[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In small animal veterinary practices, body condition score (BCS) is generally used to diagnose obesity. However, BCS does not constitute objective data. In this study, we investigated the value of using human body fat analysis software for male dogs. We also compared changes in body fat after neutering. Changes in body fat at the time of neutering (age 1 year) and 1 year later were compared by performing CT scanning and using human body fat analysis software. We found that body fat increased in all the individuals tested. In terms of the site of fat accumulation, subcutaneous fat was more pronounced than visceral fat, with a marked increase on the dorsal side of the abdomen rather than the thorax.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 11/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrocardiogram of nonhuman primates is similar to that of humans because of similar intrathoracic heart position and structure. Despite the frequent use of nonhuman primates in biologic studies, few electrocardiographic studies of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fusucata) have been reported, and no reference data are available for this species. We obtained limb-lead electrocardiograms from indoor-bred and housed ketamine-sedated Japanese macaques (48 male; 56 female; mean age, 44.3 mo; mean body weight, 4.84 kg) in the dorsal recumbency. The following quantitative data was obtained: heart rate, P wave amplitude and width, R wave amplitude, QRS duration, PR interval, QT interval, T wave height, and mean electrical axis. Corrected QT intervals were calculated by using the Bazett and Fridericia formulae. Measurements were evaluated according to sex and age. The duration of the QRS complex showed moderate correlation with age in male monkeys. All parameters, except heart rate, were similar to previous reports from Japanese, cynomolgus, and other macaques. P waves, R waves and mean electrical axis did not differ significantly between humans and Japanese macaques, but the wave amplitude in macaques was half that in humans. Our electrocardiographic measurements can serve as normal reference data for sedated, young Japanese monkeys.
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2013; 52(4):491-494. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The musculoskeletal system of the aardvark (Orycteropus afer) tail was morphologically examined in two adult specimens. The tail musculature comprised three muscular groups, viz. a dorsal sacrocaudal system that consisted of the irregularly oriented Musculus sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis and M. sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis, a lateral inter-vertebral connecting system, and a ventral sacrocaudal system characterized by the thick M. sacrocaudalis ventralis lateralis and M. sacrocaudalis ventralis medialis. Both the dorsal and ventral systems possessed large tendon groups that strengthened the tail structure. Computed tomography (CT) examination showed the presence of large but homogeneous cartilaginous inter-vertebral discs, whereas V-shaped bones were situated at the ventral aspect of the caudal vertebrae at the level of the inter-vertebral discs. CT visualization of the tendons and V-shaped bones in various tail positions suggested that these structures contribute to the tunnel digging action by bearing the trunk weight and lending force when the aardvark are displacing the soil by means of the forelimbs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2012; 2012:383174. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coxa of palaeognaths including extinct aepyornithid species was compared by means of osteology, computed tomography (CT) imaging and macroscopic anatomy. The pre-acetabular area of the ilium was proportionally much larger in width and height in aepyornithid species than in other extant palaeognaths. The post-acetabular area of the ilium, ischium and pubis was relatively short and bilaterally extended in aepyornithid species. Although the Aepyornis species might have produced egg with a major axis exceeding 300 mm in major axis, the short post-acetabular coxa and widely opened ischium and pubis would not have been able to stably hold the eggs in the posterior space of the pelvic cavity unlike the situation in the ostrich. As aepyornithid species resembled the kiwi in measurement ratios of length and width in the pre-acetabular area, a functional-morphological model of the coxa in the aepyornithid species can be proposed based on that of the kiwi. From our data, we suggest that the extinct species of Aepyornis and Mullerornis species effectively used the anterior space of the pelvic cavity to support their extraordinary large egg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In terrestrial mammals, the surface molecule CD34 is used as a marker to identify hematopoietic progenitor cells. To clarify whether CD34 expression can be used to confirm the undifferentiated state of hematopoietic-like cells isolated from the bone marrow of bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncates, we determined in this study the sequence of dolphin CD34 cDNA and analyzed its mRNA expression. Dolphin CD34 cDNA can be expressed as two forms, one that encodes a full-length version and a variant, truncated version of the gene. Both forms were detected in bone marrow mononuclear cells and in various tissues using RT-PCR. The truncated form was not detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and neither form was detected in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This is the first report on CD34 in marine mammals and our results suggest that dolphin CD34 may be a useful marker to identify hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 02/2011; 139(2-4):303-7. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese macaques bred indoor for laboratory use often show chronic anorexia and intermittent vomiting. In some of our macaques gastric air was observed on physical examination, and we suspected abnormality of gastric motility. We therefore performed contrast radiographic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract without anesthesia of 8 macaques with gastrointestinal symptoms and 9 asymptomatic controls from the same laboratory. Changes of abdominal radiography over time were observed following oral administration of contrast medium. In all control animals, contrast medium had completely passed from the stomach within 150 min after administration. However, all animals with gastrointestinal symptoms retained some contrast medium in the stomach. Gastric emptying time of contrast medium was associated with excessive gastric air in Japanese macaques; therefore, gastric emptying time seems to be associated with decreased gastric motility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a thoracic X-ray examination of 56 Japanese macaques to obtain normal reference values for vertebral heart scale (VHS). Mean VHS was 10.25 +/- 0.94 v. In males, mean VHS was 10.56 +/- 0.73 v, with no significant correlation to age or weight. In contrast, mean VHS in females was 9.97 +/- 1.03 v, and tended to decrease with increasing age and weight. These findings will facilitate the diagnosis of cardiac disease in Japanese macaques in the future.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2009; 72(4):503-5. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To find macroscopically palpable bone marrow cavities in dolphins is difficult because of their extremely retrogressive limbs and pelvis and because they do not contain abundant modular cavities (as in terrestrial mammals) that can serve as sites for bone marrow biopsies. Three-dimensional computed tomography analysis of dolphin skeletons suggests that bone marrow could be harvested from the humerus and radius. In this report, post-mortem paracentesis of the humerus from a captive rough-toothed dolphin using a biopsy needle provided a marrow preparation containing myelocytes, erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. This type of bone marrow collection from the flipper might be useful for clinical diagnostic work in cetaceans.
The Veterinary Journal 07/2009; 185(2):216-7. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presacral vertebra of anteaters was examined by three-dimensional CT image analysis of the xenarthrous processes peculiar to the Order Xenarthra. The anteater is equipped with two following articulations in addition to the normal zygapophysial articulation. The dorsal xenarthrous process of the former vertebra articulates to the ventral area of the base of the mammillary process in the later vertebra. The pocket-like structure in the ventral area of the mammillary process receives the dorsal and ventral xenarthrous processes of the former vertebra. The complicated articulations do not obstruct the ability of the giant anteater to flex dorsally and laterally, however aids flexibility and strengthens the caudal thoracic and lumber regions of the animal. The xenarthrous processes and articulations may function as a supporter of the body weight during the bipedal standing posture when the anteater destroys the nests of ants and termites and protects itself from the enemies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CT scanning and its related three-dimensional image techniques were applied for a carcass head of a newborn Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) to clarify if the guttural pouch is well-developed or not in the early growth stages of this species. Observations from the sections of the CT three-dimensional reconstructed image reveal that the guttural pouch is not present around the stylohyoid bone in a new born Indian rhinoceros. Since the absence of the guttural pouch has been confirmed also in adult rhinoceros, we can point out that the guttural pouch does not disappear during the growth stages, but is originally absent in the newborn. Although the well-developed guttural pouch in the horse and ass has attracted anatomists, we can conclude that the guttural pouch is not commonly observed in the perissodactyls, but in a few species of Equus, and that the guttural pouch is adapted only to restricted roles in the smaller taxa within perissodactyls.
Mammal Study 03/2009; 34:7-11. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The heart structure of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) was observed by macroscopic and CT scanning methods. The heart was 8,230 and 9,640 g in weight, 480 and 550 mm in length in the two examined elephants, respectively. In the right ventricle, the papillary muscles in the interventricular septum were identified as M. papillaris subarteriosus et parvus, whereas in the ventricular wall as M. papillaris magnus. The Chordae tendineae from the M. papillaris subarteriosus et parvus reached the margin of the Cuspis angularis, whereas the Chordae tendineae from the M. papillaris magnus supported the Cuspis septalis of the right atrioventricular valve. In the Cuspis parietalis area, the Chordae tendineae connected this valve with the M. papillaris magnus. The left atrioventricular (bicuspid) valve consisted of Cuspis septalis and the Cuspis parietalis, that the Chordae tendineae reached from M. papillaris subauricularis et subatrialis. From the CT sections, we demonstrated that the left ventricular wall was 50–60 mm in left lateral side of the ventricular wall, whereas the right ventricular wall appeared 15–25 mm in thickness. The atria possessed the wall of 15–30 mm in thickness. In the Asian elephant the heart certainly requires a large volume and a thick ventricular wall, however, the muscular wall is not equipped with the highly-functioned structure adapted to its large body size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degeneration of intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major cause of low back pain. However, there is no satisfactory preventive treatment for degenerative disc disease (DDD). In this study, we examined the effects of a novel cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel and cross-linked chondroitin sulfate (CS) hydrogel on a rabbit model of IVD injury. We injected 300 microl of phosphate buffer saline, 1% sodium hyaluronate, cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel, or cross-linked CS hydrogel into the injured IVDs. One, three or six months after treatment, the whole spinal columns were dissected and magnetic resonance (MR) images of the IVDs were examined. It was noted that the IVD, which was injected with cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel or cross-linked CS hydrogel mostly retained the normal signal intensity of the MR images. These IVDs exhibited a higher degree of staining with safranin-O than the control discs or 1% sodium hyaluronate-injected discs, suggesting that the intradiscal application of cross-linked hyaluronate hydrogel or cross-linked CS hydrogel probably inhibits the degenerative cascade of the DDD. The intradiscal administration of these drugs is safe, easy and costs less. In the near future, these intradiscal injections may become the standard therapy for the treatment of DDD instead of the spine surgeries.
Bio-medical materials and engineering 01/2009; 19(6):421-9. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The armor-like folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) was examined by CT image analyses and microscopic observation. The three-dimensional reconstructed images demonstrate that the folded skin has the subcutaneous tissues including cutaneous muscles and connective tissues inserted to the deepest holes and grooves of 2–3 mm thickness in each fold. The cutaneous muscles are well-developed in subcutaneous tissues, in which many small blood vessels are found. We conclude that the folded skin acts as a thermoregulator, since the thin blood vessels and capillaries and cutaneous muscles in the subcutaneous tissues transmit the thermal energy from the core region of the body to the skin folds. We suggest that the greater Indian rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, has evolved the extraordinary thermoregulation mechanism in the folded skin adapted to high temperature in the tropical and subtropical regions.
Mammal Study 01/2009; 34:195-200. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ground transport can be a stressful operation for dolphins if the long period of restraint causes damage to internal organs, especially to the lung, generated by their own weight. Buoyancy is deprived from dolphins under moist transport, in which dolphins are transported on mattresses. Upgrading mattresses is an effective way to modify the transportation method so as to compensate for the loss of buoyancy. In Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), we tried to find mattresses that performed well at distributing the dolphins' weight and preserved their pulmonary function. When using EV-17 (thickness, 50 mm) put on EE-20 (thickness, 50 mm), a wider support area, less extreme changes in pressure, and lower maximum pressures were observed compared with other mattress systems tested. On this mattress system, lower breathing rates, lower heart rates, and higher exhaled CO(2) concentrations were shown compared with using standard mattresses. These results suggest that the performance of the combination of EV-17 and EE-20 is better than that of the standard mattress in terms of the cardiopulmonary function of dolphins. Zoo Biol 27:331-340, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several animal studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline (HSS) on cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure and brain water content. This study aimed to investigate, using magnetic resonance imaging, whether a small volume of HSS is superior to dextran in vasodilatation of cerebral vessels and reduction of cerebrospinal fluids in dogs. HSS induced a significant expansion of the cross-section of the superior sagittal sinus in the axial transverse section of the pituitary and a decrease in cerebrospinal fluid area in the axial transverse section of the epencephalon more than dextran 40 did (p<0.001, respectively). However, the relative plasma volume in the dog which received dextran 40 was significantly higher after t=30min than in the HSS group (p<0.001). Therefore, it is suggested that HSS might be superior to colloid solutions in improving cerebral circulation, whereas dextran 40 is superior to HSS in enhancing systemic circulation in dogs.
Research in Veterinary Science 06/2008; 84(3):465-70. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of a small volume of 7.2% hypertonic saline solution (HSS) or HSS with 6% dextran 70 (HSD) on hemodynamic status, especially on cardiac contractility, in anesthetized dogs using the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (ESVI) and ejection fraction (EF), which can be obtained in noninvasive echocardiography. In the present study, the mean values of ESVI were unaffected by HSS and HSD infusion, whereas the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (EDVI) was markedly and significant increased. As a result of the changes in EDVI but not in ESVI, EF increased transiently and significantly in the HSS and HSD group, whereas no such significant change was observed in the dogs that received isotonic saline solution. In addition, as a result of the increases in cardiac index but not arterial pressure, system vascular resistances (SVR) decreased transiently and significantly in the HSS and HSD groups, whereas no such significant change was observed in the ISS group. Therefore, the positive inotropic effects of HSS and HSD may be attributable to the increase in left ventricular preload and decreases in SVR rather than direct changes in myocardial contractility.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 02/2008; 70(1):89-94. · 0.88 Impact Factor