Hidemi Kurihara

Hiroshima University, Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan

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Publications (163)373.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is thought to contribute to the progression of periodontitis. It has been suggested that the apoptosis of epithelial cells may contribute to the loss of epithelial barrier function. Smad2, a downstream signaling molecule of TGF-β receptors (TGF-βRs), is critically involved in apoptosis in several cell types. However, the relationship between smad2 and bacteria-induced apoptosis has not yet been elucidated. It is possible that the regulation of apoptosis induced by periodontopathic bacteria may lead to novel preventive therapies for periodontitis. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the involvement of smad2 phosphorylation in apoptosis of human gingival epithelial cells induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Aa apparently induced the phosphorylation of smad2 in primary human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) or the human gingival epithelial cell line, OBA9 cells. In addition, Aa induced phosphorylation of the serine residue of the TGF-β type I receptor (TGF-βRI) in OBA9 cells. SB431542 (a TGF-βRI inhibitor) and siRNA transfection for TGF-βRI, which reduced both TGF-βRI mRNA and protein levels, markedly attenuated the Aa-induced phosphorylation of smad2. Furthermore, the disruption of TGF-βRI signaling cascade by SB431542 and siRNA transfection for TGF-βRI abrogated the activation of cleaved caspase-3 expression and repressed apoptosis in OBA9 cells treated with Aa. Thus, Aa induced apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells by activating the TGF-βRI-smad2-caspase-3 signaling pathway. The results of the present study may suggest that the periodontopathic bacteria, Aa, activates the TGF-βR/smad2 signaling pathway in human gingival epithelial cells and induces apoptosis in epithelial cells, which may lead to new therapeutic strategies that modulate the initiation of periodontitis.
    Journal of dental research. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the regeneration of periodontal tissue. Although a local inflammatory step is required to initiate the subsequent process of tissue regeneration, excessive inflammation may inhibit or delay tissue regeneration. Therefore, the regulation of inflammation is essential for periodontal tissue regeneration. In the present study, we examined the influence of BDNF on the human microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) barrier dysfunction induced by interleukin (IL)-1β or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α to determine the effects of BDNF on the regulation of local inflammation in periodontal tissue regeneration.Material and Methods Endothelial permeability was analyzed using a Dextran transport assay with transwell plates. The expression of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin was assessed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy.ResultsBDNF (25 ng/mL) inhibited increase induced in endothelial permeability by IL-1β and TNF-α. IL-1β and TNF-α decreased VE-cadherin protein levels, while BDNF recovered the reduction in HMVECs. BDNF protected the increase induced in endothelial permeability by IL-1β and TNF-α through TrkB. The single addition of BDNF into the culture increased the expression of VE-cadherin in HMVECs.ConclusionBDNF played an important role in inhibiting endothelial barrier dysfunction, which suggests that it may assist in enhancing periodontal tissue regeneration.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 09/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimTo examine the in vitro effects of LL37 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human pulp cells, and to identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved.MethodologyPulp cells at passage 6 were treated with 10 μg mL−1 synthesized LL37, and an inhibition assay was performed with MAPK or NF-κB inhibitors to determine the possible signaling pathway. VEGF mRNA, VEGF protein and phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels were determined by real-time PCR, ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Data were analyzed using t-tests.ResultsLL37 significantly increased both the mRNA and protein levels of VEGF in pulp cells (p < 0.01). However, the pretreatment with an ERK kinase inhibitor suppressed these increases. Furthermore, the inhibitor blocked LL37-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.ConclusionsLL37 activated the ERK pathway to boost VEGF secretion from human pulp cells. Because of this angiogenic effect and its reported induction of pulp cell migration and antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria, LL37 may be applicable as a pulp capping material.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Endodontic Journal 08/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to observe the regenerative effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a non-human primate furcation defect model. Class II furcation defects were created in the first and second molars of 8 non-human primates to simulate a clinical situation. The defect was filled with either, Group A: BDNF (500 µg/ml) in high-molecular weight-hyaluronic acid (HMW-HA), Group B: BDNF (50 µg/ml) in HMW-HA, Group C: HMW-HA acid only, Group D: empty defect, or Group E: BDNF (500 µg/ml) in saline. The healing status for all groups was observed at different time-points with micro computed tomography. The animals were euthanized after 11 weeks, and the tooth-bone specimens were subjected to histologic processing. The results showed that all groups seemed to successfully regenerate the alveolar buccal bone, however, only Group A regenerated the entire periodontal tissue, i.e., alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. It is suggested that the use of BDNF in combination with a scaffold such as the hyaluronic acid in periodontal furcation defects may be an effective treatment option.