H H Gruenagel

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States

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Publications (4)17.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the Dukes' B and C stages of colorectal carcinoma there are considerable variations in the observed courses of the disease. Since post-operative chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' C (node-positive) colon carcinoma has been demonstrated to be effective in improving overall-survival, a more exact prognosis assessment gains additional significance and therapeutic relevance. One also hopes to derive improved prognostic factors from the clarification of the molecular pathogenesis. Because of its frequency and the accessibility and recognizability of its developmental stages colorectal carcinoma is among the best investigated of all solid tumors. Despite a multitude of suggested molecular candidate markers none of these changes has yet been able enter the everyday life of the clinic. However, it is to be expected that some of the molecular alterations presently discussed will gain importance before long in the clinical treatment of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Considering also our own findings, this review presents the latest developments in the scientific discussion of the tumor suppressor/oncogenes p53, k-ras, and DCC, biochemical determinants of the 5-fluorouracil metabolism, and defects of the DNA repair system.
    International Journal of Colorectal Disease 02/2004; 19(1):23-42. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of prognosis after preoperative radiotherapy, DNA ploidy and cell proliferation were investigated in 116 patients with rectal cancer. For flow cytometry, a nuclear suspension was prepared by pepsin digestion of paraffin samples of biopsies taken before preoperative radiotherapy (15 x 2 Gy) and also of the resected rectal tumors after radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 6 years. The proportion of tumor necrosis was evaluated in histological sections before and after irradiation. There was a significant decrease (74 to 48%) in aneuploid tumors after radiation. Of 86 patients with aneuploid biopsies, 28 revealed no reduction in the proportion of aneuploid tumor cells [group AN(=/increase)], and 58 showed a reduction (mean 48.9%) or complete elimination of aneuploid tumor cells [group AN(decrease/psi)]. The incidence of local or distal failure was significantly reduced in the group AN(decrease/psi) (7.8%/20%), compared with the group AN (=/increase) (27%/54%) and the group of constant diploid tumors (n = 22; 13.6%/31.8 %; P = 0.034). There was a trend of decreased recurrence rate in diploid tumors with a reduced fraction of cells in S-phase after radiotherapy. Survival was significantly increased in group AN(decrease/psi) (P < 0.0001). In a multivariate regression analysis, variables of independent prognostic significance were increased proportion of necrosis after irradiation and DNA ploidy group and the postoperative tumor stage. These results suggest that alterations in tumor DNA ploidy and cell proliferation induced by preoperative radiotherapy might help to identify patients likely to benefit from preoperative radiation in rectal cancer.
    Clinical Cancer Research 08/2000; 6(8):3215-21. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Even when they are analogous in microscopic and macroscopic appearance, tumors vary in their response rates to radiotherapy. Cell culture and xenograft experiments with colorectal cell lines have demonstrated that wild-type p53 increases radiosensitivity. Hence, the authors investigated, in a well-defined population of patients treated at the same institution, whether p53 status was a prognostic factor in preoperatively irradiated rectal carcinoma patients. The p53 status of rectal adenocarcinomas was examined immunohistochemically (with monoclonal antibody DO-1) in preirradiated biopsy samples (n = 100) and corresponding postirradiated resected specimens (n = 97). The mean follow-up was 73.2 months (median, 71.3 months; range, 4.3-157 months). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS program (SPSS, Chicago, IL). p53 protein expression was detected in 55 of 100 biopsy samples (> or = 5% nuclear staining). There was essentially no difference in p53 expression between biopsy samples and corresponding resected specimens (54 of 97 vs. 55 of 97). In univariate analysis, p53 immunoreactivity of biopsy samples did not correlate with age, gender, tumor location, TNM stage, pT category, pN category, or histologic grade. Unlike clinicopathologic variables, p53 expression did not have a statistically significant association with local recurrence free, disease free, or overall survival in either univariate (P = 0.91, 0.18, and 0.17, respectively) or multivariate analysis. In contrast to cell line studies, this immunohistochemical study demonstrates that p53 status is not useful as a prognostic marker in preoperatively irradiated rectal carcinoma.
    Cancer 07/1999; 85(12):2541-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the flow cytometric S-phase fraction (SPF) in rectal tumors before and after preoperative radiotherapy (15x2 Gy) and to compare the findings to the clinical outcome. Archival specimens from 84 cases, treated from 1980 to 1988 with S-phase data and complete follow-up were reviewed. There was no significant correlation between SPF and clinicopathological factors. The median SPF for the 26 diploid tumors before irradiation was 6.6%+/-3.1, compared to a significantly higher median for the 58 preirradiated aneuploid tumors (20.3%+/-6.1; p<0.0001). With a median follow-up of 6 years, there was a significant difference in the number of recurrences for aneuploid tumors with a pretreatment SPF < and >20.3 (51.7% vs. 20.7%; p=0.029), which also led to a significant difference in recurrence-free survival (p=0.05). For diploid tumors, a reduction in the percentage of cells in S-phase after radiation resulted in a borderline significant lower number of recurrences (p=0.06). It is concluded that pretreatment S-phase measurements may be of predictive value especially for aneuploid tumors. An alteration in SPF after radiotherapy may also be helpful in predicting outcome and planning therapy.
    Oncology Reports 8(1):201-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

77 Citations
17.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 1999
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany