H Tronnier

Universität Witten/Herdecke, Witten, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (39)79.56 Total impact

  • K Heinrich, U Heinrich, H Tronnier
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    ABSTRACT: The human skin barrier is an important part of the skin's intactness and its functionality is a precondition for healthy skin. Ingredients in cosmetic formulations, especially penetration enhancers, can influence this barrier function as they transport active agents into deeper skin layers. In this study different cosmetic formulations were tested by 60 healthy female volunteers over a period of 4 weeks. The skin hydration and barrier function before and during the application were measured. Significant changes in both parameters were determined. A negative influence on the barrier function by penetration enhancers could be observed, but it was also found that lamellar lipid structures (DermaMembranSysteme®, DMS®) are able to enhance the skin barrier. Both penetration enhancers as well as DMS can increase skin hydration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 01/2014; 27(3):141-147. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that decorative cosmetics can enhance female facial attractiveness. In this study we investigated the effects of a cleanser and a decent foundation on attractiveness of female faces. Comparative rating of a set of facial photographs by a group of lay persons revealed that the cleansing product was significantly reducing the attractiveness of the stimulus persons. Treatment with the foundation increased the attractiveness of the female faces clearly. The authors conclude that even unobtrusive cosmetic treatments like cleansers and light foundations may cause relevant changes of the attractiveness of female faces. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
    International journal of cosmetic science 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 2% bis-ethylhexyl hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate (HDBM; RonaCare(®) AP) as an active ingredient in the treatment of oily and blemished skin. This study was carried out as a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study on 44 test subjects with blemished skin over a period of 8 weeks. Sebum measurement, skin inflammation/redness scoring by an expert, photographic documentation and a self-assessment with regard to skin improvement, and tests of skin compatibility and galenic characteristics were performed. Treatment with 2% HDBM resulted in a significant reduction of sebum excretion and showed efficacy against inflamed/red lesions also shown by photographic documentation. Efficacy and galenic performance of 2% HDBM were judged to be superior to the placebo emulsion. Additionally, 2% HDBM was well tolerated; approximately 80% of the test subjects rated the compatibility as good to very good.
    Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 01/2012; 5:101-9.
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    S De Spirt, H Sies, H Tronnier, U Heinrich
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    ABSTRACT: Microcirculation in the dermis of the skin is important for nutrient delivery to this tissue. In this study, the effects of a micronutrient concentrate (Juice Plus+®; 'active group'), composed primarily of fruit and vegetable juice powder, on skin microcirculation and structure were compared to placebo. This 12-week study had a monocentric, double-blind placebo and randomized controlled design with two treatment groups consisting of 26 healthy middle-aged women each. The 'oxygen to see' device was used to evaluate microcirculation. Skin density and thickness were measured using ultrasound. Measurements for skin hydration (Corneometer®), transepidermal water loss and serum analysis for carotenoids and α-tocopherol were also performed. By 12 weeks, microcirculation of the superficial plexus increased by 39%. Furthermore, skin hydration increased by 9% while skin thickness increased by 6% and skin density by 16% in the active group. In the placebo group, microcirculation decreased, and a slight increase in skin density was observed. Ingestion of a fruit- and vegetable-based concentrate increases microcirculation of the skin at 12 weeks of intervention and positively affects skin hydration, density and thickness.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 08/2011; 25(1):2-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.
    Journal of Nutrition 06/2011; 141(6):1202-8. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin sensitivity is a common problem in the Western population correlated with changes of skin properties like skin barrier function, hydration and skin physiology. Skin properties can be modulated by dietary fatty acids (FA), especially poly-unsaturated FA. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily supplementation with flaxseed oil and safflowerseed oil on healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind 12-week intervention with 2 female treatment groups (n = 13). Plasma FA profile, skin sensitivity, skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface were evaluated on day 0, week 6 and week 12. Supplementation with flaxseed oil led to significant decreases in sensitivity (after nicotinate irritation), TEWL, skin roughness and scaling, while smoothness and hydration were increased. Concomitantly, the ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in plasma decreased. Upon supplementation with safflowerseed oil, only a significant improvement in skin roughness and hydration was observed; however, the effects were less pronounced and determined at a later point in time than with flaxseed oil. The plasma n-6/n-3 FA ratio increased. The data provide evidence that daily intake of flaxseed oil modulates skin condition.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 11/2010; 24(2):67-74. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past, several attempts have been made to develop in vitro methods for determining protection against UV radiation. To date however, there is no broadly accepted method. Various known and unknown parameters influence the transmission measurements of scattering films, such as the multifaceted compositions of sunscreens, the technical limitations of measurement devices as well as the difficulty to apply very thin films of sunscreen in a reproducible manner throughout different laboratories. In vitro data were measured in this multicenter study to compare possible methodologies and strategies for an in vitro approach to the sun protection factor (SPF). This publication will not present a final in vitro SPF test method, but it will point out which technical side effects may influence such a method. Influential factors such as the quality of spectrophotometer used, the amount of product applied, pretreatment of samples, time and temperature of equilibration, size of the measured surface, the application process or the calculation on the basis of standardized data are presented and discussed. Finally, a reduction of the standard deviations within single laboratories could be realized for in vitro SPF testing, but no improvement of the interlaboratory comparison was obtained. The development of a valid and reliable SPF in vitro test still remains a challenge, and further work is necessary to develop a satisfactory method.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 03/2010; 23(4):201-12. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IFSCC Magazine, 12 (4) 365–370 (2009) Synopsis Optoacoustics is a new method to study the optical properties of human skin in vivo. We measured the absorption spectra of human skin in a study in twenty subjects belonging to skin phototypes I-IV. Absorption coefficients were determined in the range from 290 nm to 341 nm (3 nm steps) on the inner and outer side of the forearm and the ball of the thumb. Comparison of these new data with known action spectra of photobiologic effects and natural solar irradiation spectra indicates that the small wavelength range from ca. 300 nm to 320 nm may be responsible for significant detrimental and beneficial effects. Consequently, the skin is very sensitive to changes in irradiation in this spectral region.
    International Journal of Cosmetic Science 01/2010; 32(4):318-318.
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    ABSTRACT: Citation: IFSCC Magazine, 11 (2008) (3) 231–238 A prolonged stay in weightlessness induces several medical alterations of the human body and also results in impairment of the skin. The stratum corneum, epidermal barrier as well as other skin compartments are affected in terms of their susceptibility to dryness, desquamation and pruritus. This can lead, for example, to wound healing disorders. Skin physiological tests were performed on the skin of an astronaut during the ASTROLAB-Mission within the Skin Care program initiated by the ESA. The skin was analyzed before, partly during and after the mission. In addition, the tests were repeated after 1 year. During the mission a control skin area was treated with a skincare product. The results showed corneal disturbance caused by environmental conditions, suboptimal skin cleansing and skin care. The observed effects were minimized by application of a skincare product. Measurements of the epidermis showed an accelerated rate of epidermal keratinization; skin elasticity was reduced distinctly and the sonographic examination showed a disaggregation of the cutis with hypoechoic areas. Additional measurements performed a year after the mission indicate that the verified alterations, which in a broader sense seem similar to skin ageing and appear as a time lapse process in weightlessness, are reversible. Further testing of the preventive efficacy of anti-ageing products from a cosmetic point of view would appear to be an appropriate objective for prospective long-term space missions. Keywords: Weightlessness, skin changes, hydration, TEWL, SELS (Visioscan®), elasticity, US-B-scan
    International Journal of Cosmetic Science 01/2009; 31(5):403-404.
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the optical properties of human skin in the ultraviolet range is fundamental for photobiologic research. However, optical properties of human skin in the ultraviolet spectral range have so far mainly been measured ex vivo. We have determined the absorption spectra of human skin in vivo in the wavelength range from 290 to 341 nm in 3 nm steps using laser optoacoustics. In this technique, optical properties are derived from the pressure profile generated by absorbed light energy in the sample. In a study on 20 subjects belonging to phototypes I-IV, we studied the optical properties at the volar and dorsal aspect of the forearm as well as on the thenar. Analysis of the measured absorption spectra shows that comparable skin areas-like different sides of the forearm-have qualitatively similar optical characteristics. Still, the optical properties may vary substantially within the same area, probably due to the skin structure and inhomogeneities. Comparison of the spectra from different skin sites indicates that the spectral characteristics of the stratum corneum and its chromophores play an important role for the optical properties of human skin in vivo in the ultraviolet B range.
    Photochemistry and Photobiology 01/2009; 85(1):70-7. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ingestion of selected nutrients modulates dermal properties. In the present study, two groups of women ingested flaxseed or borage oil for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo containing medium-chain fatty acids. Dose was 2.2 g total fatty acids/d with alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid as major constituents in the flaxseed oil group; in the borage oil group linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid were predominant. In the flaxseed oil group, the contribution of alpha-linolenic acid to total fatty acids in plasma was significantly increased on weeks 6 and 12, whereas there was an increase in gamma-linolenic acid in the borage oil group (P < 0.05). Skin irritation was performed by nicotinate treatment, and changes in skin reddening and blood flow were monitored. Compared to week 0, skin reddening was diminished in both groups; blood flow was also lowered. Skin hydration was significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment compared to week 0, with flaxseed or borage oil (P < 0.05). Transepidermal water loss was decreased in both oil groups by about 10 % after 6 weeks of supplementation. A further decrease was determined after 12 weeks in the flaxseed oil group. Surface evaluation of living skin revealed that roughness and scaling of the skin were significantly decreased with flaxseed and borage oil comparing week 0 and week 12 (P < 0.05). Except for hydration, none of the parameters was affected in the placebo group. The present data provide evidence that skin properties can be modulated by an intervention with dietary lipids.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2008; 101(3):440-5. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The absorption spectrum of human skin provides a basis for the estimation of the possible photobiological impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The optical properties of human skin in the UV spectral range have so far mainly been measured ex vivo due to a lack of an appropriate in vivo technique and the change of optical properties during the course of adaptation to higher UV doses has hardly been addressed. We have determined the absorption spectra of human skin in vivo in the wavelength range from 290 to 341 nm in 3 nm steps using laser optoacoustics. In this technique, optical properties are derived from the pressure profile generated by absorbed light energy in the sample. Spectra from the volar and dorsal aspects of the forearm of 20 subjects were compared, i.e. sites with native and various facultative pigmentation. UV adaptation shows as an increase in absorption coefficients over the entire measured UV range and especially in short-range UVB. Subject groups with high vs. low UV exposure can be discriminated by analyzing the difference absorption spectra between dorsal and volar aspects of the forearm. No dependence on the subject's phototype was seen in the degree of adaptation. The difference between native and facultative pigmentation may be explained by the absorption properties of the two prime chromophores responsible for adaptation to higher UV exposure: melanin and keratin. Stronger pigmentation, i.e. a higher melanin concentration, is found as an increase of absorption coefficients over the entire UVA-II/UVB range. The thickening of the horny layer and accordingly, a higher influence of keratin on the absorption spectra is prominent especially in the UVB region.
    Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 05/2008; 24(2):76-82. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    H Tronnier, M Wiebusch, U Heinrich
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    ABSTRACT: Astronauts often show skin reactions in space. Systematic tests, e.g. with noninvasive skin physiological test methods, have not yet been done. In an interdisciplinary cooperation, a test series with skin physiological measurements was carried out before, during and after a long-term mission in the International Space Station. The hydration of the stratum corneum (Corneometer), transepidermal water loss (Tewameter), and the surface structure of the skin (SkinVisiometer) were measured. In order to record cutaneous states, the suction elasticity was measured (Cutometer), and an ultrasound measurement with 20 MHz (DermaScan) was also made. In addition, one measuring field of the two inner forearms was treated with a skin care emulsion. There were indications of a delayed epidermal proliferation of the cells, which would correspond to the clinical symptoms. Hydration and TEWL values are improved by respective skin care. On the cutaneous level, the elasticity measurements and the ultrasound picture showed results which correspond to a significant loss of elasticity of the skin. Further examinations are necessary to validate these preliminary results.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 02/2008; 21(5):283-92. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The wavelength-dependent penetration depth of ultraviolet radiation in human skin is a fundamental parameter for the estimation of the possible photobiological impact of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We have determined the absorption spectra of human skin in vivo in the wavelength range from 290 to 341 nm in 3-nm steps using laser optoacoustics and calculated the respective penetration depths. Data were analyzed with respect to different skin regions and skin phototype of the 20 subjects in the study (phototype I: n=3; II: n=7; III: n=5; IV: n=5), revealing large variability between individuals. The penetration depth of UV radiation in human skin is highly dependent on wavelength and skin area, but no significant dependence on skin phototype could be found.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2008; 13(4):044030. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to develop a simple reproducible and reliable in vitro water resistance (WR) method to assess the sun care products. This paper is the result of a scientific collaboration between seven different international industrial laboratories and testing institutes. The same group has already achieved an in vitro protocol for the sun protection factor (SPF) determination [1]. The in vitro WR of sunscreens was tested by applying the same principle as in vivo, which determines the percentage of retention of sunscreen products by assessing the SPF before and after water immersion. Special care was taken to study the parameters influencing the WR and the possibility to follow the kinetics of sunscreen retention during water immersion. The influence of different water qualities has been tested, and osmosed water (1-3 microS cm(-1)) was chosen for the main ring study. Measurement was carried out after 5, 20 and 40 min of immersion. Histograms of selected products demonstrate the percentage of WR at all measuring times and centres, and the regression coefficient to the in vivo determination was shown and statistical calculations clearly demonstrate the reproducibility of the results between the different evaluation centres. The presented method is a practical, convenient and relevant tool for WR screening of sun care and skin care products. It even has the potential to be the starting point for the replacement of the in vivo method in future.
    International journal of cosmetic science 01/2008; 29(6):451-60.
  • Journal of Dermatological Science 12/2007; 48(2):141-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of polysaccharides from fish cartilage with regard to their skin aging properties. An application test was carried out during the intake of cartilage tablets as a nutritional supplement. The study was designed as a monocentric, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled application test. 28 healthy female volunteers (35-60 years) with dry skin were included in the study. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 received tablets containing placebo and group 2 the verum treatment (cartilage hydrolysate combined with vitamin C). The duration of the study was 12 weeks. The focus of interest was to find out about the hydration properties, and to see whether the skin barrier and structure were influenced by the test formulation compared with placebo. Hydration measurements were made before and during the study, and the transepidermal water loss (barrierer function of the skin) was measured. The thickness and density of the skin of all volunteers were determined by means of ultrasound measurements during the study. Statistical analysis was based on Wilcoxon signed rank test. The following results were obtained in this study: there was a significant improvement in the hydration properties, a significant decrease in transepidermal water loss and a significant increase in the skin density in the verum group (cartilage extract). No or minor improvements could be detected in the placebo group.
    International Journal of Cosmetic Science 05/2007; 29(2):144-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss. To investigate the acute effects of a single dose of cocoa rich in flavanols on dermal microcirculation. In a crossover design study, 10 healthy women ingested a cocoa drink (100 ml) with high (329 mg) or low (27 mg) content of flavanols. The major flavanol monomer in both drinks was epicatechin, 61 mg in the high flavanol, and 6.6 mg in the low flavanol product per 100 ml. Dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were examined by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectroscopically at 1 mm skin depth at t = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. At the same time points, plasma levels of total epicatechin (free compound plus conjugates) were measured by means of HPLC. Subsequent to the intake of high flavanol cocoa, dermal blood flow was significantly increased by 1.7-fold at t = 2 h and oxygen saturation was elevated 1.8-fold. No statistically significant changes were found upon intake of low flavanol cocoa. Maximum plasma levels of total epicatechin were observed 1 h after ingestion of the high flavanol cocoa drink, 11.6 +/- 7.4 nmol/l at baseline, and 62.9 +/- 35.8 nmol/l at 1 h. No change of total epicatechin was found in the low flavanol group. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption acutely increases dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation.
    European Journal of Nutrition 03/2007; 46(1):53-6. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • U Heinrich, B Garbe, H Tronnier
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess an Ectoin formulation with regard to the antiageing properties. The study was designed as a monocentric, randomized, double-blind application test, in order to ensure the compatibility and the efficacy of Ectoin in comparison to a vehicle emulsion. A total of 104 voluntary healthy female test subjects were included in the study. Moisturizing properties as well as other parameters of skin ageing, like skin surface structure and skin elasticity, were determined for treatment A (vehicle) and treatment B (with 2% Ectoin) versus an untreated control. Statistical evaluations according to the Wilcoxon rank-sum test indicate a general preference for the Ectoin treatment by the test subjects in both the application and the efficacy tests. None of the participating test subjects had any side effects throughout the study. In terms of antiageing properties, previous in vitro studies could be confirmed by this clinical trial, clarifying that the natural cell protection concept of Ectoin is transferable to skin care with manifold benefits.
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 02/2007; 20(4):211-8. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is often debated that the protection against solar-induced erythema under real conditions is dependent upon the amount of sunscreen applied. It is believed that when too little is applied a lower sun protection than indicated on the label will result. The aim of this study was to quantify this effect. In this multicenter study, the influence of three different amounts (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/cm(2)) of three commercial sunscreen products in three reliable test centers was investigated according to the test protocol of The International Sun Protection Factor Test Method. The main result was a linear dependence of the SPF on the quantity applied. Taking into consideration the volunteer-specific variations, an exponential dependence of confidence interval of the in vivo SPF and amount applied was found. The highest amount applied (2.0 mg/cm(2)) was linked to the lowest confidence intervals. Thus, from the point of view of producing reliable and reproducible in vivo results under laboratory conditions, the recommendation of this multicenter study is an application quantity of 2.0 mg/cm(2).
    Skin pharmacology and physiology 02/2007; 20(1):57-64. · 2.89 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

634 Citations
79.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2012
    • Universität Witten/Herdecke
      Witten, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1998–2011
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie I
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008–2009
    • Leibniz Universität Hannover
      • Institute of Biophysics
      Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany