[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The association of blood pressure levels during the acute phase of ischemic stroke with outcome remains controversial.AimsThe objective of this systematic review is to assess the predictive value for stroke outcome assessed by the modified Rankin scale score of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring methods during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, compared with the values of casually derived blood pressure measurement on admission.Methods
We searched for studies with patients admitted within 24 h of stroke onset, and who had ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during the first 24 h of admission. We identified studies that reported blood pressure in those with good outcome and in those with poor outcome at end of follow-up, and performed a meta-analysis of the effect of mean blood pressure on outcome.ResultsHigh systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor short-, medium-, and long-term outcome, but the same was not found for casual blood pressure measurements. An increase in systolic blood pressure of 9·1 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 6·6–11·6, P < 0·001; I2 = 9%) and an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 2·3 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0·8–3·7, P = 0·002; I2 = 0%) were associated with poor outcome.Conclusions
Higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor outcome. The same was not found for higher casual blood pressure measurements on admission, and it is possible that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring conveys better prognostic information.
International Journal of Stroke 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/ijs.12609 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present interim analysis was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of the generic clopidogrel besylate (CB) with the innovator clopidogrel hydrogen sulphate (CHS) salt in patient groups eligible to receive clopidogrel.
A 2-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 4 clinical trial. Consecutive patients (n=1,864) were screened and 1,800 were enrolled in the trial and randomized to CHS (n=759) or CB (n=798). Primary efficacy end point was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke or death from vascular causes, and primary safety end point was rate of bleeding events as defined by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria.
At 6-months follow-up no differences were observed between CB and CHS in primary efficacy end point (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.71; p=0.57). Rates of BARC-1,-2,-3a and -5b bleeding were similar between the two study groups whereas no bleeding events according to BARC-3b, -3c, -4 and -5a were observed in either CHS or CB group.
The clinical efficacy and safety of the generic CB is similar to that of the innovator CHS salt, thus, it can be routinely used in the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events for a period of at least 6 months. (Salts of Clopidogrel: Investigation to ENsure Clinical Equivalence, SCIENCE study Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02126982).
Current Vascular Pharmacology 03/2015; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The aim was to prospectively evaluate post-implantation syndrome (PIS) after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and to investigate its association with clinical and laboratory parameters and the clinical outcome of the patients. Methods: From January 2010 till June 2013, 214 consecutive patients treated electively by EVAR for AAA were prospectively included. PIS was defined according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Adverse events included any major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), acute renal failure, re-admission and death from any cause. Results: PIS was diagnosed in 77 (34%) patients. Pre-operative white blood cell (WBC) count values (p < .001), endograft material (polyester) (p < .001), and heart failure (p = .03) were independent predictors of PIS. Mean post-operative temperature (p < .001), length of hospital (p < .001) and intensive care unit (p = .008) stay, as well as maximum post-operative WBC count (p < .001) and hs-CRP values (p < .001) were significantly higher in the PIS group. Post-operative hs-CRP (p = .001) and duration of fever (p = .02) independently predicted the occurrence of MACE. Post-operative hs-CRP (p = .004), maximum temperature (p = .03), and the presence of PIS (p = .01) were independent predictors of an adverse event during the first 30 days. A threshold of post-operative hs-CRP value of 125 mg/L was highly associated with the occurrence of MACE, with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 75%. Conclusions: A systematic inflammatory response is observed in a significant number of patients after EVAR. The type of endograft material seems to play a significant role in this inflammatory process. The intensity of inflammation, as assessed mainly by the post-operative hs-CRP values, correlates with the presence of a cardiovascular or any other adverse event during the first 30 days after the procedure.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 01/2015; 49(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.12.006 · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of acute cerebrovascular symptoms temporally related to carotid Doppler examination (DEx), in order to increase the awareness and recording of such events and to discuss possible mechanisms. All adult patients who complained of acute onset neurologic symptoms during or shortly after a carotid DEx, between 01/2003 and 12/2011 in the University Hospital of Lausanne were prospectively collected. We identified four consecutive patients with acute onset neurologic symptoms during or shortly after a carotid DEx among approximately 13,500 patients who underwent carotid DEx in our facility during the nine-year period (0.015% of all examined carotids). Clinical data, imaging reports and CTA (CT angiography) or/and ultrasound images are presented for each patient. Ischemic cerebrovascular events during or immediately after cervical Doppler could be due to chance or to several physical factors. They should be promptly recognized by Doppler personnel and properly treated, but do not put into question the overwhelming benefits of Doppler in cerebrovascular patients.
Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology 12/2014; 41(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.09.027 · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and are currently the mainstay in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and subsequently the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, there is a need to further lower LDL-C, especially in subjects with severe forms of hypercholesterolaemia despite maximum doses of conventional drugs and/or in those intolerant to existing therapies. Areas covered: Emerging therapeutic approaches to lowering LDL-C involve blocking LDL-receptor degradation by serum proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9). Human monoclonal antibodies that target PCSK9 and its interaction with the LDL-receptor (AMG145, REGN727 and RN316) have been tested in Phase I - III clinical trials for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia in patients at high CVD risk. Expert opinion: These new agents are administered subcutaneously and have been shown to have major LDL-C and apoB lowering effects either alone or in combination with statins. These novel agents are generally well tolerated and once long-term safety data are available they appear promising therapeutic platforms for the treatment of patients with hypercholesterolaemia at risk for or with CVD not controlled by conventional therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
It is still debatable whether anemia predicts stroke outcome.AimTo describe the characteristics of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and anemia and identify whether hemoglobin status on admission is a prognostic factor of AIS outcome.Methods
All 2439 patients of the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL) between January 2003 and June 2011 were selected. Demographics, risk factors, prestroke treatment, clinical, radiological and metabolic variables in patients with and without anemia according to the definition of the World Health Organization were compared. Functional disability and mortality were recorded up to 12 months from admission.ResultsAnemic patients (17·5%) were older, had lower body mass index, higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus and peripheral artery disease. Anemia was associated with more severe stroke manifestations, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, worse estimated glomerular filtration rate and elevated C-reactive protein concentrations upon admission and with increased modified Rankin scores during the follow-up. Anemic patients had higher 7-day, 3-month and 12-month mortality, which was associated with hemoglobin status and other factors, including age, CAD, stroke severity, and baseline C-reactive levels. Hemoglobin levels were inversely associated with recurrent stroke and mortality throughout the 12-month follow-up.Conclusion
Anemia is common among AIS patients and is associated with cardiovascular comorbidities. Low hemoglobin status independently predicts short and long-term mortality.
International Journal of Stroke 12/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12397 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: There is a paucity of data regarding the attainment of lipid-lowering treatment goals according to the recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. The aim of the present study was to assess how applicable these 2013 recommendations are in the setting of an Outpatient University Hospital Lipid Clinic. Methods: This was a retrospective (from 1999 to 2013) observational study including 1000 consecutive adults treated for hyperlipidemia and followed up for ≥3 years. Comparisons for the applicability of current European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) and recent ACC/AHA guidelines were performed. Results: Achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets set by ESC/EAS were 21%, 44% and 62% among patients at very high, high and moderate cardiovascular risk, respectively, receiving statin monotherapy. Among individuals on high-intensity statins only 47% achieved the anticipated ≥50% LDL-C reduction, i.e. the ACC/AHA target. The corresponding rate was significantly greater among those on statin + ezetimibe (76%, p < 0.05). Likewise, higher rates of LDL-C target attainment according to ESC/EAS guidelines were observed in patients on statin + ezetimibe compared with statin monotherapy (37, 50 and 71% for the three risk groups, p < 0.05 for the very high risk group). Conclusion: The application of the ACC/AHA guidelines may be associated with undertreatment of high risk patients due to suboptimal LDL-C response to high-intensity statins in clinical practice. Adding ezetimibe substantially increases the rate of the ESC/EAS LDL-C target achievement together with the rate of LDL-C lowering response suggested by the ACC/AHA.
Current Medical Research and Opinion 11/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1185/03007995.2014.982751 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives
The most recent ACC/AHA guidelines recommend high-intensity statin therapy in ischemic stroke patients of presumably atherosclerotic origin. On the contrary, there is no specific recommendation for the use of statin in patients with non-atherosclerotic stroke, e.g. strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated whether statin treatment in patients with AF-related stroke is associated with improved survival and reduced risk for stroke recurrence and future cardiovascular events.
All consecutive patients registered in the Athens Stroke Registry with AF-related stroke and no history of coronary artery disease nor clinically manifest peripheral artery disease were included in the analysis and categorized in two groups depending on whether statin was prescribed at discharge. The primary outcome was overall mortality; the secondary outcomes were stroke recurrence and a composite cardiovascular endpoint comprising of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm rupture or sudden cardiac death during the 5-year follow-up.
