Haralampos J Milionis

University Hospital of Ioannina, Yannina, Epirus, Greece

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Publications (233)707.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is a paucity of data regarding the attainment of lipid-lowering treatment goals according to the recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines. The aim of the present study was to assess how applicable these 2013 recommendations are in the setting of an Outpatient University Hospital Lipid Clinic. Methods: This was a retrospective (from 1999 to 2013) observational study including 1000 consecutive adults treated for hyperlipidemia and followed up for ≥3 years. Comparisons for the applicability of current European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) and recent ACC/AHA guidelines were performed. Results: Achievement rates of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets set by ESC/EAS were 21%, 44% and 62% among patients at very high, high and moderate cardiovascular risk, respectively, receiving statin monotherapy. Among individuals on high-intensity statins only 47% achieved the anticipated ≥50% LDL-C reduction, i.e. the ACC/AHA target. The corresponding rate was significantly greater among those on statin + ezetimibe (76%, p < 0.05). Likewise, higher rates of LDL-C target attainment according to ESC/EAS guidelines were observed in patients on statin + ezetimibe compared with statin monotherapy (37, 50 and 71% for the three risk groups, p < 0.05 for the very high risk group). Conclusion: The application of the ACC/AHA guidelines may be associated with undertreatment of high risk patients due to suboptimal LDL-C response to high-intensity statins in clinical practice. Adding ezetimibe substantially increases the rate of the ESC/EAS LDL-C target achievement together with the rate of LDL-C lowering response suggested by the ACC/AHA.
    Current Medical Research and Opinion 11/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives The most recent ACC/AHA guidelines recommend high-intensity statin therapy in ischemic stroke patients of presumably atherosclerotic origin. On the contrary, there is no specific recommendation for the use of statin in patients with non-atherosclerotic stroke, e.g. strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated whether statin treatment in patients with AF-related stroke is associated with improved survival and reduced risk for stroke recurrence and future cardiovascular events. Methods All consecutive patients registered in the Athens Stroke Registry with AF-related stroke and no history of coronary artery disease nor clinically manifest peripheral artery disease were included in the analysis and categorized in two groups depending on whether statin was prescribed at discharge. The primary outcome was overall mortality; the secondary outcomes were stroke recurrence and a composite cardiovascular endpoint comprising of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm rupture or sudden cardiac death during the 5-year follow-up. Results Among 1602 stroke patients, 404 (25.2%) with AF-related stroke were included in the analysis, of whom 102 (25.2%) were discharged on statin. On multivariate Cox-proportional-hazards model, statin treatment was independently associated with a lower mortality (hazard-ratio (HR): 0.49, 95%CI:0.26–0.92) and lower risk for the composite cardiovascular endpoint during the median 22 months follow-up (HR: 0.44, 95%CI:0.22–0.88), but not with stroke recurrence (HR: 0.47, 95%CI:0.22–1.01, p: 0.053). Conclusions In this long-term registry of patients with AF-related stroke, statin treatment was associated with improved survival and reduced risk for future cardiovascular events.
    International Journal of Cardiology. 11/2014; 177(1):129–133.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. Methodology: During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60±12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77±9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age-sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal "unhealthier" eating practices. Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95%CI: 1.29 - 2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. Conclusion: The overall adoption of specific "unhealthy" eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease.
    Appetite 05/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purposeThere is no strong evidence that all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk. Our aim was to investigate whether all ischaemic stroke types are associated with high cardiovascular risk.Methods All consecutive patients with ischaemic stroke registered in the Athens Stroke Registry between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 were categorized according to the TOAST classification and were followed up for up to 10 years. Outcomes assessed were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke recurrence, and a composite cardiovascular outcome consisting of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, acute heart failure, sudden cardiac death, stroke recurrence and aortic aneurysm rupture. The Kaplan–Meier product limit method was used to estimate the probability of each end-point in each patient group. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the independent covariates of each end-point.ResultsTwo thousand seven hundred and thirty patients were followed up for 48.1 ± 41.9 months. The cumulative probabilities of 10-year cardiovascular mortality in patients with cardioembolic stroke [46.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 40.6–52.8], lacunar stroke (22.1%, 95% CI 16.2–28.0) or undetermined stroke (35.2%, 95% CI 27.8–42.6) were either similar to or higher than those of patients with large-artery atherosclerotic stroke (LAA) (28.7%, 95% CI 22.4–35.0). Compared with LAA, all other TOAST types had a higher probability of 10-year stroke recurrence. In Cox proportional hazards analysis, compared with patients with LAA, patients with any other stroke type were associated with similar or higher risk for the outcomes of overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke recurrence and composite cardiovascular outcome.Conclusions Large-artery atherosclerotic stroke and cardioembolic stroke are associated with the highest risk for future cardiovascular events, with the latter carrying at least as high a risk as LAA stroke.
    European Journal of Neurology 04/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • Haralampos Milionis
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    ABSTRACT: Statins (hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme reductase inhibitors) remain the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy based on the evidence of clinical outcome trials. However, management of dyslipidemia in clinical practice may require the use of other hypolipidemic agents in combination with statins. Fibrate (agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, PPR-α) monotherapy is effective for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, while the combination of a fibrate with a statin is an option in the management of patients with combined dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus who present with atherogenic dyslipidemia (low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and elevated triglyceride levels). There is evidence that the combination treatment is efficacious towards a global improvement of the lipid abnormalities with a safety profile similar to that of fibrate monotherapy with regard to liver and muscle toxicity. Nevertheless, renal function may be more commonly affected in those treated with a 'fibrate plus statin'. This concern has been raised with fibrate use either alone or in combination with a statin and should be taken into consideration when starting fibrate treatment while the pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of this drug-related effect need further investigation.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 02/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of lipid lowering with rosuvastatin (RSV) monotherapy versus intensified treatment by combining RSV with ezetimibe (EZT) on kidney function in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to either 10 mg/d RSV (n = 136) or RSV 10 mg/d plus EZT 10 mg/d (RSV/EZT, n = 126). At 12 months, a similar decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was noted. Patients who achieved a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of <100 mg/dL had less eGFR decrease than those patients having an LDL-C limit of more than 100 mg/dL. There were no significant changes in the urinary total protein to creatinine ratio in either group. Significant microalbuminuria was evident in both the groups. Patients undergoing vascular surgery show deterioration in their renal function during the first year, despite statin therapy. Intensified lipid-lowering therapy by adding EZT does not appear to have any renoprotective effect.
    Angiology 01/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the combined role of eating behaviors and to investigate their effect on the likelihood of developing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or an ischemic stroke. During 2009–2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS (83% males, 60 ± 12 years) and 250 control subjects, as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke (56% males, 77 ± 9 years) and 250 controls. The controls were population-based and age–sex matched with the patients. Detailed information regarding their anthropometric data, medical records and lifestyle characteristics (dietary and smoking habits, physical activity, psychological state and eating practices -using a special questionnaire-) were recorded. Five eating behaviors were selected to compose an eating behavior score for the purposes of this work: adherence to the Mediterranean diet (using the MedDietScore), frequency of breakfast consumption, eating while being stressed, eating while working and skipping meals. Eating behaviors with beneficial health effects were scored with 0, while those with negative effects were assigned score 1. The total range of the score was between 0 and 5. Higher scores reveal “unhealthier” eating practices. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each unit increase of the eating behavior score was associated with 70% (95%CI: 1.29–2.22) higher likelihood of developing an ACS. Insignificant associations were observed regarding ischemic stroke. The overall adoption of specific “unhealthy” eating practices seems to have a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health, and especially coronary heart disease.
    Appetite 01/2014; 80:89–95. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the accuracy of a-priori and a-posteriori dietary patterns in the prediction of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ischemic stroke. This is actually the first study to employ state-of-the-art classification methods for this purpose. During 2009-2010, 1000 participants were enrolled; 250 consecutive patients with a first ACS and 250 controls (60±12 years, 83% males), as well as 250 consecutive patients with a first stroke and 250 controls (75±9 years, 56% males). The controls were population-based and age-sex matched to the patients. The a-priori dietary patterns were derived from the validated MedDietScore, whereas the a-posteriori ones were extracted from principal components analysis. Both approaches were modeled using six classification algorithms: multiple logistic regression (MLR), naïve Bayes, decision trees, repeated incremental pruning to produce error reduction (RIPPER), artificial neural networks and support vector machines. The classification accuracy of the resulting models was evaluated using the C-statistic. For the ACS prediction, the C-statistic varied from 0.587 (RIPPER) to 0.807 (MLR) for the a-priori analysis, while for the a-posteriori one, it fluctuated between 0.583 (RIPPER) and 0.827 (MLR). For the stroke prediction, the C-statistic varied from 0.637 (RIPPER) to 0.767 (MLR) for the a-priori analysis, and from 0.617 (decision tree) to 0.780 (MLR) for the a-posteriori. Both dietary pattern approaches achieved equivalent classification accuracy over most classification algorithms. The choice, therefore, depends on the application at hand.
    Artificial intelligence in medicine 09/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease remain major health problems with associated mortality and quality-of-life consequences. Antiplatelet agents, including thienopyridines and the new P2Y12 inhibitors, have been shown to improve survival in the secondary prevention setting. We review the available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of previous established as well as novel antithrombotic agents in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a special focus on cerebrovascular disease.
    Angiology 08/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the August 2013 issue of the Journal of Vascular Surgery, the Letter to the Editor by Arnaoutoglou et al (Regarding "The impact of endograft type on inflammatory response after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm". J Vasc Surg 2013;58:570.) contained the incorrect order for the authors. Prof Miltiadis Matsagkas should be listed as the senior author of this Letter.
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    ABSTRACT: Children with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) are prone to premature atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial dysfunction may predict increased cardiovascular risk in children with heFH. The aim of this study was to assess for early functional and structural vascular changes in children with heFH. This cross-sectional study included 30 children with heFH (mean age 12 years) and 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and large- and small vessel compliance were measured noninvasively. HeFH children exhibited significantly greater total and LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein (a) levels (p < 0.05 for all) and lower FMD (6.23 ± 3.88 vs. 9.46 ± 4.54 %, p < 0.004) compared with controls. When children were divided in age subgroups, FMD was found to be significantly decreased in heFH compared with control subjects only in ages >10 years (p < 0.05). However, FMD was found to be similarly impaired in heFH children in all age subgroups (two-way analysis of variance, p = 0.39). No differences in other vascular function indices were found. In heFH patients, but not in controls, FMD was inversely correlated with cIMT (r = -0.378, p = 0.036). In conclusion, endothelial dysfunction occurs early in heFH children indicating an increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease and reflecting probably the need for early initiation of anticholesterolemic treatment. Decreased FMD is detected before structural atherosclerotic changes occur.
    Pediatric Cardiology 07/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia, involving progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism of AD is not fully elucidated, apart from β-amyloid and tau protein, a diverse number of factors such as cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and lipids metabolism may play a significant role. Numerous epidemiological and laboratory studies support vascular injury and inflammation, as key pathological processes. The present review is focused on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, discussing them as independent mechanisms converging to the same final pathogenetic cascade of AD.
    The International journal of neuroscience 07/2013; · 0.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) is a clinical tool to identify the presence of peripheral artery disease. There is a scarcity of data associating ABI with long-term outcome in patients with IS. The association between ABI and long-term outcome in patients with first-ever acute IS was assessed. METHODS: Ankle-brachial blood pressure index was assessed in all consecutive patients with a first-ever acute IS admitted at Alexandra University hospital (Athens, Greece) between January 2005 and December 2010. ABI was considered normal when > 0.90 and ≤ 1.30. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate the probability of 5-year composite cardiovascular event-free (defined as recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death) and overall survival. A multivariate analysis was performed to assess whether ABI is an independent predictor of 5-year mortality and dependence. RESULTS: Amongst 653 patients, 129 (19.8%) with ABI ≤ 0.9 were identified. Five-year cumulative composite cardiovascular event-free and overall survival rates were better in normal ABI stroke patients (log-rank test: 7.22, P = 0.007 and 23.40, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no difference in 5-year risk of stroke recurrence between low and normal ABI groups (hazard ratio, HR = 1.23, 95%CI 0.68-2.23). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, independent predictors of 5-year mortality included age (HR = 2.55 per 10 years, 95%CI 1.86-3.48, P < 0.001), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (per point increase HR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.08-1.16, P < 0.001), and low ABI (HR = 2.22, 95%CI 1.22-4.03, P = 0.009). Age (HR = 1.21 per 10 years, 95%CI 1.01-1.45, P = 0.04) and low ABI (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.11-2.67, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of the composite cardiovascular end-point. CONCLUSIONS: Low ABI in patients with acute IS is associated with increased 5-year cardiovascular event risk and mortality. However, ABI does not appear to predict long-term stroke recurrence.
    European Journal of Neurology 06/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to compare the influence of classic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ischemic stroke. During 2009-2010, 1,000 participants were enrolled: 250 were consecutive patients with a first ACS, 250 were consecutive patients with a first ischemic stroke, and 500 were population-based, control subjects, 1-for-1 matched to the patients by age and gender. The following CVD risk factors were evaluated: smoking/passive smoking, family history of CVD, physical inactivity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, presence of overweight and obesity, trait anxiety (assessed with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y-2), and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (assessed by the MedDietScore). Furthermore, participants graded the perceived significance of the aforementioned factors, using a scale from 1 (not important) to 9 (very important). The risk factors with the highest effect size for ACS, as determined by the Wald criterion, were smoking and hypercholesterolemia; regarding stroke, they were anxiety and family history of CVD (all p <0.01). When the odds ratios of each factor for ACS and stroke were compared, insignificant differences were observed, except for smoking. On the basis of the participants' health beliefs, smoking and stress emerged as the most important risk factors, whereas all subjects graded passive smoking as a least important factor. In conclusion, similarities of the risk factors regarding ACS and ischemic stroke facilitate simultaneous primary prevention measures.
    The American journal of cardiology 04/2013; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ASTRAL score was externally validated showing remarkable consistency on 3-month outcome prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to evaluate ASTRAL score's prognostic accuracy to predict 5-year outcome. METHODS: All consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke registered in the Athens Stroke Registry between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2010, were included. Patients were excluded if admitted >24 hours after symptom onset or if any ASTRAL score component was missing. End points were 5-year unfavorable functional outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale 3 to 6, and 5-year mortality. For each outcome, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated; also, a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate whether the ASTRAL score was an independent predictor of outcome. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate the probability of 5-year survival for each ASTRAL score quartile. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of the score to predict 5-year unfavorable functional outcome was 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.91. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, the ASTRAL score was independently associated with 5-year unfavorable functional outcome (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.10). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the ASTRAL score's discriminatory power to predict 5-year mortality was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.83). In multivariate analysis, the ASTRAL score was independently associated with 5-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.10). During the 5-year follow-up, the probability of survival was significantly lower with increasing ASTRAL score quartiles (log-rank test <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ASTRAL score reliably predicts 5-year functional outcome and mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
    Stroke 04/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores are used to assess stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated whether these scores are associated with stroke outcome in non-AF stroke patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke but without AF were classified into subgroups according to prestroke CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores and followed up for 5 years. The end points were death, stroke recurrence, and a composite of major cardiovascular events. RESULTS: Among 1,756 patients (aged 67.2 ± 12.3 years, 68.2% males), there were 258 (14.7%), 617 (35.3%), and 878 (50.0%) patients with low, intermediate, and high CHADS(2) score, respectively. The corresponding figures for CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc subgroups were 110 (6.3%), 255 (14.5%), and 1,391 (79.2%). There were significant differences between CHADS(2) subgroups in 5-year mortality (log-rank test = 74.5, p < 0.0001), stroke recurrence (log-rank test = 12.3, p = 0.002), and cardiovascular events (log-rank test = 19.4, p < 0.001). Similarly, there were significant differences between CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc subgroups in 5-year mortality (log-rank test = 74.5, p < 0.0001), stroke recurrence (log-rank test = 10.6, p = 0.005), and cardiovascular events (log-rank test = 16.4, p < 0.001). Compared with the low-risk group, patients in intermediate- and high-risk CHADS(2) subgroups had higher 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.78-2.77] and 3.66 [95% CI: 2.38-5.62], respectively), stroke recurrence (HR: 1.74 [95% CI: 1.09-2.79] and 1.71 [95% CI: 1.08-2.71], respectively), and cardiovascular events (HR: 1.78 [95% CI: 1.23-2.57] and 1.86 [95% CI: 1.30-2.67], respectively). Compared with the low-risk group, patients in the high-risk CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc subgroup also had higher 5-year mortality (HR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.89-6.70), stroke recurrence (HR: 2.93, 95% CI: 1.30-6.61), and cardiovascular events (HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.49-4.95). CONCLUSIONS: Prestroke CHADS(2) and CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc scores predict long-term stroke outcomes in non-AF patients with acute ischemic stroke. These scores may provide a simple way of stroke prognostic risk stratification among non-AF stroke patients.
    Neurology 02/2013; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To highlight meningoencephalitis as a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) mimic and suggest clinical clues for differential diagnosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of consecutively admitted patients over a 9.75-year period presenting as TIAs at a stroke unit. RESULTS: A total of 790 patients with TIAs and seven with TIA-like symptoms but a final diagnosis of viral meningoencephalitis were recognised. The most frequent presentations of meningoencephalitis patients were acute sensory hemisyndrome (6) and cognitive deficits (5). Signs of meningeal irritation were minor or absent on presentation. Predominantly lymphocytic pleocytosis, hyperproteinorachia and a normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum glucose index (in 5 out of 6 documented patients) were present. Meningeal thickening on a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan was the only abnormal imaging finding. Six patients received initial vascular treatment; one thrombolysed. Finally, six patients were treated with antivirals and/or antibiotics. Although neither bacterial nor viral agents were identified on extensive testing, viral meningoencephalitis was the best explanation for all clinical and laboratory findings. CONCLUSIONS: Aseptic meningoencephalitis should be part of the differential diagnosis in patients presenting as TIA. The threshold for a lumbar puncture in such patients should be set individually and take into account the presence of mild meningeal symptoms, age and other risk factors for vascular disease, the results of brain imaging and the basic diagnostic work-up for a stroke source.
    Infection 01/2013; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Although experimental data suggest that statin therapy may improve neurological outcome after acute cerebral ischemia, the results from clinical studies are conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between statin therapy and outcome after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The primary analysis investigated statin therapy at stroke onset (prestroke statin use) and good functional outcome (modified Rankin score 0 to 2) and death. Secondary analyses included the following: (1) acute poststroke statin therapy (≤72 hours after stroke), and (2) thrombolysis-treated patients. RESULTS: The primary analysis included 113 148 subjects (27 studies). Among observational studies, statin treatment at stroke onset was associated with good functional outcome at 90 days (pooled odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.56; P<0.001), but not 1 year (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.9-1.4; P=0.31), and with reduced fatality at 90 days (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62-0.82; P<0.001) and 1 year (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.95; P=0.01). In the single randomized controlled trial reporting 90-day functional outcome, statin treatment was associated with good outcome (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.24; P=0.05). No reduction in fatality was observed on meta-analysis of data from 3 randomized controlled trials (P=0.9). In studies of thrombolysis-treated patients, an association between statins and increased fatality at 90 days was observed (pooled OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52; P=0.03, 3 studies, 4339 patients). However, this association was no longer present after adjusting for age and stroke severity in the largest study (adjusted OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.90-1.44; 4012 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest meta-analysis to date, statin therapy at stroke onset was associated with improved outcome, a finding not observed in studies restricted to thrombolysis-treated patients. Randomized trials of statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke are needed.
    Stroke 01/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular complications represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing vascular surgery. This was a prospective randomized, open-label study to investigate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by statin monotherapy or intensified by combining statin with ezetimibe on a 12-month prognosis after vascular surgery. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (RSV) 10 mg/d or rosuvastatin 10 mg/d plus ezetemibe (RSV/EZT) 10 mg/d, starting prior to scheduled surgical procedure. The primary end point was the first major cardiovascular event, including death from cardiac causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and unstable angina. RESULTS: A total of 136 patients assigned to RSV and 126 to RSV/EZT completed the study protocol. As many as 6.6% of patients in the RSV group experience a major cardiovascular event within 30 days after surgery versus 5.6% in the RSV/EZT group (P = .72). From month 1 to 12 of the follow-up period, primary end point was observed (9 taking RSV vs 2 in the RSV/EZT group [P = .04]). Intensified lipid-lowering therapy with RSV/EZT was associated with a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with RSV (75.87 ± 31.64 vs 87.19 ± 31.7, P = .004), while no differential effect on triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels was noted between groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that statin therapy intensified by ezetimibe may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events within the first 12 months after vascular surgery. Nonetheless, whether the use of ezetimibe as an add-on therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk in these patients needs to be tested in larger future studies.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2013; 18(1):5-12. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Haralampos Milionis, Patrik Michel
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    ABSTRACT: Even though patients who develop ischemic stroke despite taking antiplatelet drugs represent a considerable proportion of stroke hospital admissions, there is a paucity of data from investigational studies regarding the most suitable therapeutic intervention. There have been no clinical trials to test whether increasing the dose or switching antiplatelet agents reduces the risk for subsequent events. Certain issues have to be considered in patients managed for a first or recurrent stroke while receiving antiplatelet agents. Therapeutic failure may be due to either poor adherence to treatment, associated co-morbid conditions and diminished antiplatelet effects (resistance to treatment). A diagnostic work up is warranted to identify the etiology and underlying mechanism of stroke, thereby guiding further management. Risk factors (including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) should be treated according to current guidelines. Aspirin or aspirin plus clopidogrel may be used in the acute and early phase of ischemic stroke, whereas in the long-term, antiplatelet treatment should be continued with aspirin, aspirin/extended release dipyridamole or clopidogrel monotherapy taking into account tolerance, safety, adherence and cost issues. Secondary measures to educate patients about stroke, the importance of adherence to medication, behavioral modification relating to tobacco use, physical activity, alcohol consumption and diet to control excess weight should also be implemented.
    Current pharmaceutical design 12/2012; · 4.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
707.66 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2014
    • University Hospital of Ioannina
      Yannina, Epirus, Greece
  • 1997–2014
    • University of Ioannina
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Division of Internal Medicine II
      • • Laboratory of Biochemistry
      Yannina, Epirus, Greece
  • 2012–2013
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • Service de neurologie
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2010–2011
    • Harokopion University of Athens
      • Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2008
    • Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
      • Department of Internal Medicine IV
      Thessaloníki, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece
  • 2007–2008
    • The Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust
      Dudley, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Democritus University of Thrace
      Komotina, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
  • 2001
    • University College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom