[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered one of the pathological mechanisms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Therefore, we examined whether an ER stress regulator, Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), regulates collagen accumulation, which is both a marker of fibrosis and a pathological mechanism of fibrosis. The presence of BI-1 inhibited the transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of epithelial pulmonary cells and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model by enhancing collagen degradation, most likely by enhanced activation of the lysosomal V-ATPase through glycosylation. We also found a correlation between post-translational glycosylation of the V-ATPase and its associated chaperone, calnexin, in BI-1-overexpressing cells. BI-1-induced degradation of collagen through lysosomal V-ATPase glycosylation and the involvement of calnexin were confirmed in a bleomycin-induced fibrosis mouse model. These results highlight the regulatory role of BI-1 in IPF and reveal for the first time the role of lysosomal V-ATPase glycosylation in IPF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-apoptotic protein, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1), has a role in cancer/tumor progression. BI-1-overexpressing HT1080 and B16F10 cells produced higher lung weights and tumor volumes after injection into the tail veins of mice. Transfection of BI-1 siRNA into cells before injection blocked lung metastasis. in vitro, the overexpression of BI-1 increased cell mobility and invasiveness, with highly increased glucose consumption and cytosolic accumulation of lactate and pyruvate, but decreased mitochondrial O(2) consumption and ATP production. Glucose metabolism-associated extracellular pH also decreased as cells excreted more H(+), and sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) activity increased, probably as a homeostatic mechanism for intracellular pH. These alterations activated MMP 2/9 and cell mobility and invasiveness, which were reversed by the NHE inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA), suggesting a role for NHE in cancer metastasis. In both in vitro and in vivo experiments, C-terminal deleted (CDeltaBI-1) cells showed similar results to control cells, suggesting that the C-terminal motif is required for BI-1-associated alterations of glucose metabolism, NHE activation and cancer metastasis. These findings strongly suggest that BI-1 reduces extracellular pH and regulates metastasis by altering glucose metabolism and activating NHE, with the C-terminal tail having a pivotal role in these processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a widely used immunosuppressant but with significant side-effects, such as gingival overgrowth. This study investigates how CsA induces gingival proliferation and shows the effects of the CsA-associated signaling messengers, IL-6 and TGF-beta1, on gingival proliferation. CsA increased both IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels. In addition to CsA, an IL-6 or TGF-beta1 treatment also induced gingival fibroblast proliferation. Inhibiting the cytokine resulted in the suppression of CsA-induced proliferation. MAPKs and PI3K are known to be involved in cell proliferation. Therefore, the effect of CsA on the kinase activities was examined. The results showed that both p38 MAPK and PI3K are essential for gingival fibroblast proliferation. TGF-beta1 and IL-6 and their associated signaling transduction may be novel bona fide molecular targets for the prevention of gingival overgrowth in CsA-treated patients. (Abbreviations: MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; P13K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.)
Journal of Dental Research 07/2006; 85(6):515-9. DOI:10.1177/154405910608500607 · 4.14 Impact Factor