Among 1602 stroke patients, 404 (25.2%) with AF-related stroke were included in the analysis, of whom 102 (25.2%) were discharged on statin. On multivariate Cox-proportional-hazards model, statin treatment was independently associated with a lower mortality (hazard-ratio (HR): 0.49, 95%CI:0.26–0.92) and lower risk for the composite cardiovascular endpoint during the median 22 months follow-up (HR: 0.44, 95%CI:0.22–0.88), but not with stroke recurrence (HR: 0.47, 95%CI:0.22–1.01, p: 0.053).
In this long-term registry of patients with AF-related stroke, statin treatment was associated with improved survival and reduced risk for future cardiovascular events.
International Journal of Cardiology 11/2014; 177(1):129–133. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.09.031 · 6.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. Methodology: During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60±12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77±9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age-sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal "unhealthier" eating practices. Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95%CI: 1.29 - 2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. Conclusion: The overall adoption of specific "unhealthy" eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purposeThere is no strong evidence that all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to investigate whether all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk.Methods
All consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke registered in the Athens Stroke Registry between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 were categorized according to the TOAST classification and were followed up for up to 10 years. Outcomes assessed were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke recurrence, and a composite cardiovascular outcome consisting of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, acute heart failure, sudden cardiac death, stroke recurrence and aortic aneurysm rupture. The Kaplan–Meier product limit method was used to estimate the probability of each end-point in each patient group. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the independent covariates of each end-point.ResultsTwo thousand seven hundred and thirty patients were followed up for 48.1 ± 41.9 months. The cumulative probabilities of 10-year cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardioembolic stroke [46.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.6–52.8], lacunar stroke (22.1%, 95% CI 16.2–28.0) or undetermined stroke (35.2%, 95% CI 27.8–42.6) were either similar to or higher than those of patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LAA) (28.7%, 95% CI 22.4–35.0). Compared with LAA, all other TOAST types had a higher probability of 10-year stroke recurrence. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, compared with patients with LAA, patients with any other stroke type were associated with similar or higher risk for the outcomes of overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke recurrence and composite cardiovascular outcome.Conclusions
Large-artery atherosclerotic stroke and cardioembolic stroke are associated with the highest risk for future cardiovascular events, with the latter carrying at least as high a risk as LAA stroke.
European Journal of Neurology 04/2014; 21(8). DOI:10.1111/ene.12438 · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Statins (hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme reductase inhibitors) remain the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy based on the evidence of clinical outcome trials. However, management of dyslipidemia in clinical practice may require the use of other hypolipidemic agents in combination with statins. Fibrate (agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, PPR-α) monotherapy is effective for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, while the combination of a fibrate with a statin is an option in the management of patients with combined dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus who present with atherogenic dyslipidemia (low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels). There is evidence that the combination treatment is efficacious towards a global improvement of the lipid abnormalities with a safety profile similar to that of fibrate monotherapy with regard to liver and muscle toxicity. Nevertheless, renal function may be more commonly affected in those treated with a 'fibrate plus statin'. This concern has been raised with fibrate use either alone or in combination with a statin and should be taken into consideration when starting fibrate treatment while the pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of this drug-related effect need further investigation.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 02/2014; 13(3). DOI:10.1517/14740338.2014.887679 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of lipid lowering with rosuvastatin (RSV) monotherapy versus intensified treatment by combining RSV with ezetimibe (EZT) on kidney function in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/d RSV (n = 136) or RSV 10 mg/d plus EZT 10 mg/d (RSV/EZT, n = 126). At 12 months, a similar decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was noted. Patients who achieved a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of <100 mg/dL had less eGFR decrease than those patients having an LDL-C limit of more than 100 mg/dL. There were no significant changes in the urinary total protein to creatinine ratio in either group. Significant microalbuminuria was evident in both the groups. Patients undergoing vascular surgery show deterioration in their renal function during the first year, despite statin therapy. Intensified lipid-lowering therapy by adding EZT does not appear to have any renoprotective effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. During 2009–2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60 ± 12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77 ± 9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age–sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal “unhealthier” eating practices. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95%CI: 1.29–2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. The overall adoption of specific “unhealthy” eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease.