[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial microorganisms could be a viable alternative to antibiotics in the broiler diets.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 28nm MTJ for 8~16Gb MRAM device has been successfully integrated with special patterning & etch technique. Resistance (R) separation between high and low R states was 15.2σ, comparable to that for 80nm MTJ cells. Thermal stability factor (Δ) followed prediction fairly well, and MTJ with free layer (FL) of 25Å and aspect ratio (AR) of 3 showed Δ of 56. In order to realize sub-30nm MRAM device, a novel FL with substantially low critical current density (J<sub>c</sub>) or revolutionary MTJ scheme needs to be developed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported characteristics of 20nm PRAM cell. Optimization of diode integration process and improved implantation technology were used to satisfy the required diode on-current (Ion) with low off-current (Ioff). Confined cell structure and novel bottom electrode (BE) materials were developed to reduce a reset current (Ireset) below 100uA. Using the advanced technologies, we successfully produced fully integrated 20nm node size PRAM device for the first time.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high frequency drain current noise in nanoscale MOSFETs is carefully measured and compared with the shot and the thermal noise levels in all operating regions. For the first time, the shot noise characteristics are observed in the strong inversion region around-10 nm MOSFETs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene, treX, encoding a debranching enzyme previously cloned from the trehalose biosynthesis gene cluster of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and the biochemical properties were studied. The specific activity of the S. solfataricus debranching enzyme (TreX) was highest at 75°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme exhibited hydrolysing activity toward α-1,6-glycosidic linkages of amylopectin, glycogen, pullulan, and other branched substrates, and glycogen was the preferred substrate. TreX has a high specificity for hydrolysis of maltohexaosyl α-1,6-β-cyclodextrin, indicating the high preference for side chains consisting of 6 glucose residues or more. The enzyme also exhibited 4-α-sulfoxide-glucan transferase activity, catalysing transfer of α-1,4-glucan oligosaccharides from one chain to another. Dimethyl sulfoxide (10%, v/v) increased the hydrolytic activity of TreX. Gel permeation chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the enzyme exists mostly as a dimer at pH 7.0, and as a mixture of dimers and tetramers at pH 5.5. Interestingly, TreX existed as a tetramer in the presence of DMSO at pH 5.5–6.5. The tetramer showed a 4-fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer. The enzyme catalysed not only intermolecular trans-glycosylation of malto-oligosaccharides (disproportionation) to produce linear α-1,4-glucans, but also intramolecular trans-glycosylation of glycogen. The results presented in this study indicated that TreX may be associated with glycogen metabolism by selective cleavage of the outer side chain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The flow mechanism of contractive and dilative motion was numerically investigated to obtain a propulsive force in a highly viscous fluid. The computing program for the analysis of complicated motions was numerically developed with a cell-centered, unstructured grid scheme. The developed program was validated by the well-known equation of an oscillating plane below viscous fluid for an unsteady problem, which is known as Stokes’ second problem. Validation has continued through comparison with the experimental results.In this case, sinusoidal motion was applied to the validation, instead of trochoidal motion, because it was very difficult to actually simulate trochoidal motion in this experiment. Finally, the validation and comparison with the nodal-point scheme was accomplished by Stokes’ problem, which is the famous problem at a low Reynolds number. The validated code was applied to contractive and dilative motion in a narrow tube, whose motion was embodied by trochoidal movement. In a highly viscous fluid, such as a very sticky honey or a swamp, the computed results show that a viscous force can be used for propulsion instead of a dynamic force.From the present results, it was found that a propulsive force can be obtained by contractive and dilative motion at a low Reynolds number, which can be applied to the propulsion of micro-robots in a highly viscous fluid such as a blood vessel or a swamp. This research could also be considered fundamental research for the propulsion of micro-hydro robots, which are expected to be actively studied in the future in accord with further development of nanotechnology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toggle switching mode MRAM is tested and characterized with respect to the free- and pinned-layer material and thickness. With magnetization curves, we were able to find the optimum thickness combinations of free-layer and spacer materials. For CoFeB where the intrinsic anisotropy field ( Hi) is about 20-30 Oe, one needs to have a reasonably high exchange coupling field (Hex) to ensure large switching margin. In case of an NiFe/Ru/NiFe free-layer, Hi is usually much smaller than Hex, so that further decrease of Hex between two magnetic layers is needed. The pinned-layer roughness and thickness are other factors to be optimized to reduce the toggle switching field. High cell aspect ratio ≥3.0 helps to minimize the switching distribution and enhance the switching stability.
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 11/2005; · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dependence of the switching field distribution of magnetic random access memory cells on film roughness, saturation magnetization, film thickness, and cell aspect ratio is discussed. We found that a flat interface between the tunnel oxide and the magnetic film is very important in suppressing switching field variation. For free-layer materials, NiFe, CoNiFe, CoFeB, and lamellar structures are examined. By trying various compositions of these materials, we have improved switching characteristics with small saturation magnetization and small thickness. Good results with lamellar structures suggest that the suppression of the grain growth in the ferromagnetic layer is another effective way to get enhanced switching characteristics.
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 08/2004; · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) with magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SAF) free layers of various shapes has been developed. SAF free layers show the predominance in the scalability compared with a conventional single free layer. It is also revealed that a novel shaped MTJ with a SAF free layer has a remarkably large writing margin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemical-vapor-deposited(CVD) Cu film was successfully demonstrated as a seed layer for Cu electroplating, by using atomic-layer-deposited(ALD) Ru as a glue layer on ALD WNC barrier metal. Low via resistance of below 3Ω/via was obtained in 0.13 μm via chains, which was built in SiOC (k=2.9) intermetal dielectric. The adhesion between WNC and CVD Cu. estimated by mELT, was significantly improved by the insertion of ALD Ru and HR-XTEM analysis showed no interfacial layers at both Cu/Ru and Ru/WNC interfaces. In addition, Ru was found to promote the 2-D planar growth of CVD Cu film rather than the 3-D island growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have successfully integrated 8M bits Localized ONO Memory (LONOM) for the embedded nonvolatile memory using 0.13um standard logic process with 5-level Cu metallization. which has a small cell size of 0.276UM and the simplest cell array structure. Without any special algorithm, the localized storage layer of the LONOM can satisfy the essential features for an embedded memory solution, such as low program current. disturb-free read operation and good endurance characteristics. The read speed is as high as 60MHz at V<sub>cc</sub>=0.9V, 85°C and the current consumption is lower than 5mA at Vcc = 1.4V.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the first time, we evaluated the long-term lifetime for Hafnium based high-k dielectrics such as HfO<sub>2</sub> and HfO<sub>2</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> laminates at 25· · and 125· · in capacitor applications. The extracted Weibull slope of HfO<sub>2</sub> T<sub>BD</sub> distribution shows thickness dependence to be explained by percolation theory. We demonstrate that elevated operation temperature further accelerates HfO<sub>2</sub> breakdown than HfO<sub>2</sub>-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> laminates, resulting from severe temperature dependent leakage currents due to different conduction mechanisms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been synthesized over Fe−Mo/MgO catalyst by catalytic decomposition of ethylene at 800 °C. The produced carbon material primarily consists of a SWNT bundle with few defects and a very small amount of amorphous carbon coating. The diameter of an individual SWNT is in the range of 0.7−2.8 nm. The as-synthesized SWNTs have a high yield of over 550% relative to the weight of Fe−Mo metal in the Fe−Mo/MgO catalyst. Our results show that ethylene can be a very ideal carbon source for the synthesis of SWNTs. We suggest that catalytic decomposition of ethylene over Fe−Mo/MgO catalyst can promise a large-scale production of high-quality SWNTs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key factors to improve the switching characteristics are systematically analyzed to develop high density MRAM with a reliable operating margin. We demonstrated that roughness control of MTJ films, choice of free layer materials with small Ms, and optimized cell shape can effectively suppress the switching distribution. As a novel free layer scheme, a lamellar structure is proposed and found to improve the switching characteristics by suppressing the grain growth in the ferromagnetic layer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel cell structure of PRAM with metal interlayer. This novel structure has been proposed to solve the over-programming fail. We have examined the cause of over-programming by simulation of the phase transition of chalcogenide and successfully demonstrated reliable cell operation of this novel structure in writing current level, crystallization speed, and endurance. It can be explained by a model in which the metal interlayer is a local heat sink and the top GST layer is a thermal insulator.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with few defects and very small amount of amorphous carbon coating have been produced by catalytic decomposition of C2H2 over MgO supported Fe–Mo bimetallic catalyst at 800 °C. The diameters of SWNTs are in the range of 0.80–2.43 nm from Raman analysis. The use of MgO support facilitates a large-scale synthesis of SWNTs with a smaller diameter compared with Al2O3 support material. This work indicates that MgO is useful support material to realize the synthesis of high-quality SWNTs at high yield using C2H2 carbon source.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrating FSG dual damascene interconnects using MSQ-based sacrificial via filler has been previously shown. When applying such via filler to a Cu/low-k OSG integration, however, the requisite O<sub>2</sub>-ashing induces an inevitable damage to the low-k OSG due to the challenge in selectively eliminating such filler using conventional wet chemistry. By employing an inorganic HSQ that can readily be removed per dilute fluoric acid cleaning in low-k OSG structure, we demonstrated not only a more viable technology with lower defect density at each process step, e.g., photolithography and etching, but also a simpler process that selectively removes the filler material relative to the existing technology based on MSQ and/or organic fillers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new Local SONOS structure has been proposed for an embedded NVM cell in 0.13 μm standard CMOS logic process. The localized storage silicon nitride layer of Local SONOS cell provides the essential properties for the embedded NVM such as the complete erase, low program current, and high on cell current from the low threshold voltage. The entire embedded memory solution has been realized with 0.276 μm<sup>2</sup> Local SONOS NVM cell, which has 20 μs program and 2 ms erase speed under 5.5 V bias condition, and good reliability without the special algorithms and cell array modifications.