cells and changes in members in this pathway in human tumor samples. We activated BMP signaling in SMAD4-positive and -negative CRC cells (HCT116, HT-29, SW480, and LS174T); SMAD4 was stably expressed or knocked down using lentiviral vectors. We investigated the effects on markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and on cell migration, invasion, and formation of invadopodia. We performed kinase activity assays to characterize SMAD4-independent BMP signaling and used an inhibitor screen to identify pathways that regulate CRC cell migration. We investigated the effects of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in immunocompromised (CD-1 Nu) mice with orthotopic metastatic tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect BMPR1a, BMPR1b, BMPR2, and SMAD4 in human colorectal tumors; these were related to patient survival times. Activation of BMP signaling in SMAD4-negative cells altered protein and mRNA levels of markers of EMT and increased cell migration, invasion, and formation of invadopodia. Knockdown of the BMP receptor in SMAD4-negative cells reduced their invasive activity in vitro. SMAD4-independent BMP signaling activated Rho signaling via ROCK and LIMK. Pharmacologic inhibition of ROCK reduced metastasis of colorectal xenograft tumors in mice. Loss of SMAD4 from colorectal tumors has been associated with reduced survival time; we found that this association is dependent on the expression of BMP receptors but not TGFβ receptors. Loss of SMAD4 from colorectal cancer cells causes BMP signaling to switch from tumor suppressive to metastasis promoting. Concurrent loss of SMAD4 and normal expression of BMP receptors in colorectal tumors was associated with reduced survival times of patients. Reagents that interfere with SMAD4-independent BMP signaling, such as ROCK inhibitors, might be developed as therapeutics for CRC.
    Gastroenterology 04/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T-helper 1 and 17 (Th1/Th17) responses are important in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and research indicates that Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) stimulation leads to Th17 cell development within the lung. The gastrointestinal tract, like the lung, is a mucosal surface that is exposed to bacterially derived TLR6 ligands. Thus, we looked at the effects of TLR6 stimulation on the expression of Th17-, Th1-, and regulatory T-cell-associated transcription factors; RORγt, T-bet, and Foxp3, respectively; in CD4+ T cells within gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in vitro and in vivo. Cells from GALT and spleen were stimulated with anti-CD3 and TLR ligands for TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 (Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1, respectively). FSL-1 was more effective than Pam3CSK4 at inducing Th1 and Th17 responses in the GALT while Pam3CSK4 rivaled FSL-1 in the spleen. TLR6 was further explored in vivo using experimental colitis. Tlr6-/- mice were resistant to colitis, and oral FSL-1 led to more severe colitis in wild-type mice. Similar pro-inflammatory reactions were seen in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and TLR6 expression was directly correlated with RORC mRNA levels in inflamed intestines of IBD patients. These results demonstrate that TLR6 supports Th1- and Th17-skewed responses in the GALT and might be an important target for the development of new medical interventions in IBD.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 26 March 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.16.
    Mucosal Immunology 03/2014; · 7.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims SMAD4 is frequently lost from colorectal cancers (CRC), which is associated with the development of metastases and a poor prognosis. SMAD4 loss is believed to alter transforming growth factor (TGF)β signaling to promote tumor progression. However, SMAD4 is also a central component of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway, implicated in CRC pathogenesis by human genetic studies. We investigated the effects of alterations in BMP signaling on the invasive and metastatic abilities of CRC cells and changes in members in this pathway in human tumor samples. Methods We activated BMP signaling in SMAD4-positive and -negative CRC cells (HCT116, HT-29, SW480, and LS174T); SMAD4 was stably expressed or knocked down using lentiviral vectors. We investigated the effects on markers of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and on cell migration, invasion, and formation of invadopodia. We performed kinase activity assays to characterize SMAD4-independent BMP signaling and used an inhibitor screen to identify pathways that regulate CRC cell migration. We investigated the effects of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 in immunocompromised (CD-1 Nu) mice with orthotopic metastatic tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect BMPR1a, BMPR1b, BMPR2, and SMAD4 in human colorectal tumors; these were related to patient survival times. Results Activation of BMP signaling in SMAD4-negative cells altered protein and mRNA levels of markers of EMT and increased cell migration, invasion, and formation of invadopodia. Knockdown of the BMP receptor in SMAD4-negative cells reduced their invasive activity in vitro. SMAD4-independent BMP signaling activated Rho signaling via ROCK and LIMK. Pharmacologic inhibition of ROCK reduced metastasis of colorectal xenograft tumors in mice. Loss of SMAD4 from colorectal tumors has been associated with reduced survival time; we found that this association is dependent on the expression of BMP receptors but not TGFβ receptors. Conclusion Loss of SMAD4 from colorectal cancer cells causes BMP signaling to switch from tumor suppressive to metastasis promoting. Concurrent loss of SMAD4 and normal expression of BMP receptors in colorectal tumors was associated with reduced survival times of patients. Reagents that interfere with SMAD4-independent BMP signaling, such as ROCK inhibitors, might be developed as therapeutics for CRC.
    Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Altered microbiota composition, changes in immune responses and impaired intestinal barrier functions are observed in IBD. Most of these features are controlled by proteases and their inhibitors to maintain gut homeostasis. Unrestrained or excessive proteolysis can lead to pathological gastrointestinal conditions. The aim was to validate the identified protease IBD candidates from a previously performed systematic review through a genetic association study and functional follow-up. We performed a genetic association study in a large multicentre cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and UC from five European IBD referral centres in a total of 2320 CD patients, 2112 UC patients and 1796 healthy controls. Subsequently, we did an extensive functional assessment of the candidate genes to explore their causality in IBD pathogenesis. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes were significantly associated with CD: CYLD, USP40, APEH and USP3. CYLD was the most significant gene with the intronically located rs12324931 the strongest associated SNP (pFDR=1.74e-17, OR=2.24 (1.83 to 2.74)). Five SNPs in four genes were significantly associated with UC: USP40, APEH, DAG1 and USP3. CYLD, as well as some of the other associated genes, is part of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). We therefore determined if the IBD-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) can modulate the UPS functioning. Infection of intestinal epithelial cells with the AIEC LF82 reference strain modulated the UPS turnover by reducing poly-ubiquitin conjugate accumulation, increasing 26S proteasome activities and decreasing protein levels of the NF-κB regulator CYLD. This resulted in IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation. This activity was very important for the pathogenicity of AIEC since decreased CYLD resulted in increased ability of AIEC LF82 to replicate intracellularly. Our results reveal the UPS, and CYLD specifically, as an important contributor to IBD pathogenesis, which is favoured by both genetic and microbial factors.
    Gut 10/2013; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    Dataset: Tabel
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    ABSTRACT: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts, frequently necessitating orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), often accompanied by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with fibrotic diseases caused by the involvement in tissue remodelling. To evaluate the contribution of MMP-2 and -9 promoter polymorphisms to disease severity in PSC, as assessed by death or need for OLT. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (-1306 C/T) and -9 (-1562 C/T) gene promoter polymorphisms were analyzed in 132 PSC patients. Follow-up was from onset PSC until death, OLT or end of follow-up. Twenty-year cumulative incidence (CI) of death or OLT for PSC patients with MMP-2 CT genotype was 86.5% compared to 52.8% for CC genotype (P = 0.030) and reached 100% at 11.3 years for TT genotype. In patients with IBD, CIs were similar: 20-years CI of death or OLT for MMP-2 CT genotype was 86.0% compared to 49.0% for CC genotype and 100% at 11.3 years for TT genotype. Patients without IBD showed a similar trend in 20 years CI for MMP-2 CT (77.8%) compared to CC (57.8%) and CI for TT genotype reached 100% at 9.3 years. Multivariate analysis showed, along with age at diagnosis, a stepwise increase in hazard ratio for MMP-2 T-allele polymorphism for death or OLT. MMP-9 genotype was not associated with disease severity in PSC. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 C to T-1306 gene promoter polymorphism in PSC is an independent risk factor for disease severity as reflected by the need for OLT or disease progression leading to mortality.
    Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 06/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Proline-glycine-proline (PGP) has been shown to have chemotactic effects on neutrophils via CXCR2 in several lung diseases. PGP is derived from collagen by the combined action of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and/or MMP9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). We investigated the role of PGP in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN: In intestinal tissue from patients with IBD and mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, MMP8, MMP9 and PE were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) supernatants were also analysed accordingly and incubated with collagen to assess PGP generation ex vivo. PGP levels were measured by mass spectrometry, and PGP neutralisation was achieved with a PGP antagonist and PGP antibodies. RESULTS: In the intestine of patients with IBD, MMP8 and MMP9 levels were elevated, while PE was expressed at similar levels to control tissue. PGP levels were increased in intestinal tissue of patients with IBD. Similar results were obtained in intestine from DSS-treated mice. PMN supernatants from patients with IBD were far more capable of generating PGP from collagen ex vivo than healthy controls. Furthermore, PGP neutralisation during DSS-induced colitis led to a significant reduction in neutrophil infiltration in the intestine. CONCLUSIONS: The proteolytic cascade that generates PGP from collagen, as well as the tripeptide itself, is present in the intestine of patients with IBD and mice with DSS-induced colitis. PGP neutralisation in DSS-treated mice showed the importance of PGP-guided neutrophilic infiltration in the intestine and indicates a vicious circle in neutrophilic inflammation in IBD.
    Gut 03/2013; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chimerism in transplantation medicine refers to the coexistence of cells of donor and recipient origin. Their existence in relation to possible pathological mechanisms remains largely unknown. We used donor-recipient mismatches for matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) gene polymorphisms in liver biopsies and in blood as a marker for chimerism after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The second aim of this study was to evaluate these polymorphisms in relation to clinical outcome such as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and acute cellular rejection (ACR). MMP-2 and MMP-9 promoter polymorphism donor-recipient mismatches were determined in 147 OLT patients. The relationship between these MMP polymorphism mismatches in donor and recipient DNA with the development of IRI and ACR after OLT was evaluated. Liver biopsy specimens and peripheral blood samples were subsequently evaluated for the presence of chimerism, also in relation to these complications. MMP polymorphism donor-recipient mismatches were found in 53.7% (MMP-2) and 35.5% (MMP-9) of the OLT patients but no relation was observed with IRI or ACR. Chimerism in liver biopsy specimens was found to be present in 28.8% (MMP-2) and 16.2% (MMP-9) of the cases. Liver chimerism in MMP-2 was found to be significantly associated with ACR after OLT (χ(2) 6.4, P = .01). Multivariate analysis revealed MMP-2 chimerism to be an independent risk factor for ACR after OLT even adjusted for Model for End-stage Liver Disease score (hazard ratio = 3.83, P = .03). In addition, evidence of donor chimerism was found in peripheral blood samples of the recipients in some cases. Chimerism after OLT can be found in liver biopsy specimens and in peripheral blood. MMP donor-recipient polymorphism mismatches are good markers for assessing chimerism after OLT. In the multivariate analysis, liver chimerism in MMP-2 was found to be significantly associated with the development of ACR after OLT.
    Transplantation Proceedings 03/2013; 45(2):558-63. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is accompanied by a significant postoperative infection risk. Immunosuppression to prevent rejection increases the susceptibility to infections, mainly by impairing the adaptive immune system. Genetic polymorphisms in the lectin complement pathway of the donor have recently been identified as important risk determinants of clinically significant bacterial infection (CSI) after OLT. Another genetic factor involved in innate immunity is NOD2, which was reported to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. We assessed association of three genetic NOD2 variants (R702W, G908R and 3020insC) with increased risk of CSI after OLT. 288 OLT recipient-donor pairs from two tertiary referral centers were genotyped for the three NOD2 variants. The probability of CSI in relation to NOD2 gene variants was determined with cumulative incidence curves and log-rank analysis. The R702W NOD2 variant in the recipient was associated with CSI after OLT. Eight out of 15 (53.3%) individuals with a mutated genotype compared to 80/273 (29.3%) with wild type genotype developed CSI (p=0.027, univariate cox regression), illustrated by a higher frequency of CSI after OLT over time (p=0.0003, log rank analysis). Multivariate analysis (including the donor lectin complement pathway profile) showed independence of this R702W NOD2 association from other risk factors (HR 2.0; p=0.04). The other NOD2 variants, G908R and 3020insC, in the recipient were not associated with CSI. There was no association with CSI after OLT for any of the NOD2 variants in the donor. The mutated NOD2 R702W genotype in the recipient is independently associated with an increased risk of bacterial infections after liver transplantation, indicating a predisposing role for this genetic factor impairing the recipient's innate immune system.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72617. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Patients with ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study is to assess the yield of surveillance colonoscopies in a tertiary referral cohort of ulcerative colitis patients and to identify different risk groups for dysplasia. Methods. A cohort of 293 patients (148 males, mean age 33.8 years at diagnosis) was built up at our center and started the surveillance program 8-12 years after start of symptoms. They underwent colonoscopies every one to three years. Endpoints were dysplasia or a (sub)total colectomy. Results. After a follow-up period of 10 years, the cumulative incidence of any dysplasia was 23.5%, and of CRC 4.0%. After 15 years these percentages were 33.3% and 6.8%. Patients with pancolitis (n = 178) had a significantly higher cumulative risk of dysplasia than patients with distal disease, HR 1.9 (95%CI 1.1-3.3). Patients who started surveillance at an older age are at increased risk for any dysplasia, HR 1.03 (95%CI 1.01-1.05). Conclusions. This prospective surveillance study shows a high yield of dysplasia in ulcerative colitis patients. We recommend developing separate surveillance programs for different risk groups. In our opinion patients with distal colitis can follow the general population surveillance program.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:274715. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction between epithelial cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has a major role in cancer progression and eventually in metastasis. In colorectal cancer (CRC), CAFs are present in high abundance, but their origin and functional interaction with epithelial tumor cells has not been elucidated. In this study we observed strong activation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway in CRC CAFs, accompanied by decreased signaling in epithelial tumor cells. We evaluated the TGF-β1 response and the expression of target genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 of various epithelial CRC cell lines and primary CAFs in vitro. TGF-β1 stimulation caused high upregulation of MMPs, PAI-1 and TGF-β1 itself. Next we showed that incubation of CAFs with conditioned medium (CM) from epithelial cancer cells led to hyperactivation of the TGF-β signaling pathway, enhanced expression of target genes like PAI-1, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We propose that the interaction of tumor cells with resident fibroblasts results in hyperactivated TGF-β1 signaling and subsequent transdifferentiation of the fibroblasts into α-SMA-positive CAFs. In turn this leads to cumulative production of TGF-β and proteinases within the tumor microenvironment, creating a cancer-promoting feedback loop.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 December 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.536.
    Oncogene 12/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.
    Nature 11/2012; 491(7422):119-24. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of coeliac disease (CD) characterised by aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of unknown origin that display an atypical CD3(-)CD7(+)icCD3(+) phenotype. In approximately 40% of patients with RCDII these lymphocytes develop into an invasive lymphoma. In the current study we aimed to identify the physiological counterpart of these cells. DESIGN: RCDII cell lines were compared with T-cell receptor positive (TCR(+)) IEL (T-IEL) lines by microarray analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. This information was used to identify cells with an RCDII-associated phenotype in duodenal biopsies from non-refractory individuals by multicolour flow cytometry. RESULTS: RCDII lines were transcriptionally distinct from T-IEL lines and expressed higher levels of multiple natural killer (NK) cell receptors. In addition to the CD3(-)CD7(+)icCD3(+) phenotype, the RCDII lines were distinguishable from other lymphocyte subsets by the absence of CD56, CD127 and CD34. Cells matching this surface lineage-negative (Lin(-)) CD7(+)CD127(-)CD34(-) phenotype expressed a functional interleukin-15 (IL-15) receptor and constituted a significant proportion of IELs in duodenal specimens of patients without CD, particularly children, and were also found in the thymus. In patients without CD, the Lin(-)CD7(+)CD127(-)CD34(-) subset was one of four subsets within the CD3(-)CD7(+)icCD3(+) population that could be distinguished on the basis of differential expression of CD56 and/or CD127. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that the CD3(-)CD7(+)icCD3(+) population is heterogeneous and reveal the existence of a Lin(-) subset that is distinct from T, B, NK and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We speculate that this IL-15 responsive population represents the physiological counterpart of aberrant cells expanded in RCDII and transformed in RCDII-associated lymphoma.
    Gut 07/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: In the intestine Hedgehog (Hh) signalling is directed from epithelium to mesenchyme and negatively regulates epithelial precursor cell fate. The role of Hh signalling in the oesophagus has not been studied in vivo. Here the authors examined the role of Hh signalling in epithelial homeostasis of oesophagus. DESIGN: The authors used transgenic mice in which the Hh receptor Patched1 (Ptch1) could be conditionally inactivated in a body-wide manner and mice in which Gli1 could be induced specifically in the epithelium of the skin and oesophagus. Effects on epithelial homeostasis of the oesophagus were examined using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridisation, transmission electron microscopy and real-time PCR. Hh signalling was examined in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Sonic Hh is signalled in an autocrine manner in the basal layer of the oesophagus. Activation of Hh signalling resulted in an expansion of the epithelial precursor cell compartment and failure of epithelial maturation and migration. Levels of Hh targets GLI1, HHIP and PTCH1 were increased in SCC compared with normal tissue from the same patients. CONCLUSION: Here the authors find that Hh signalling positively regulates the precursor cell compartment in the oesophageal epithelium in an autocrine manner. Since Hh signalling targets precursor cells in the oesophageal epithelium and signalling is increased in SCCs, Hh signalling may be involved in oesophageal SCC formation.
    Gut 04/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upregulation of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in various cancers has been associated with worse survival of the patients. We assessed MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in normal colorectal mucosa from colorectal cancer patients in relation to the course of the disease. A high protein expression of MMP-2 as well as MMP-9 in normal mucosa was found to be correlated with worse 5-year survival. The combination of both parameters was an even stronger prognostic factor. These protein levels were found not to be related to the corresponding single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-2 (-1306C>T) and MMP-9 (-1562C>T). Multivariate analyses indicated that the MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in normal mucosa are prognostic for survival, independent of TNM classification. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in normal mucosa are indicative of the course of disease in colorectal cancer patients.
    British Journal of Cancer 04/2012; 106(9):1495-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Bart van Hoek, Bert-Jan de Rooij, Hein W Verspaget
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    ABSTRACT: Infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation. Risk factors relate to transplantation factors, donor and recipient factors. Transplant factors include ischaemia-reperfusion damage, amount of intra-operative blood transfusion, level and type of immunosuppression, rejection, and complications, prolonged intensive care stay with dialysis or ventilation, type of biliary drainage, repeat operations, re-transplantation, antibiotics, antiviral regimen, and environment. Donor risk factors include infection, prolonged intensive care stay, quality of the donor liver (e.g. steatosis), and viral status. For the recipient the most important are MELD score >30, malnutrition, renal failure, acute liver failure, presence of infection or colonisation, and immune status for viruses like cytomegalovirus. In recent years it has become clear that genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity, especially the lectin pathway of complement activation and in Toll-like receptors importantly contribute to the infection risk after liver transplantation. Therefore, the risk for infections after liver transplantation is a multifactorial problem and all factors need attention to reduce this risk.
    Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 02/2012; 26(1):61-72. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to suppress immune responses combined with their potential to actively participate in tissue repair provides a strong rationale for the use of MSCs as a new treatment option in diseases characterized by inflammation and severe tissue damage, such as Crohn's disease (CD) and perianal fistulas. Multiple studies have shown that MSCs suppress a range of immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DC), naïve and effector T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Recently published papers attribute the immunosuppressive capacity of MSCs to soluble factors produced by MSCs, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Promising results are obtained from phase I and II clinical trials with autologous and allogeneic MSCs as treatment for refractory CD and perianal fistulas; however the question remains: what are the molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulating properties of MSCs? This paper highlights the present knowledge on the immunosuppressive effects of MSCs and its complexity in relation to CD and perianal fistulas.
    Journal of Allergy 01/2012; 2012:187408.

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,474.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2014
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2013
    • Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
      • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1988–2013
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011–2012
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Academic Medical Center
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Technische Universität München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994–1996
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • Department of Pathology
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands