[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the oncogenic role of SETDB1 focusing on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) having high expression of this protein. A total of 387 lung cancer cases were examined by immunohistochemistry, 72% of NSCLC samples were positive for SETDB1 staining, compared to 46% samples of normal bronchial epithelium (106 cases) (p < 0.0001). Percent positive cells and intensity of staining increased significantly with increased grade of disease. Forced expression of SETDB1 in NSCLC cell lines enhanced their clonogenic growth in vitro and markedly increased tumor size in a murine xenograft model; while silencing (shRNA) SETDB1 in NSCLC cells slowed their proliferation. SETDB1 positively stimulated activity of the WNT/beta-catenin pathway and diminished P53 expression resulting in enhanced NSCLC growth in vitro and in vivo. Our finding suggests therapeutic targeting SETDB1 may benefit patients whose tumors express high levels of SETDB1.
The Journal of Pathology 11/2014; · 7.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:We investigated the biologic and pharmacologic activities of a chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) inhibitor against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells both in vitro and in vivo.Methods:The in vitro and in vivo effects of a novel CRM1 inhibitor (KPT-330) for a large number of anticancer parameters were evaluated using a large panel of 11 NSCLC cell lines containing different key driver mutations. Mice bearing human NSCLC xenografts were treated with KPT-330, and tumour growth was assessed.Results:KPT-330 inhibited proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-related proteins in 11 NSCLC cells lines. Moreover, the combination of KPT-330 with cisplatin synergistically enhanced the cell kill of the NSCLC cells in vitro. Human NSCLC tumours growing in immunodeficient mice were markedly inhibited by KPT-330. Also, KPT-330 was effective even against NSCLC cells with a transforming mutation of either exon 20 of EGFR, TP53, phosphatase and tensin homologue, RAS or PIK3CA, suggesting the drug might be effective against a variety of lung cancers irrespective of their driver mutation.Conclusions:Our results support clinical testing of KPT-330 as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.260 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 06/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LNK (SH2B3) is an adaptor protein studied extensively in normal and malignant hematopoietic cells. In these cells, it downregulates activated tyrosine kinases at the cell surface resulting in an antiproliferative effect. To date, no studies have examined activities of LNK in solid tumors. In this study, we found by in silico analysis and staining tissue arrays that the levels of LNK expression were elevated in high-grade ovarian cancer. To test the functional importance of this observation, LNK was either overexpressed or silenced in several ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, overexpression of LNK rendered the cells resistant to death induced by either serum starvation or nutrient deprivation, and generated larger tumors using a murine xenograft model. In contrast, silencing of LNK decreased ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Western blot studies indicated that overexpression of LNK upregulated and extended the transduction of the mitogenic signal, whereas silencing of LNK produced the opposite effects. Furthermore, forced expression of LNK reduced cell size, inhibited cell migration and markedly enhanced cell adhesion. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy identified 14-3-3 as one of the LNK-binding partners. Our results suggest that in contrast to the findings in hematologic malignancies, the adaptor protein LNK acts as a positive signal transduction modulator in ovarian cancers.Oncogene advance online publication, 7 April 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.34.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-throughput DNA sequencing significantly contributed to diagnosis and prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We determined the biological and prognostic significance of genetic aberrations in MDS. 944 patients with various MDS subtypes were screened for known/putative mutations/deletions in 104 genes using targeted deep-sequencing and array-based genomic hybridization. 845/944 patients (89.5%) harbored at least one mutation (median, 3 per patient; range, 0-12). Forty-seven genes were significantly mutated with TET2, SF3B1, ASXL1, SRSF2, DNMT3A, and RUNX1 mutated in >10% of cases. Many mutations were associated with higher risk groups and/or blast elevation. Survival was investigated in 875 patients. By univariate analysis, 25/48 genes (resulting from 47 genes tested significantly plus PRPF8) affected survival (P<0.05). The status of 14 genes combined with conventional factors revealed a novel prognostic model ('Model-1') separating patients into four risk groups ('low', 'intermediate', 'high', 'very high risk') with 3-year survival of 95.2%, 69.3%, 32.8%, and 5.3% (P<0.001). Subsequently, a 'gene-only model' ('Model-2') was constructed based on 14 genes also yielding four significant risk groups (P<0.001). Both models were reproducible in the validation cohort (n=175 patients; P<0.001 each). Thus, large-scale genetic and molecular profiling of multiple target genes is invaluable for subclassification and prognostication in MDS patients.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 13 November 2013; doi:10.1038/leu.2013.336.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 11/2013; · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:The PIAS4 protein belongs to the family of protein inhibitors of activated STAT, but has since been implicated in various biological activities including the post-translational modification known as sumoylation. In this study, we explored the roles of PIAS4 in pancreatic tumourigenesis.Methods:The expression levels of PIAS4 in pancreatic cancer cells were examined. Cell proliferation and invasion was studied after overexpression and gene silencing of PIAS4. The effect of PIAS4 on hypoxia signalling was investigated.Results:The protein was overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells compared with the normal pancreas. Gene silencing by PIAS4 small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed pancreatic cancer cell growth and overexpression of PIAS4 induced expression of genes related to cell growth. The overexpression of PIAS4 is essential for the regulation of the hypoxia signalling pathway. PIAS4 interacts with the tumour suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and leads to VHL sumoylation, oligomerization, and impaired function. Pancreatic cancer cells (Panc0327, MiaPaCa2) treated with PIAS4 siRNA suppressed expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its target genes JMJD1A, VEGF, and STAT3.Conclusion:Our study elucidates the role of PIAS4 in the regulation of pancreatic cancer cell growth, where the suppression of its activity represents a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancers.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 3 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.531 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 90% of well-differentiated/de-differentiated liposarcomas (WDLPS/DDLPS), the most common LPS subtype, have chromosomal amplification at 12q13-q22. Many protein-coding genes in the region, such as MDM2 and , have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for LPS treatment, with minimal success. In the amplified region near the MDM2 gene, our single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis of 75 LPS samples identified frequent amplification of miR-26a-2. Besides being in the amplicon, miR-26a-2 was overexpressed significantly in WDLPS/DDLPS (P<0.001), as well as in myxoid/round cell LPS (MRC) (P<0.05). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that overexpression of miR-26a-2 significantly correlated with poor patient survival in both types of LPS (P<0.05 for WDLPS/DDLPS; P<0.001 for MRC). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that miR-26a-2 has an important role in LPS tumorigenesis, regardless of LPS subtypes. Overexpression of miR-26a-2 in three LPS cell lines (SW872, LPS141 and LP6) enhanced the growth and survival of these cells, including faster cell proliferation and migration, enhanced clonogenicity, suppressed adipocyte differentiation and/or resistance to apoptosis. Inhibition of miR-26a-2 in LPS cells using anti-miR-26a-2 resulted in the opposite responses. To explain further the effect of miR-26a-2 overexpression in LPS cells, we performed in silico analysis and identified 93 candidate targets of miR-26a-2. Among these genes, RCBTB1 (regulator of chromosome condensation and BTB domain-containing protein 1) is located at 13q12.3-q14.3, a region of recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in LPS. Indeed, either overexpression or inhibition of RCBTB1 made LPS cells more susceptible or resistant to apoptosis, respectively. In conclusion, our study for the first time reveals the contribution of miR-26a-2 to LPS tumorigenesis, partly through inhibiting RCBTB1, suggesting that miR-26a-2 is a novel therapeutic target for human LPS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The signal transduction pathways, orchestrating the differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in response to cytokine stimulation, are strictly controlled by networks of feedback loops, highly selective protein interactions and finely tuned on/off switches. In hematological malignancies, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways is usually associated with mutations in tyrosine kinases. Recently, the role of negative signaling regulators is increasingly being recognized as an alternative mechanism involved in diseases such as leukemias and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The adaptor protein LNK (Src homology 2 (SH2)B3) is a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that has an essential, nonredundant role in normal hematopoiesis. Indeed, LNK-deficient mice show marked expansion of early hematopoietic precursors, more mature myeloid and B-lineage lymphoid cells, as well as enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution. Murine models show that loss of LNK enhances the development of MPNs and may have a role in additional pathologies. LNK mutations were recently identified in patients with MPNs, and studies in animal models and hematopoietic cell lines suggest that LNK controls the aberrant signaling pathways induced by activated oncogenic kinases. In addition, genome-wide studies show that LNK is associated with autoimmune and cardiovascular disorders. These findings have implications for the future study of hematopoiesis, as well as for the development of novel stem cell and disease-specific therapies.Oncogene advance online publication, 8 October 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.435.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have emerged as a promising class of agents against thyroid cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo activity of dasatinib against a panel of thyroid cancer cell lines and explore possible mechanisms of action, using various assays and western blotting. Our results showed that dasatinib exhibits prominent cytostatic activity both in vitro and in vivo against thyroid cancer cell lines with RET/PTC rearrangement (BHP2-7) and KRAS mutation (Cal62). Although dasatinib has primarily been described as an ABL/SRCfamily kinase inhibitor, the cytostatic activity observed in the present study is mediated by several off-target effects of dasatinib, some of which have not previously been reported. These effects include a reduction in phospho-FAK, FAK, RAS, Caveolin and SYK protein levels and an increase in β-catenin protein expression, which leads to the induction of senescence, an increase in the adhesiveness of the cells, a decrease in reactive oxygen species level, and changes in the expression profile of molecules involved in cellular adhesion such as integrins. Therefore, we propose that dasatinib is an effective therapeutic agent for certain patients with thyroid cancer, and these candidate patients may be identifiable on the basis of standard genotypic analyses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PAX5 encodes a master regulator of B-cell development. It fuses to other genes associated with acute lymphoblastoid leukemia (ALL). These fusion products are potent dominant-negative (DN) inhibitors of wild-type PAX5, resulting in a blockade of B-cell differentiation. Here, we show that multimerization of PAX5 DNA-binding domain (DBD) is necessary and sufficient to cause extremely stable chromatin binding and DN activity. ALL-associated PAX5-C20S results from fusion of the N-terminal region of PAX5, including its paired DBD, to the C-terminus of C20orf112, a protein of unknown function. We report that PAX5-C20S is a tetramer, which interacts extraordinarily stably with chromatin as determined by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching in living cells. Tetramerization, stable chromatin binding and DN activity all require a putative five-turn amphipathic α-helix at the C-terminus of C20orf112, and does not require potential corepressor binding peptides elsewhere in the sequence. In vitro, the monomeric PAX5 DBD and PAX5-C20S binds a PAX5-binding site with equal affinity when it is at the center of an oligonucleotide too short to bind to more than one PAX5 DBD. But, PAX5-C20S binds the same sequence with 10-fold higher affinity than the monomeric PAX5 DBD when it is in a long DNA molecule. We suggest that the increased affinity results from interactions of one or more of the additional DBDs with neighboring non-specific sites in a long DNA molecule, and that this can account for the increased stability of PAX5-C20S chromatin binding compared with wild-type PAX5, resulting in DN activity by competition for binding to PAX5-target sites. Consistent with this model, the ALL-associated PAX5 fused to ETV6 or the multimerization domain of ETV6 SAM results in stable chromatin binding and DN activity. In addition, PAX5 DBD fused to artificial dimerization, trimerization and tetramerization domains results in parallel increases in the stability of chromatin binding and DN activity. Our studies suggest that oncogenic fusion proteins that retain the DBD of the transcription factor (TF) and the multimerization sequence of the partner protein can act in a DN manner by multimerizing and binding avidly to gene targets, preventing the normal TF from binding and inducing expression of its target genes. Inhibition of this multimeriztion may provide a novel therapeutic approach for cancers with this or similar fusion proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulsed electric fields with nanosecond duration and high amplitude have effects on biological subjects and bring new venue in disease diagnosis and therapy. To address this respect, we investigated the responses of paired tumor and normal human skin cells - a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cell line, and its sister normal cell line (TE) - to nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter pulses. When BCC (TE 354.T) and TE (TE 353.SK) cells, cultured under standard conditions, were exposed to 30 ns, 3 MV/m, 50 Hz pulses and tested for membrane permeabilization, viability, morphology, and caspase activation, we found that nanoelectropulse exposure: 1) increased cell membrane permeability in both cell lines but to a greater extent in BCC cells than in normal cells; 2) decreased cell viabilities with BCC cells affected more than normal cells; 3) induced morphological changes in both cell lines including condensed and fragmented chromatin with enlarged nuclei; 4) induced about twice as much caspase activation in BCC cells compared to normal cells. We concluded that in paired tumor and normal skin cell lines, the response of the tumor cells to nanoelectropulse exposure is stronger than the response of normal cells, indicating the potential for selectivity in therapeutic applications.
Technology in cancer research & treatment 06/2011; 10(3):281-6. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an ingredient of chili peppers with inhibitory effects against cancer cells of different origin. We examined the activity of capsaicin on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The drug potently inhibited growth of ER-positive (MCF-7, T47D, BT-474) and ER-negative (SKBR-3, MDA-MB231) breast cancer cell lines, which was associated with G(0)/G(1) cell-cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and reduced protein expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER-2, activated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclin D1. In contrast, cell-cycle regulator p27(KIP1), caspase activity as well as poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage were increased. Notably, capsaicin blocked breast cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased by 50% the size of MDA-MB231 breast cancer tumors growing orthotopically in immunodeficient mice without noticeable drug side effects. in vivo activation of ERK was clearly decreased, as well as expression of HER-2 and cyclin D1, whereas caspase activity and PARP cleavage products were increased in tumors of drug-treated mice. Besides, capsaicin potently inhibited the development of pre-neoplastic breast lesions by up to 80% without evidence of toxicity. Our data indicate that capsaicin is a novel modulator of the EGFR/HER-2 pathway in both ER-positive and -negative breast cancer cells with a potential role in the treatment and prevention of human breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klotho is a transmembrane protein that can be shed and act as a circulating hormone and is a putative tumor suppressor in breast cancer. A functional variant of KLOTHO (KL-VS) contains two amino acid substitutions F352V and C370S and shows reduced activity. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 substantially increase lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Yet, penetrance of deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is incomplete even among carriers of identical mutations. We examined the association between KL-VS and cancer risk among 1115 Ashkenazi Jewish women: 236 non-carriers, 631 BRCA1 (185delAG, 5382insC) carriers and 248 BRCA2 (6174delT) carriers. Among BRCA1 carriers, heterozygosity for the KL-VS allele was associated with increased breast and ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence intervals 1.08-1.83, P=0.01) and younger age at breast cancer diagnosis (median age 48 vs 43 P=0.04). KLOTHO and BRCA2 are located on 13q12, and we identified linkage disequilibrium between KL-VS and BRCA2 6174delT mutation. Studies in breast cancer cells showed reduced growth inhibitory activity and reduced secretion of klotho F352V compared with wild-type klotho. These data suggest KL-VS as a breast and ovarian cancer risk modifier among BRCA1 mutation carriers. If validated in additional cohorts, the presence of KL-VS may serve as a predictor of cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polo-like kinase1 (PLK1) belongs to the family of serine/threonine kinases and plays an important role in centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and cytokinesis during mitosis. We found in this study that PLK1 was aberrantly highly expressed in a variety of human leukemia cell lines (n=20), as well as, freshly isolated leukemia cells from individuals with acute myelogenous leukemia (n=50) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=15) compared with bone marrow mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers (n=13) (acute myelogenous leukemia, P=0.016; acute lymphoblastic leukemia, P=0.008), as measured by real-time RT-PCR. Downregulation of PLK1 by a small interfering RNA in NB4 acute myelogenous leukemia cells inhibited their proliferation. GW843682X is a novel selective PLK1 inhibitor. The compound-induced growth inhibition, caused accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and mediated apoptosis of human leukemia cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK attenuated the action of GW843682X in leukemia cells, indicating the involvement of the caspase pathway in the PLK1 inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the PLK1 inhibitor synergistically potentiated the growth inhibition and apoptosis of leukemia cells when combined with tubulin-depolymerizing agent vincristine. Taken together, targeting PLK1 may be a promising treatment strategy for individuals with leukemia.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 06/2009; 23(9):1564-76. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid carcinoma cells often do not express thyroid-specific genes including sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (TG), and thyrotropin-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Treatment of thyroid carcinoma cells (four papillary and two anaplastic cell lines) with histone deacetylase inhibitors (SAHA or VPA) modestly induced the expression of the NIS gene. The promoter regions of the thyroid-specific genes contained binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 beta (HNF3 beta)/forkhead box A2 (FoxA2), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP beta). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed decreased expression of HNF3 beta/FoxA2 and TTF-1 mRNA in papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines, when compared with normal thyroid cells. Forced expression of these genes in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells inhibited their growth. Furthermore, the CpG island in the promoter region of HNF3 beta/FoxA2 was aberrantly methylated; and treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Az) induced its expression. Immunohistochemical staining showed that C/EBP beta was localised in the nucleus in normal thyroid cells but was detected in the cytoplasm in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells. Subcellular fractionation of papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines also demonstrated high levels of expression of C/EBP beta in the cytoplasm, suggesting that a large proportion of C/EBP beta protein is inappropriately localised in the cytoplasm. In summary, these findings reveal novel abnormalities in thyroid carcinoma cells.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2008; 99(5):781-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klotho is an anti-aging gene, which has been shown to inhibit the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathways in mice hepatocytes and myocytes. As IGF-1 and insulin regulate proliferation, survival and metastasis of breast cancer, we studied klotho expression and activities in human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry analysis of klotho expression in breast tissue arrays revealed high klotho expression in normal breast samples, but very low expression in breast cancer. In cancer samples, high klotho expression was associated with smaller tumor size and reduced KI67 staining. Forced expression of klotho reduced proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, whereas klotho silencing in MCF-7 cells, which normally express klotho, enhanced proliferation. Moreover, forced expression of klotho in these cells, or treatment with soluble klotho, inhibited the activation of IGF-1 and insulin pathways, and induced upregulation of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, a breast cancer growth inhibitor that is negatively regulated by the IGF-1-AKT axis. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction between klotho and the IGF-1 receptor. Klotho is also a known modulator of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway, a pathway that inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells. Studies in breast cancer cells revealed increased activation of the FGF pathway by basic FGF following klotho overexpression. Klotho did not affect activation of the epidermal growth factor pathway in breast cancer cells. These data suggest klotho as a potential tumor suppressor and identify it as an inhibitor of the IGF-1 pathway and activator of the FGF pathway in human breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study found that MS-275, a novel synthetic benzamide histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), blocked Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) HL60 and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells, as assessed by decreased levels of the phosphorylated (p)-Akt, p-p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) and p-S6K by western blot analysis. Interestingly, further inactivation of mTOR by rapamycin analog RAD001 (everolimus) significantly enhanced MS-275-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis of these cells in parallel with enhanced upregulation of p27(kip1) and downregulation of c-Myc. In addition, RAD001 potentiated the ability of MS-275 to induce differentiation of HL60 and NB4 cells, as measured by the expression of CD11b cell surface antigens, as well as reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. Importantly, RAD001 potentiated the ability of MS-275 to induce the expression of the myeloid differentiation-related transcription factor, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-epsilon, in these cells in association with enhanced acetylation of histone H3 on its promoter. Furthermore, RAD001 (5 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the effects of MS-275 (10 mg/kg) to inhibit proliferation of HL60 tumor xenografts in nude mice without adverse effects. Taken together, concomitant administration of an HDACI and an mTOR inhibitor may be a promising treatment strategy for the individuals with a subset of human leukemia.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2008; 22(12):2159-68. · 10.16 Impact Factor