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84845. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activates its receptor TrkB, and promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and synaptic functions. Furthermore, we have revealed that BDNF can also regulate cementoblast differentiation and cellular survival via TrkB–ERK/Akt signaling cascade, which, in turn, results in the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration. Recently, using in silico screening with a BDNF loop-domain pharmacophore, a small molecule BDNF mimetic, called LM22A-4 that can facilitate TrkB signaling in hippocampal neurons to prevent cell death, was identified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of LM22A-4 on cementoblast differentiation and its molecular mechanism. LM22A-4 and BDNF stimulation was found to enhance OPN, ALPase, and OC mRNA expression in immortalized human cementoblast-like (HCEM) cells, indicating cementoblast differentiation. In addition, similar to this result, both LM22A-4 and BDNF treatment facilitated TrkB phosphorylation and TrkB binding to adaptor proteins, such as Shc, GRB2, and SOS1, indicating TrkB activation. Importantly, the downstream target ERK and Akt was also phosphorylated by LM22A-4 and BDNF stimulation. Moreover, BDNF mimetic stimulation transactivated ERK from the cytoplasm into the nuclei in HCEM cells. It is noteworthy that a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, K252a, an MEK–ERK inhibitor (U0126), and a PI3Kinase–Akt inhibitor (LY294002) remarkably attenuated TrkB, ERK, and Akt phosphorylation as well as increase of OPN mRNA expression in the HCEM cells, respectively. These findings suggest that the small molecule BDNF mimetic LM22A-4 regulates cementoblast differentiation via the TrkB–ERK/Akt signaling cascade. Therefore, this small compound may lead to the development of a novel therapeutic approach for periodontal tissue regeneration.
    International immunopharmacology 01/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gingival epithelium is the primary barrier against microorganism invasion and produces inflammatory cytokines. Amphotericin B, a major antifungal drug, binds to cholesterol in the mammalian cell membrane in addition to fungal ergosterol. Amphotericin B has been shown to regulate inflammatory cytokines in host cells. To investigate the suppressive effect of amphotericin B on the gingival epithelium, we examined the expression of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-6 and involvement of MAP kinase in human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) stimulated by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Amphotericin B and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor down-regulated the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase in the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 at the mRNA. The ERK inhibitor suppressed the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced IL-8 mRNA expression. Amphotericin B inhibited the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, amphotericin B inhibited the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced production of prostaglandin E2. These results suggest that amphotericin B regulate inflammatory responses in HGEC.
    Cellular Immunology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background/purpose Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease. Gingival epithelium is the primary barrier against invasion of microorganisms and produces inflammatory cytokines. Our previous studies showed that regulating the function on the gingival epithelium was useful in suppressing the onset of periodontal disease. Houttuynia cordata is commonly used in traditional oriental medicine formulations and has been associated with a broad range of pharmacological activities. To investigate the potential of H. cordata as a preventive medicine, we examined the effect of H. cordata on the expression of inflammatory-related genes in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Materials and methods The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results A. actinomycetemcomitans facilitated the mRNA expression of MMP-3, IL-8, IL-6, and ICAM-1 in HGECs, whereas these mRNA levels were attenuated by the H. cordata treatment. In addition, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade, which was reported to be involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increases in MMP-3, IL-8, or ICAM-1, was disturbed by the H. cordata treatment in HGECs. Furthermore, H. cordata also inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced enhancement in these genes in HGECs. Conclusion These results suggest that H. cordata suppresses the expression of inflammatory-related genes in gingival epithelial cells by inhibiting the ERK signaling cascade. This might result in the suppression of inflammatory response in gingival epithelium, thereby contributing to the prevention of periodontitis.
    Journal of Dental Sciences. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The differential miRNA expression in innate and acquired immunity has been shown to regulate immune cell development and function. miRNA expression has been demonstrated to affect pathophysiology of inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. As such, this study explores the role of miRNA in the context of pathophysiology of destructive periodontitis. Specifically, this investigation profiles the differentially expressed miRNA of Porphyronomas gingivalis stimulated human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). Methods: The specific miRNA differentially expressed in Pg-stimulated OBA-9, immortalized HGEC, were analyzed using microarray. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to confirm the level of miRNA expression and to determine target production of miRNA in OBA-9. The production of interleukin (IL)-8 was measured to determine the bioactivity of target protein regulated by miRNA. Results: miR-584, which targets lactoferrin receptor (LfR), was 3.39-fold up-regulated by Pg-stimulation. This up-regulation of miR-584 was confirmed by real-time PCR. Pg- stimulation resulted in the suppression of LfR at mRNA and protein levels. The transfection of the miR inhibitor for miR-584 in OBA-9 recovered Pg-induced suppression of LfR. The addition of human lactoferrin (hLf) had a suppressive effect on IL-8 production in Pg-stimulated OBA-9. However, hLf also decreased IL-8 production strongly in Pg-stimulated OBA-9 in the presence of the miR inhibitor for miR-584. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the up-regulation of miR-584 by Pg in OBA-9 inhibits the anti-inflammatory effects of hLf via the suppression of LfR.
    Journal of Periodontology 11/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration is characterized by inflammation that directs the quality of tissue repair. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of BDNF against the toxicity of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which is known for its pro-apoptotic action in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). We demonstrate that BDNF attenuates TNFα-increased Annexin V-positive cells, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In addition, biochemical analyses indicate that TNFα increases phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression; however, it decreases phosphorylated PTEN. BDNF did not affect PTEN expression, but it did increase the phosphorylation of PTEN. BDNF-induced Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by TNFα. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that the PTEN inhibitor bpV(pic) rescues HMVECs from TNFα-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, BDNF protects HMVECs from toxicity of TNFα through the regulation of the PTEN/Akt pathway.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 10/2013; 91(5):341-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells are useful in regenerative medicine for various diseases, but it remains unclear whether the aging of donors alters the multipotency of these cells. In this study, we examined age-related changes in the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells from 17 donors (25-81 years old), including patients with or without systemic vascular diseases. All stem cell lines were expanded with fibroblast growth factor-2 and then exposed to differentiation induction media. The chondrogenic potential was determined from the glycosaminoglycan content and the SOX9, collagen type 2 alpha 1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan (AGG) messenger RNA levels. The osteogenic potential was determined by monitoring the alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content, and the adipogenic potential was determined from the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and oil red O staining. Systemic vascular diseases, including arteriosclerosis obliterans and Buerger disease, did not significantly affect the trilineage differentiation potential of the cells. Under these conditions, all chondrocyte markers examined, including the SOX9 messenger RNA level, showed age-related decline, whereas none of the osteoblast or adipocyte markers showed age-dependent changes. The aging of donors from young adult to elderly selectively decreased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. This information will be useful in stromal cell-based therapy for cartilage-related diseases.
    Cytotherapy 06/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: LL37, an antimicrobial peptide, exhibits multiple bio-functions in various types of cells, including migration, cytokine production, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Neovascularization and the subsequent recruitment of stem cells are essential for tissue engineering therapy, including bone regeneration. We hypothesized that LL37 can facilitate successful bone regeneration. To prove this hypothesis, the present study tested the effects of LL37 on bone formation in a rat calvarial bone defect model. Synthesized LL37 markedly induced newly formed bone. Interestingly, morphologically fibroblastic cells were observed in animals treated with LL37 on day 7, the early stage of tissue regeneration, which were positive for STRO-1, a marker of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and accumulated in the bone defect area where cells positive for CD34, a marker of endothelial cells, were also localized. In addition, LL37 stimulated tube formation by endothelial cells and the proliferation of MSCs in vitro. These findings demonstrated for the first time that LL37 can regulate angiogenesis and the recruitment of stem cells to promote bone regeneration.
    Peptides 06/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of dental infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.), an important periodontal pathogen, on NASH progression, by feeding mice a high fat diet (HFD)and examining P.g. infection in the liver of NASH patients. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either chow-diet (CD) or HFD for 12 weeks, and then half of the mice in each group were infected with P.g. from the pulp chamber (HFD-P.g.(-), HFD-P.g.(+), CD-P.g.(-) and CD-P.g.(+)). Histological and immunohistochemical examinations, measurement of serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and ELISA for cytokines in the liver were performed. We then studied the effects of LPS from P.g. (P.g.-LPS) on palmitate-induced steatotic hepatocytes in vitro, and performed immunohistochemical detection of P.g. in liver biopsy specimens of NASH patients. RESULTS: Serum levels of LPS are upregulated in P.g.(+) groups. Steatosis of the liver developed in HFD groups, and foci of Mac2-positive macrophages were prominent in HFD-P.g.(+). P.g. was detected in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes. Interestingly, areas of fibrosis with proliferation of hepatic stellate cells and collagen formation were only observed in HFD-P.g.(+). In steatotic hepatocytes, expression of TLR2, one of the P.g.-LPS receptors, was upregulated. P.g.-LPS further increased mRNA levels of palmitate-induced inflammasome and proinflammatory cytokines in steatotic hepatocytes. We demonstrated for the first time that P.g. existed in the liver of NASH patients with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Dental infection of P.g. may play an important role in NASH progression through upregulation of the P.g.-LPS-TLR2 pathway and activation of inflammasomes. Therefore, preventing and/or eliminating P.g. infection by dental therapy may have a beneficial impact on management of NASH.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease. Our previous studies have revealed that irsogladine maleate (IM) regulates intercellular junctional function and chemokine secretion in gingival epithelium, resulting in the suppression of the onset of periodontal disease in a rat model. Therefore, it is plausible that IM is a promising preventive remedy for periodontal disease. In this study, to gain a better understanding of IM in gingival epithelial cells, we employed a DNA microarray analysis. More specifically, human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) in the presence or absence of IM. Then, a human genome focus array was used. A. actinomycetemcomitans facilitated the expression of several inflammatory-related genes, including these for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, interleukin (IL)-6, and ICAM-1 in HGEC, while these mRNA levels were attenuated by IM treatment. Importantly, consistent with mRNA levels, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence staining and ELISA analysis indicated that IM also abrogated the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase in MMP-3, IL-6, and ICAM-1 at the protein level. In addition, inhibition of the ERK or p38 MAP kinase signaling cascade, previously reported to be disturbed by IM treatment in HGEC, clearly blocked A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced MMP-3, IL-6, or ICAM-1 protein expression. Moreover, animal study revealed that IM-pretreatment inhibited the A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase of ICAM-1 in gingival junctional epithelium. Taken together, these results suggested that IM can regulate inflammatory responses in HGEC by inhibiting the ERK or p38 MAP kinase signaling cascade, which may result in suppression of inflammation in gingival tissue, thereby contributing to the prevention of periodontitis.
    International immunopharmacology 01/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Gingival junctional epithelium (JE) actively contributes to the homeostasis of the periodontium. Altered activation of TGF-β signalling is implicated in the epithelium from chronic periodontitis. However, little is known about the effects of TGF-β signalling on the JE. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Smad2, which plays an important role in mediating TGF-β signal, and induction of apoptosis in the JE. METHODS: K14-Smad2 transgenic mice were used to observe the effect of over-expression of Smad2 driven by CK14 promoter in the JE. We performed TUNEL technique to evaluate the epithelial apoptosis. Expression of apoptosis related genes was examined using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: K14-Smad2 mice showed an increased number of phospho-Smad2 positive JE cells associated with an increase in TGF-β1 expression. K14-Smad2 mice have a significantly higher percentage of TUNEL positive cells in the JE. Immunofluorescence double labelling revealed that TUNEL positive cells showed immunoreactivity to phospho-Smad2. Real-time PCR analysis of apoptosis related gene expression provided evidence of lower expression of Bcl-2 in the gingival tissue from K14-Smad2 mice. There was a strong positive reaction for Bcl-2 protein in the junctional epithelium of wild type mice, while the gingival tissue of K14-Smad2 transgenic mice had only a faint signal for Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided evidence that Smad2 plays a crucial role in the induction of apoptosis in gingival JE through inhibition of Bcl-2.
    Archives of oral biology 09/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: LL37, originally found in the innate immune system, is a robust antimicrobial peptide. LL37 exhibits multiple bio-functions in various cell types, such as migration, cytokine production, apoptosis, and angiogenesis besides its antimicrobial activity Periodontal ligament (PL) cells play a pivotal role in periodontal tissue regeneration. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that LL37 can regulate PL cell function to promote regeneration of periodontal tissue. To prove this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of LL37 on the potent angiogenic inducer vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in cultures of human PL (HPL) cells because neovascularization is indispensable for the progress of tissue regeneration. Moreover, we investigated the signaling cascade associated with LL37-induced VEGF expression. MATERIAL AND METHOD: HPL cells were treated with synthesized LL37 in the presence or absence of PD98059, a MEK-ERK inhibitor, or PDTC, an NF-κB inhibitor. VEGF expression levels were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 or NF-κB p65 were determined by Western blotting. RESULTS: LL37 upregulated VEGF-A expression at the mRNA and protein levels in HPL cells, while VEGF-B mRNA expression was not affected. Both ERK and NF-κB inhibitors clearly abrogated the increase in VEGF-A levels induced by LL37 in HPL cells. Importantly, LL37 increased phosphorylated levels of ERK1/2 and NF-κB p65 in HPL cells. CONCLUSION: LL37 induces VEGF-A production in HPL cells via ERK and NF-κB signaling cascades, which may result in angiogenesis, thereby contributing to periodontal regeneration.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 09/2012; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    Tsuyoshi Fujita, Hideki Shiba, Hidemi Kurihara
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells function as mechanical barriers against invasion by pathogenic organisms and promote intercellular communication through cell–cell junction complexes. Therefore, the permeability of the gingival epithelial cell layer indicates a defensive capability against invasion by periodontal pathogens. Accumulation of activated neutrophils is thought to be involved in the onset of inflammation. Here, we review the effects of irsogladine maleate, a medication for gastric ulcers, on E-cadherin and chemokine expression in gingival epithelial cells exposed to periodontopathogenic bacteria, in order to examine the clinical efficacy of irsogladine maleate in preventing periodontal inflammation.
    Journal of Oral Biosciences 05/2012; 54(2):79–82.
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are known to be associated with dental caries in humans. We used a polymerase chain reaction method to detect S. mutans and S. sobrinus in 128 Japanese schoolchildren and then compared their presence with the dental caries experience. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites with a sterile toothbrush, and dental examinations were performed to determine the numbers of decayed and filled teeth in primary (dft) and permanent (DFT) dentition using the WHO caries diagnostic criteria. Fisher's PLSD test was employed to compare caries scores between combinations of the detected bacteria. Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus were present in 38.3% and 68.0%, respectively, whereas 14.8% were positive for S. mutans alone, 44.5% for S. sobrinus alone, and 23.5% for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus, with 17.2% negative for both. The DFT, dft, and total (DFT + dft) scores for subjects positive for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly higher than those positive for S. mutans alone (P < 0.05, in triplicate). These results suggest that schoolchildren harbouring both S. mutans and S. sobrinus have a significant higher dental caries experience in both permanent and primary teeth as compared to those with S. mutans alone.
    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 01/2012; 22(5):342-8. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression and possible role in periodontal tissue remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the expression patterns of IL-32 in healthy and periodontally diseased gingival tissue. The expression of IL-32 in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) as well as effects of autocrine IL-32 on IL-8 production from HGF were also examined. Periodontal tissue was collected from both healthy volunteers and periodontitis patients, and immunofluorescent staining was performed in order to determine the production of IL-32. Using real-time PCR and ELISA, mRNA expression and protein production of IL-32 in HGF, stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), were also investigated. Contrary to our expectation, the production of IL-32 in the periodontitis patients was significantly lower than in the healthy volunteers. According to immunofluorescent microscopy, positive staining for IL-32 was detected in prickle and basal cell layers in the epithelium as well as fibroblastic cells in connective tissue. Addition of fixed Pgin vitro was found to suppress the otherwise constitutive expression of IL-32 mRNA and protein in HGF. However, recombinant IL-32 in vitro inhibited the expression of IL-8 mRNA by HGF stimulated with Pg. Interestingly, anti-IL-32 neutralizing antibody upregulated the IL-8 mRNA expression in non-stimulated HGF, indicating that constitutive expression of IL-32 in HGF suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression in the absence of bacterial stimulation. These results indicate that IL-32 is constitutively produced by HGF which can be suppressed by Pg and may play a role in the downregulation of inflammatory responses, such as IL-8 production, in periodontal tissue.
    Journal of Oral Microbiology 01/2012; 4.
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    ABSTRACT: The epithelial barrier is a critical component of innate immunity and provides protection against microbial invasion. Claudin-1, a tight junction protein, is known to contribute to the epithelial cell barrier. An experimentally induced rat periodontal disease model was used to study the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of tight junction-associated molecule genes in the junctional epithelium. LPS was applied for 8 wk in the gingival sulcus, and junctional epithelium was collected by laser-capture microdissection and subjected to microarray analysis. Microarray analysis identified that expression of the claudin-1 gene was decreased in the epithelium by chronic LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the expression of claudin-1 protein in junctional epithelium and that 8 wk of chronic LPS topical application significantly reduced claudin-1 expression. The effect of LPS on claudin-1 protein expression was validated using a porcine junctional epithelial cell culture Transwell model. The epithelial barrier, as measured using transmembrane resistance, was significantly reduced after 3 wk of LPS challenge and this was associated with a decreased level of expression of claudin-1 protein. These results confirm that the initiation of experimental periodontal disease is associated with reduction in the expression of claudin-1 gene and protein. This decreased level of a critical tight junction protein may result in the disruption of barrier function and may play an important role in the initiation of periodontal disease.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 11/2011; 47(2):222-7. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As epithelial cells function as a mechanical barrier, the permeability of the gingival epithelial cell layer indicates a defensive capability against invasion by periodontal pathogens. We have reported the expression of claudin-1 and E-cadherin, key regulators of permeability, in the gingival junctional epithelium. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is a medication for gastric ulcers and also regulates Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-stimuated chemokine secretion and E-cadherin expression in gingival epithelium. In this study, we have further investigated the effects of IM on the barrier functions of gingival epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. We examined the permeability, and the expression of claudin-1 and E-cadherin, in human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, with or without IM. TNF-α increased the permeability of HGECs, and IM abolished the increase. TNF-α reduced the expression of E-cadherin in HGECs, and IM reversed the reduction. In addition, immunofluorescence staining showed that TNF-α disrupted claudin-1 expression in HGECs, and IM reversed this effect. The results suggest that IM reverses the TNF-α-induced disruption of the gingival epithelial barrier by regulating E-cadherin and claudin-1.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 09/2011; 47(1):55-61. · 1.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
373.63 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2014
    • Hiroshima University
      • • Department of Periodontal Medicine
      • • Department of Special Care Dentistry
      • • Department of Bacteriology
      • • Department of Dental and Medical Biochemistry
      • • Faculty of Dentistry
      Hirosima, Hiroshima, Japan
  • 1991–2009
    • Okayama University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Okayama, Okayama, Japan
  • 2000–2005
    • Boston University
      • Department of Periodontology and Oral Biology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Louisville
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
    • The Forsyth Institute
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • Osaka Dental University
      Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 1986
    • Rikkyo University
      • Institute for Atomic Energy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan