Hiroyuki Kawachi

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan

Are you Hiroyuki Kawachi?

Claim your profile

Publications (17)30.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously revealed that endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) activity is required for lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present study characterized the role of endogenous Bmp activity in preadipocytes. Endogenous Bmp activity was monitored by analyzing the level of phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, downstream molecules in the Bmp pathway. Higher levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 were detected in adipogenic cells but not in non-adipogenic cells prior to differentiation induction. The inhibition of the Bmp pathway during this period decreased the expression of Pparγ2 and C/ebpα, which are transcription factors responsible for adipocyte differentiation. The expression of these transcription factors were also down-regulated by Bmp4 knockdown. In addition, endogenous Bmp4 was required for the repression of Intrleukin-11 expression. Endogenous Bmp4 in preadipocytes is indispensable for the onset of the adipogenic program, and may help to maintain the preadipocytic state during adipocyte differentiation.
    Cytokine 08/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We proposed that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity dictates fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and muscle in beef cattle, regardless of ruminal or hepatic fatty acid hydrogenation or desaturation. Twelve Angus steers were assigned to a calf-fed (CF) group and slaughtered at weaning (8 mo of age; n=4), 12 mo of age (n=4), or 16 mo of age (n=4). Twelve steers were assigned to a yearling-fed (YF) group and slaughtered at 12 mo of age (n=4), 16 mo of age (n=4), and 17.5 mo of age (n=4; 525 kg, market weight). Data were analyzed based on time on the corn-based finishing diet, with terminal age as a covariate, and orthogonal polynomial contrasts were tested on the main effects of treatment group and time on the finishing diet. Fatty acids from duodenal digesta, plasma, liver, LM, and subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue were measured, and SCD gene expression was measured in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. In duodenal digesta, palmitic and linoleic acids increased by 100% over the sampling period, α-linolenic acid decreased over the sampling period, and trans-vaccenic acid was greater in YF than in CF steers (all P < 0.01). The proportion of α-linolenic acid decreased over time in all tissues, including liver. The SCD index (ratio of SCD fatty acid products to SCD fatty acid substrates) increased over time in LM and in intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues. The SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA ratio was virtually undetectable at the initial sampling periods in subcutaneous adipose tissue of YF and CF steers, and it increased over time (P < 0.01). The SCD index and SCD:glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ratio were greater in intramuscular adipose tissue of CF steers than in that of YF steers. The SCD index did not change over time in liver and decreased over time in duodenal digesta. We conclude that, unlike essential fatty acids, the SFA and MUFA composition of adipose tissue is regulated by adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation, with little contribution from hepatic or duodenal fatty acids.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2011; 89(8):2556-70. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In current models of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family signaling, type II receptors activate specific activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) type I receptors. These serine/threonine kinases activate ligand-dependent receptor regulated (R)-Smad by phosphorylating carboxy-terminal serines. We found that the receptor expression levels affected the phosphorylation and activation of the two R-Smad subclasses, activin/TGF-beta-specific (AR-Smad) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-specific (BR-Smad). Co-expressing constitutively active type I and type II receptors in COS7 cells resulted in the phosphorylation of both R-Smad subclasses in a ligand-independent manner. This was verified using in vitro kinase assays. In untransfected B16 melanoma cells, TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 induced phosphorylation of both R-Smad subclasses, and TGF-beta1 up-regulated the inhibitor of differentiation (Id) gene, which is usually regulated by BMP. By contrast, BMP-2 up-regulated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is an AR-Smad-regulated gene. Except for ALK4 and ALK6, levels of type I and type II receptor mRNAs were higher in B16 cells than in HeLa and HepG2 cells, in which TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 induced phosphorylation of only the expected R-Smad. These results help to explain the diverse effects of this ligand family.
    Genes to Cells 05/2009; 14(4):469-82. · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well documented that grain feeding stimulates adipogenesis in beef cattle, whereas pasture feeding depresses the development of adipose tissues, including intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Additionally, production practices that depress adipocyte differentiation also limit the synthesis of MUFA. Marbling scores and MUFA increase in parallel suggesting that stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) gene expression is closely associated with and necessary for marbling adipocyte differentiation. Similarly, marbling scores and fatty acid indices of SCD activity are depressed in response to dietary vitamin A restriction. In bovine preadipocytes, vitamins A and D both decrease glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, an index of adipocyte differentiation, whereas incubation of bovine preadipocytes with l-ascorbic acid-2-phosphate increases GPDH activity. Exposing bovine preadipocytes to zinc also stimulates adipogenesis, putatively by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) production. However, incubation of bovine preadipocytes with arginine, a biological precursor of NO, strongly promotes differentiation in concert with increased SCD expression. This suggests that the effect of either arginine or zinc on adipogenesis is independent of NO synthesis in bovine preadipocytes. Enhanced expression of SCD is associated with a greater accumulation of MUFA both in bovine preadipocyte cultures and during development in growing steers. In bovine preadipocytes, trans-10, cis-12 CLA strongly depresses adipocyte differentiation and SCD gene expression, thereby reducing MUFA concentrations. The bovine preadipocyte culture studies suggest that any production practice that elevates vitamins A or D or trans-10, cis-12 CLA in bovine adipose tissue will reduce i.m. adipose tissue development. Conversely, supplementation with vitamin C or zinc may promote the development of i.m. adipose tissue.
    Journal of Animal Science 12/2008; 87(14 Suppl):E72-82. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to investigate leptin mRNA expression, adipocyte size, and their relationship in several adipose tissues of fattening steers. Subcutaneous, perirenal, intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues were collected from three crossbred steers (Japanese Black cattle X Holstein) aged 21 months. The mRNA level and adipocyte diameter were determined in these adipose tissues. The intramuscular adipose tissue had a lower leptin mRNA level than the intermuscular and perirenal adipose tissues (P < 0.05). Leptin mRNA level was lower in the subcutaneous depot than in the intermuscular depot (P < 0.05). Adipocyte diameter was larger in the intermuscular adipose tissue than in the subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues (P < 0.05). Leptin mRNA level was positively correlated with adipocyte diameter (r2 = 0.81, P < 0.05). These results suggest that the cattle have fat depot-specific differences in leptin gene expression, which are a result of a difference in adipocyte size.
    Animal Science Journal 09/2008; 74(1):17 - 21. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of activin A and follistatin on the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. Stromal-vascular (SV) cells containing preadipocytes were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue of approximately 30-month-old Japanese Black steers. After confluence, differentiation was induced by 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine, dexamethasone, insulin and troglitasone for 2 days, and then subsequently cultured for 6 days. The cells were treated with activin A during the induction of differentiation (the early phase of differentiation) or throughout the differentiation period. We measured the terminal differentiation markers such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein mRNA at the end of cultures. Activin A suppressed the induction of all differentiation markers regardless of the duration of treatment. The treatment with activin A also reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha mRNAs without affecting the expression of C/EBPbeta mRNA. We also observed that follistatin completely rescued the inhibitory effect of activin A on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, the higher doses of follistatin increased GPDH activity even in the presence of activin A compared with the cells treated with neither activin A nor follistatin. Additionally, the SV cells expressed activin A and myostatin mRNAs. These results suggest that activin A inhibits bovine preadiopocyte differentiation via affecting transcriptional cascade upstream of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expressions, and that follistatin suppresses the inhibitory effect of activin A on bovine preadipocyte differentiation. Endogenous activin A and/or myostatin possibly inhibit the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 11/2007; 33(3):269-80. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We characterized Bos taurus leptin receptor (Ob-R) isoform mRNAs as well as their expression in different tissues, including some adipose depots (perirenal, subcutaneous and intermuscular adipose tissues). Based on the GenBank database sequences of the bovine partial Ob-R, primers were designed to amplify cDNAs of bovine Ob-R isoforms. The full-length cDNAs of bovine the Ob-R isoforms were cloned by combination with 3'-and 5'-RACE. Three bovine Ob-R isoform cDNAs were cloned and the sequence analyses revealed that these cDNAs were bovine Ob-R isoforms, i.e., the long form (Ob-Rb), the middle form (Ob-Ra) and the short form (Ob-Rc). The open reading frames of Ob-Ra, Ob-Rb and Ob-Rc gene were 2688, 3498 and 2673 bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences suggested that the isoforms were single transmembrane proteins, and differed in the C-terminal amino acid sequences. The amino acid sequence of these bovine Ob-R isoforms showed 73-75% identity compared with the corresponding mouse isoforms. The tissue-specific expression of the bovine Ob-R isoforms were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of Ob-Rb was highest in liver, heart, spleen and kidney, with lower expression in lung and testis, and slight expression in muscle. Ob-Ra was highly expressed in liver and spleen, whereas moderate expression was observed in heart, testis, and muscle, and its expression was the lowest in lung and kidney. Ob-Rc mRNA was expressed in the liver, heart, testis, kidney and muscle, but not in the lung and spleen. In adipose tissues, higher expression of Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb mRNA was observed in intermuscular adipose tissue than in subcutaneous or perirenal adipose tissues. Ob-Ra mRNA level was positively correlated with Ob-Rb mRNA level in the adipose tissues (r=0.81, P<0.05). The results demonstrated that each Ob-R isoform mRNA was differentially expressed in various tissues of cattle, which may be involved in the difference of peripheral actions for leptin.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 10/2007; 148(2):167-73. · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important chemical messenger controlling many physiological functions, involving cell proliferation, and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of NO on adipocyte differentiation using a murine preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. The treatment with a NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,3-bis(2-aminoethyl)-1-triazene (NOC18), reduced some markers of adipocyte differentiation such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, and intracellular lipid accumulation. To examine whether these effects of NOC18 on adipocyte differentiation markers are due to its cytotoxity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the cells were measured. NOC18 did not affect LDH release into the culture medium. Thus, the suppressive actions of NO donor were unlikely to result from its cytotoxicity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a critical transcription factor for adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) gene is one of its targets. Protein expression of PPARgamma was not diminished by NOC18 treatment, although mRNA expression of aP2 was reduced. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that NOC18 interfered with the DNA binding activity of PPARgamma. Therefore, the present experiment suggest that NO suppresses adipocyte differentiation through suppressing the transcriptional activity of PPARgamma, without suppressing its expression level.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 07/2007; 300(1-2):61-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Angus and Wagyu steers consuming high-roughage diets exhibit large differences in adipose tissue fatty acid composition, but there are no differences in terminal measures of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity or gene expression. Also, adipose tissue lipids of cattle fed corn-based diets have greater MUFA:SFA ratios than cattle fed hay-based diets. We hypothesized that any changes in SCD gene expression and activity would precede similar changes in adipose tissue lipogenesis between short- and long-fed endpoints. Furthermore, changes in SCD activity and gene expression between production endpoints would differ between corn- and hay-fed steers and between Wagyu and Angus steers. Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers were fed a corn-based diet for 8 mo (short-fed; 16 mo of age) or 16 mo (long-fed; 24 mo of age), whereas another group of Angus (n = 8) and Wagyu (n = 8) steers was fed a hay-based diet for 12 mo (short-fed; 20 mo of age) or 20 mo (long-fed; 28 mo of age) to match the end point BW of the corn-fed steers. Acetate incorporation into lipids in vitro was greater (P < 0.01) in corn-fed steers than in hay-fed steers and tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in Wagyu than in Angus s.c. adipose tissue because the rate in Wagyu was twice that of Angus adipose tissue in the corn-fed, short-fed steers. There were diet x end point interactions for lipogenesis in i.m. and s.c. adipose tissues (both P < 0.01) because lipogenesis was 60 to 90% lower in the long-fed cattle than in short-fed cattle fed the corn-based diet. The greatest SCD enzyme activity in Angus s.c. adipose tissue was observed at 24 mo of age (corn-based diet), but activity in Wagyu adipose tissue was greatest at 28 mo of age (hay-based diet; breed x diet x end point interaction, P = 0.08). For short- vs. long-fed endpoints in Angus, s.c. adipose tissue SCD activity was less (hay diet) or the same (corn diet). Conversely, SCD gene expression was greatest in long-fed Wagyu steers fed the hay- or corn-based diets (breed x end point interaction; P < 0.01). Contrary to our hypotheses, SCD activity increased over time, whereas lipogenesis from acetate decreased. However, the developmental pattern of SCD gene expression and activity differed markedly between hay-fed Angus and Wagyu adipose tissues, which may explain the differences in the MUFA:SFA ratios observed in adipose tissues from these cattle.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2007; 85(2):380-7. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of myostatin on the differentiation of bovine preadipocyte. Stromal-vascular cells containing preadipocytes were prepared from perirenal adipose tissue of approximately 30-month-old Japanese Black steers. After confluence, the differentiation was induced by 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine, dexamethasone, insulin, and troglitasone for 2 days, and then subsequently cultured for 6 days. The cells were treated with myostatin during the induction of differentiation (the early phase of differentiation) or throughout the differentiation period. We measured the terminal differentiation markers such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein mRNA at the end of cultures. The treatment with myostatin throughout the differentiation period severely suppressed the induction of all differentiation markers. The treatment with myostatin in the early phase of differentiation also suppressed the induction of terminal differentiation markers but three-fold higher dose of myostatin was required for the suppression compared with its treatment throughout the differentiation period. Myostatin treatment reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma mRNA and interfered with the induction of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha mRNA. We also observed that follistatin stimulates preadipocyte differentiation in the presence of myostatin. These results suggest that myostatin inhibits bovine preadiopocyte differentiation through suppressing PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha mRNA expressions and that follistatin counteracts the suppressive effect of myostatin.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 02/2007; 32(1):1-14. · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) has been known to induce insulin resistance in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as a local and systemic factor. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of magnesium deficiency on mRNA expression of TNF-α in the tissues related to hypoglycemic action of insulin, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver, and on plasma TNF-α concentration. Twelve male rats were divided into 2 groups and given a magnesium-deficient diet or control diet for 4 weeks. Although magnesium deficiency did not affect the expression of TNF-α mRNA in liver and adipose tissue, magnesium deficiency increased TNF-α mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. Plasma TNF-α was higher in the magnesium-deficient diet group than in the control group, but the circulating TNF-α level was unlikely to be sufficient for causing insulin resistance in the magnesium-deficient rat. This study suggests that magnesium deficiency stimulates TNF-α production in skeletal muscle, which may cause local insulin resistance in rats.
    Nutrition Research - NUTR RES. 01/2007; 27(1):66-68.
  • Source
    Hiroyuki KAWACHI
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Beef marbling is an important trait of meat quality and beef marbling influences the tenderness and flavor of beef, which contributes directly to the value of beef especially in the Japanese market. The lipid content of beef depends on the strain, sex, diet and fattening period of the animal. Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) are well-known for their ability to produce marbling beef and this is a popular strain in Japan. The development of beef marbling was closely associated with an increase in the number of adipocytes, that is, adipocyte differentiation in the skeletal muscle. This review article describes our experiment and related reports on micronutrients, especially vitamins and minerals, affecting adipogenesis in beef cattle. We pursue the possibility that manipulating the level of dietary micronutrients may become a new technique to promote beef marbling.
    Animal Science Journal 09/2006; 77(5):463 - 471. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of activin A on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Activin A suppressed the induction of terminal differentiation markers such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, lipid accumulation, and the expression of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2) mRNA when the cells were treated with activin A throughout the differentiation period. Activin A treatment during the early phase decreased GPDH activity and aP2 mRNA level, and also reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha mRNAs without affecting the expressions of the active isoforms of C/EBPbeta and its mRNA. On the other hand, activin A treatment had no effect on the mitotic clonal expansion. These results indicate that activin A inhibits adipogenesis via affecting the transcriptional factor cascade upstream of PPARgamma expression.
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 04/2005; 232(1-2):21-6. · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) is thought to be a major source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, we developed a PCR-based method for detection of bovine MBM in animal feed. We isolated bone particles from feed containing bovine MBM using a separation technique based on specific gravity and then washed bone particles with sodium hypochlorite solution and an EDTA-proteinase K solution. The mitochondrial DNA was extracted from bone particles and amplified using PCR with cattle-specific primers. Bovine DNA was not detected in a milk replacer containing dried skim milk and dried whey, but bovine DNA was detected in the milk replacer that was mixed with bovine MBM. Other cattle-derived materials in feeds did not interfere with the selective detection of bovine MBM. This method allowed detection of bovine mitochondrial DNA in feed with 0.1% added bovine MBM. When the treatment with sodium hypochlorite was excluded, bovine DNA derived from MBM could not be distinguished from bovine DNA derived from other bovine materials. However, the exclusion of this treatment improved the detection limit of bovine MBM in feed. This method appears suitable for the selective detection of bovine MBM in feed.
    Journal of food protection 01/2005; 67(12):2829-32. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • Shizuka HIRAI, Hiroyuki KAWACHI, Tohru MATSUI, Hideo YANO
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of protein deficiency on mRNA levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) and myostatin in skeletal muscle of weaned lambs. Weaned lambs were given a control diet (crude protein, 18%) or a low protein diet (crude protein, 5.7%) for 20 days. A small piece of the M. longissimus thoracis was collected by surgical biopsy at the end of feeding trial. The mRNAs of IGFs and myostatin were determined using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples were also collected to measure plasma concentrations of IGF-I and serum urea nitrogen. Control lambs gained normally, whereas the bodyweight of the animals given the low protein diet was maintained and was significantly lower than that of the control from 10 days of the onset of feeding trial. Protein deficiency affected neither IGF mRNAs nor myostatin mRNA in the muscle. The expression of these mRNAs was unlikely to respond sensitively to protein deficiency in the muscle. However, serum IGF-I concentration was significantly lower in the protein deficient lambs than in the control animals. Therefore, we consider that the retardation of muscular growth does not depend on the local mRNA expression of these factors in protein deficient lambs, but the reduction of serum IGF-I, at least, partly contributes to the suppression of growth.
    Animal Science Journal 05/2004; 75(3):207 - 212. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Agouti expressed in human adipocytes enhances lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis through increasing intracellular Ca2+. This factor stimulates fat accumulation through a paracrine/autocrine manner. However, agouti gene expression has not been clarified in bovine adipocytes. In the present study, it is found that agouti mRNA was expressed in adipocytes prepared from bovine adipose tissue using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is thought to be the first report where agouti gene is expressed in adipocyte of wild-type animal except for humans. This result suggests the possibility that agouti regulates adipocyte function in cattle.
    Animal Science Journal 01/2004; 75(1):49 - 51. · 1.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Hiroyuki KAWACHI
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Summary Beef marbling is an important trait of meat quality, which contributes directly to the value of beef especially in the Japanese market. The development of beef marbling was closely associated with an increase in the number of adipocytes, that is, adipocyte differentiation in the skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ )i s aligand- dependent transcription factor that directly activates the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, and is universally ac- cepted as the master regulator for adipocyte differentiation. Through screening for natural PPARγ activator in feed us- ing the PPARγ luciferase reporter assay, the ethanol extracts of sake lees, soy sauce lees, vinegar lees, and beer lees, and soy sauce oil activated PPARγ .T reatment with the ethanol extracts of thes el ees materials enhanced some markers of adipocyte differentiation such as glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest that these lees materials possess PPARγ activators. Moreover, according to the results of the sequential fractionation assay, we confirmed that PPARγ-activate factors in soy sauce oil were different from linoleic acid, originated from soy bean oil.