H Nakashima

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (9)58.72 Total impact

  • Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 09/1997; 19(5):600. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC) infused over 72 hours at doses of 5 to 74 micrograms/m2/h. 9-AC lactone and total (lactone plus carboxylate) plasma concentrations were measured in 44 patients with solid tumors using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Fifteen patients underwent extended pharmacokinetic sampling to determine the distribution and elimination kinetics of 9-AC. At steady-state, 8.7% +/- 4.7% (mean +/- SD) of the total drug circulated in plasma as the active 9-AC lactone. Clearance of 9-AC lactone was uniform (24.5 +/- 7.3 L/h/m2) over the entire dose range examined; however, total 9-AC clearance was nonlinear and increased at higher dose levels. In 15 patients treated at dose levels > or = 47 micrograms/m2/h, the volume of distribution at steady-state for 9-AC lactone was 195 +/- 114 L/m2 and for total 9-AC it was 23.6 +/- 10.6 L/m2. The elimination half-life was 4.47 +/- 0.53 hours for 9-AC lactone and 8.38 +/- 2.10 hours for total 9-AC. In pharmacodynamic studies, dose-limiting neutropenia correlated with steady-state lactone concentrations (Css) R2 = .77) and drug dose (R2 = .71). Plasma 9-AC concentrations rapidly declined to low levels following the end of a 72-hour infusion and the mean fraction of total 9-AC circulating in plasma as the active lactone was less than 10%. The pharmacokinetics of 9-AC may have a great impact on its clinical activity and should be considered in the design of future clinical trials of this topoisomerase I inhibitor.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1997; 15(4):1492-501. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/1997; 803:324-6. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a phase I and pharmacologic study of the new topoisomerase I inhibitor, 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC). A 72-hour infusion of 9-AC was administered every 14 days to 48 solid-tumor patients at doses of 5 to 59 microg/m2/h without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and 47 to 74 microg/m2/h with G-CSF. Without G-CSF, two of eight patients who received 47 microg/m2/h had dose-limiting neutropenia in their initial cycle, as did both patients who received 59 microg/m2/h (with a platelet count < 25,000/microL in one). With G-CSF, zero of seven patients treated with 47 microg/m2/h had dose-limiting neutropenia in their first cycle, while dose-limiting neutropenia occurred in six of 14 patients (with platelet count < 25,000/microL in five) entered at 59 microg/m2/h. Among 39 patients entered at > or = 25 microg/m2/h 9-AC with or without G-CSF, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea/vomiting of grade 2 severity ultimately occurred in 54%, 30%, and 38%, respectively, while grade 3 toxicities of each type occurred in 8% of patients. Steady-state 9-AC lactone concentration (Css) increased linearly from 0.89 to 10.6 nmol/L, and correlated strongly with leukopenia ( r = .85). The recommended phase II dose of 9-AC given by 72-hour infusion every 2 weeks is 35 microg/m2/h without G-CSF or 47 microg/m2/h with G-CSF support. Dose escalation in individual patients may be possible according to their tolerance.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/1996; 14(4):1236-44. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • H. Nakashima, R. Lieberman, A. Karato, N. Saijo
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 01/1996; 59(2):214-214. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A linear two-compartment Bayesian pharmacokinetic model was developed using a standard two-stage population method for the novel anti-cancer agent CPT-11 from 11 adult patients with refractory cancer. The accuracy and efficiency of this Bayesian model for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters including the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was then evaluated using two different sampling strategies in a new study cohort of 13 patients with cancer. Sampling strategies included either one, two, or three nonsteady-state feedback levels determined empirically and from optimal sampling theory (D-optimality). All 24 patients in this study received CPT-11 (60 mg/m2) as a 90-min infusion. Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the Bayesian model combined with these limited sampling strategies were compared with those parameters obtained from the full sample data sets (n = 10) analyzed by weighted nonlinear least squares regression (reference method). The least-bias and most precise sampling times for estimating AUC were 3.5; 3.5 and 9.5; and 0.5, 3.5, and 9.5 h, respectively. At these times, only marginal improvement in precision of the AUC estimate was observed using two versus three samples. However, the precision of the estimate of clearance was not improved using two versus three samples. The sampling times derived from optimal sampling theory were 0.25, 3.5, 8.5, and 24 h and correlated closely to the actual and best empirical sampling times of 0.5, 3.5, 9.5, and 24 h. These results strongly suggest that Bayesian estimation combined with only two optimally timed samples accurately predicts the AUC of CPT-11 and should be useful for implementing adaptive control dosing for monitoring CPT-11 systemic exposure in patients with cancer.
    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 07/1995; 17(3):221-9. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a randomized, single-blind, cross-over trial to compare the antiemetic effect, for both acute and delayed emesis, of granisetron plus dexamethasone (GRN+Dx) with that of high-dose metoclopramide plus dexamethasone (HDMP+Dx). Fifty-four patients with primary or metastatic lung cancer, given single-dose cisplatin (> 80 mg/m2) chemotherapy more than twice, were enrolled in this study. They were treated with both HDMP+Dx and GRN+Dx in two consecutive chemotherapy courses. On day 1, patients experienced a mean of 2.5 (SD = 4.3) and 0.1 (SD = 0.4) episodes of vomiting in the HDMP+Dx and the GRN+Dx groups, respectively (P = 0.0008). Complete response rate on day 1 was 45 and 90% in the HDMP+Dx and the GRN+Dx groups, respectively (P = 0.0001). Patients treated with GRN+Dx had a tendency to suffer more episodes of vomiting than the HDMP+Dx group on days 2-5, but it was not statistically significant. Twenty-four patients (57%) preferred the GRN+Dx treatment and 14 patients (33%), HDMP+Dx. In the HDMP+Dx group, nine patients (21%) had an extrapyramidal reaction, and 5 patients (12%) had constipation that lasted for at least two days. In contrast, no patients had extrapyramidal reactions, and 18 patients (43%) had constipation in the GRN+Dx group (P < 0.01). GRN+Dx was more effective than HDMP+Dx only in preventing the acute emesis induced by cisplatin. An effective treatment for delayed emesis is still needed.
    Japanese journal of cancer research: Gann 12/1994; 85(11):1151-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Paclitaxel, a new antitubular agent, appears to be one of the most promising single agents for the chemotherapy of various solid tumors. The primary objectives of this phase I study of paclitaxel using 24-h continuous intravenous infusions were to determine the maximum tolerated dose of paclitaxel administered by this schedule to Japanese patients with solid tumors and to evaluate the pharmaco-kiiietics of paclitaxel. Eighteen patients received one of five doses of paclitaxel, 49.5, 75, 105, 135 or 180 mg/m2. Prcmedication with diphenhydramine, dexamethasone, and ranitidine was used to prevent acute hypersensitivity reactions. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from all 18 patients. Dose-limiting toxicities observed at 180 mg/m2 consisted of grade 4 granulocytopenia associated with grade 3 infection. No severe HSRs or cardiac toxicity were detected. Reversible toxicities observed included liver dysfunction, alopecia, peripheral neuropathy and myalgias. Pharmacokinetic studies performed using high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that plasma concentrations of paclitaxel increased during the 24-h infusion and declined immediately upon cessation of the infusion with a half life of 13.1-24.6 h (75-180 mg/m2). Less than 10% of paclitaxel was excreted in the urine within 72 h. The peak plasma concentrations and the areas under the concentration-versus-time curves increased linearly with the dose administered. Antitumor activity was observed in one patient with pulmonary metastasis from pharyngeal cancer. Based on these studies a phase II trial dose of 135 mg/m2 administered over 24 h was chosen.
    Cancer Science 09/1994; 85(10):1057 - 1062. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CPT-11 and to use the Bayesian method to estimate CPT-11 pharmacokinetic parameters in each of 43 patients who received combined therapy consisting of CPT-11 and etoposide. The group was divided into first and second data sets of 30 and 13 patients, respectively. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of CPT-11 based on the first data set. The individual pharmacokinetic parameters [area under the concentration curve (AUC) and clearance (CD] were subsequently estimated by using the Bayesian method on the second data set. Plasma CPT-11 concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and compartmental pharmacokinetic models were fitted by the Bayesian method. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed by using the nonlinear mixed effect model. We selected the volume of the central compartment (Vc), CL, and distribution rate constants (K12, K21) as population pharmacokinetic parameters. The population mean values (CV%) of Vc, CL, K12, and K21 were, respectively, 31.8 (15.7%) liter/m2,14.1 (27.8%) liter/h/m2,1.1 (8.4%)/h, and 0.41 (30.3%)/h. Residual intraindivirtual variability was 22.9%. The optimal sampling regime for estimation of the AUC and CL in using the Bayesian method was the two time points of 1 and 8 h post infusion. The mean predictive error, the mean absolute predictive error, and the root mean squared error were -3.3, 9.4, 3.2% (AUC) and 6.3, 10.0, 3.5% (CL), respectively. We concluded that the AUC and CL of CPT-11 could be estimated from plasma concentrations at two times by using the Bayesian method.
    Cancer Science 08/1994; 85(9):972 - 977. · 3.48 Impact Factor