H-J Lee

Wonkwang University, Iksan, North Jeolla, South Korea

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Publications (19)82.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Currently, serum biomarkers, which are sufficiently sensitive and specific for early detection and risk classification of gastric adenocarcinoma do not exist. Therefore, this study identified a panel of serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. A 29-plex array platform with 29 biomarkers, consisting of 11 proteins discovered through proteomics and 18 previously known to be cancer-associated, was constructed. A test/training set consisting of 120 gastric adenocarcinoma and 120 control samples were examined. After 13 proteins were selected as candidate biomarkers, multivariate classification analyses were used to identify algorithms for diagnostic biomarker combinations. These algorithms were independently validated using a set of 95 gastric adenocarcinoma and 51 control samples. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), pro-apolipoprotein A1 (proApoA1), apolipoprotein A1, transthyretin (TTR), regulated upon activation, normally T-expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES), D-dimer, vitronectin (VN), interleukin-6, α-2 macroglobulin, C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were selected as classifiers in the two algorithms. These algorithms differentiated between the majority of gastric adenocarcinoma and control serum samples in the training/test set with high accuracy (>88%). These algorithms also accurately classified in the validation set (>85%). Two panels of combinatorial biomarkers, including EGFR, TTR, RANTES, and VN, are developed, which are less invasive method for the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. They could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(4):733-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pattern of gastric cancer in the Western world is changing, with an increased proportion of tumours in the upper stomach. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in clinicopathological features and survival of patients with resected gastric cancer at a single institution, in an area of high incidence in the Far East. Clinical features and pathological findings were compared in patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy at Seoul National University Hospital during four consecutive periods (1986-1990, 1991-1995, 1996-2000 and 2001-2006). There were 12 026 patients. The mean age increased from 53·4 years in the first period to 57·4 years in the last (P < 0·001). The proportion of patients aged 70 years or older also increased, reaching 16·1 per cent in the final period. Upper-third cancer increased from 5·3 per cent in the first period to 14·0 per cent in the fourth (P < 0·001). Early gastric cancer (pathological T1) increased continuously over the four time intervals, from 24·8 to 48·9 per cent (P < 0·001). The overall 5-year survival rate increased from 64·0 per cent in the first period to 73·2 per cent at the end (P < 0·001), and this survival improvement was apparent in patients aged 40 years or more. The mean age of patients with gastric cancer has increased during the past 20 years. The proportion of early gastric cancer and overall survival have gradually increased, especially in patients aged over 40 years.
    British Journal of Surgery 11/2010; 98(2):255-60. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the appropriate extent of lymph node (LN) dissection in gastric cancer by analysing LN metastasis patterns from prospectively collected topographical data on nodal status at Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. The metastasis rate for each LN station was analysed according to the depth of tumour invasion in patients with primary lower-third gastric cancer who underwent curative gastrectomy. The Maruyama Index of unresected disease (MI) was calculated using the WinEstimate(®) program with simulation of various extents of LN dissection. LN metastasis in mucosal cancer was rare; 2·6 per cent of patients had a MI of more than 5 with simulation of D1 plus station 7 dissection, whereas 0·9 per cent had a MI above 5 with D1 plus stations 7 and 8a. In submucosal cancer, 3·3 per cent of tumours metastasized to level 2 LN stations outside the range of D1 plus stations 7, 8a and 9. The proportion of patients with a MI above 5 was 9·0 per cent with D1 plus stations 7, 8a and 9 dissection. The nodal metastasis rate was higher at level 1 and 2 for muscularis propria or deeper cancers. D1 dissection plus stations 7 and 8a for mucosal cancer, and D2 dissection for cancers of the muscularis propria or deeper seems appropriate. For submucosal cancer, an expanded dissection to the D2 level should be considered to ensure complete removal of metastatic LNs.
    British Journal of Surgery 10/2010; 98(1):65-72. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although substance P (SP) stimulates bone resorption activity and this is reported to be correlated with the degree of periodontal inflammation, it is unclear how human periodontal ligament cells regulate neuropeptide-induced osteoclastogenesis or the possible involvement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) might be. This study examines how SP affects osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL expression via HO-1. Using immortalized human periodontal ligament cells, the effects of SP on the expression of HO-1, RANKL and OPG mRNA and proteins were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Various concentrations of SP (10(-7), 10(-8), 10(-9) and 10(-10) m) were added to the medium, and the cells were treated for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 d. Substance P upregulated RANKL and HO-1 and downregulated OPG mRNA and protein expression in periodontal ligament cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. A HO-1 inducer inhibited both the upregulation of RANKL expression and downregulation of OPG expression by SP in periodontal ligament cells. By contrast, treatment with a HO-1 inhibitor or HO-1 small interferring RNA (siRNA) enhanced SP-stimulated RANKL expression. Inhibitors of ERK and p38 MAP kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB blocked the effects of SP on RANKL expression in periodontal ligament cells. These results suggest that SP stimulates osteoclastic differentiation by increasing the expression of RANKL vs. OPG via the HO-1 pathway in periodontal ligament cells. The HO-1 pathway may be an effective therapeutic target for inhibiting chronic periodontitis involving alveolar bone resorption.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 03/2010; 45(3):367-74. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are widely performed. Indications for these procedures have been extended in Korea and Japan. The aim was to evaluate whether these extended indications are safe. All patients who had surgery for early gastric cancer at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between May 2003 and December 2007 were identified from a prospective database. Lymph node status was examined in patients who met extended indications for EMR and had undergone surgical resection. Of patients with mucosal cancers, 129 met extended indications for EMR or ESD and three (2.3 per cent) had lymph node metastasis. Of the 52 submucosal cancers meeting extended indications for EMR or ESD, two (4 per cent) had lymph node metastasis. Differentiated mucosal cancers without ulcer formation did not have lymph node metastasis, irrespective of size. Extending the indications for EMR and ESD according to the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association guidelines carries an increased risk of lymph node metastasis. For cancers meeting these criteria, treatment by gastric resection with lymph node dissection should still be considered. A well differentiated mucosal cancer of any size without ulceration may be considered as an extended indication for EMR or ESD.
    British Journal of Surgery 09/2009; 96(10):1157-61. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) can occur during exercise and has an adverse effect on functional status, exercise tolerance and prognosis. However, the role of cardiac function abnormalities on exercise-induced PH in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is unclear. To analyse exercise-induced PH determinants in patients with normal LVEF. 396 subjects (160 male, mean age 55 (SD 13)) referred for exercise echocardiography underwent a graded, symptom-limited, supine bicycle exercise with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) velocity was measured at rest and during exercise. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was estimated from TR velocity by adding a right atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg. Patients were classified according to exercise induced PH, defined as present if PASP >50 mm Hg at 50 W of exercise. 135 patients (34%) had PASP >50 mm Hg during exercise. Patients with exercise-induced PH were older, more commonly female and had shorter exercise duration; however, LVEF was significantly higher. The systolic blood pressure at rest and during exercise was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced PH (rest, 125 (18) vs 132 (18) mm Hg, p = 0.0003; 25 W, 146 (21) vs 157 (21) mm Hg, p<0.0001; 50 W, 157 (24) vs 170 (22) mm Hg, p<0.0001; 75 W, 168 (23) vs 183 (22) mm Hg, p<0.0001). Despite similar resting oxygen saturation, exercise oxygen saturation was significantly lower in subjects with exercise-induced PH than in those without. Numerous echocardiographic variables were significantly different between groups. In multivariate analysis, resting TR velocity (p<0.0001), E/E' (p = 0.027), age and gender were the strongest predictors of PASP during exercise. Exercise-induced PH is common even in subjects with normal LVEF. It is strongly associated with E/E' ratio, TR velocity, age, systolic blood pressure during exercise and gender.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 03/2009; 95(6):490-4. · 6.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To understand patients' perceptions of clinical trials (CTs) is the principal step in the enrollment of patients to CTs. However, these perceptions in eastern countries are very rare. From 12 February 2007 to 13 April 2007, we consecutively distributed the questionnaire to 842 cancer patients who initiated a first cycle of chemotherapy regardless of each treatment step in the Seoul National University Hospital. Younger age, higher educational degree, higher economic status, and possession of private cancer insurance were related with significantly higher awareness of CTs (P=0.001, P=0.006, P=0.002, and P=0.009, respectively). However, unlike awareness, perceptions on benefits of CTs were not changed according to age, educational degree, and economic status (P=0.709, P=0.920, and P=0.847, respectively). Willingness was also not changed according to age, educational degree, economic status, and private cancer insurance (P=0.381, P=0.775, P=0.887, and P=0.392, respectively). Instead, males and heavily treated patients had more positive perceptions on benefits (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively) and more willingness to participate in CTs (OR=1.17, 1.14-2.75: OR=1.59, 1.01-2.51, respectively). In summary, cancer patients' awareness of CTs, perceptions on the benefit in CTs, and willingness to participate are differently influenced by diverse medical and social conditions. This information would be very helpful for investigators to properly conduct CTs in eastern cancer patients.
    British Journal of Cancer 12/2008; 99(10):1593-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), stress-related enzyme, is induced in leukaemia and some cancer tissues, but relatively little is known about the differential pattern of HO-1 expression and proliferation in premalignant lesions of the epithelial oral mucosa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HO-1 expression and proliferation were increased in preneoplastic lesions compared to normal and oral cancer tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression patterns of HO-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a series of normal mucosa and mild-to-severe cases of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Both HO-1 and PCNA are expressed in the basal cells of normal oral mucosa. In patients with OED and carcinoma in situ, immunostaining for PCNA and HO-1 was more intense, and gradually extended into the superficial layers of the mucosa. HO-1 and PCNA expression was correlated with the degree of epithelial dysplasia. Oral squamous cell carcinoma also showed elevated expression of HO-1, but this level was not higher than in severe OED or carcinoma in situ. These results suggest that the up-regulation of HO-1 in premalignant oral lesions is part of an early cytoprotection mechanism against carcinogenesis in the oral mucosa.
    International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 04/2008; 37(3):287-92. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although substance P (SP), a potent proinflammatory peptide, is involved in inflammation and immune responses, the effect of SP on the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha[MIP-3alpha, chemokine C-C ligand 20 (CCL20)] in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is unknown. Equally enigmatic is the link between SP, the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and CCL20 production. We investigated whether SP induces the release of chemokine CCL20 from immortalized PDL (IPDL) cells, and further clarify SP-mediated pathways. We also examined the relationship between HO-1 and CCL20 by treating PDL cells with SP. Incubating IPDL cells with SP increased expression of CCL20 mRNA and CCL20 protein in a dose-time-dependent manner. Highly selective p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitors abrogated SP-induced expression of CCL20 in IPDL cells. SP is also responsible for initiating phosphorylation of IkappaB, degradation of IkappaB and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. SP induced expression of HO-1 in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and CCL20 reflected similar patterns. The inductive effects of SP on HO-1 and CCL20 were enhanced by HO-1 inducer hemin and the membrane-permeable guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) analogue 8-bromo-cGMP. Conversely, this pathway was inhibited by the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) and the selective inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). We report herein the pathway that connects SP along with other modulators of neuroimmunoregulation to the induction of HO-1 and the inflammatory mediator macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3alpha/CCL20 in IPDL cells, which play an important role in the development of periodontitis or inflammation during orthodontic tooth movement.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2008; 150(3):567-75. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEAs) family consists of a large group of evolutionarily and structurally divergent glycoproteins. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway has been implicated in the stimulation of CEA secretion in TGF-beta-sensitive colon cells, thereby possibly modulating cell adhesion and differentiation. However, the specific CEAs targeted by TGF-beta signaling or underlying mechanism of the expression of CEAs has not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the specific CEAs targeted by the TGF-beta signaling pathway. In nine human gastric cancer cell lines examined, TGF-beta-responsive cell lines showed positive expression of CEAs. Expression patterns of CEA proteins correlated well with the level of CEA (CEACAM5) and CEACAM6 transcripts in these cell lines, but CEACAM1 expression was not observed in all of these cells. To investigate the role of TGF-beta signaling in CEA expression, we selected two TGF-beta unresponsive gastric cancer cell lines; SNU638 cells that contain a mutation in the TGF-beta type II receptor and SNU484 cells that express low to undetectable level of the TGF-beta pathway intermediate protein, Smad3. Restoration of TGF-beta signaling in these cells induced expression of the CEAs and increased activity of both CEA (CEACAM5) and CEACAM6 promoters. CEA expression was observed in the epithelium of the stomach of wild-type mice, but was markedly decreased in Smad3 null mice. These findings suggest that CEA (CEACAM5) and CEACAM6 are major target genes for Smad3-mediated TGF-beta signaling.
    Oncogene 01/2008; 27(5):675-683. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although induction of heme oxygenase-1 by H2O2 has been reported, the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 against the cytotoxic and osteoclastogenic effects of H2O2 have not been elucidated in human periodontal ligament cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the defense mechanism of heme oxygenase-1 on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and to analyze the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin as markers for osteoclast differentiation in periodontal ligament cells. Using human periodontal ligament cells, cytotoxicity was measured by the 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and expression of heme oxygenase-1, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. H2O2 produced a cytotoxic effect by reducing the cell viability and enhancing the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and RANKL mRNAs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Additional experiments revealed that heme oxygenase-1 inducer (hemin), a membrane-permeable cGMP analog (8-bromo-cGMP), carbon monoxide, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, protein kinase inhibitor (KT5823), and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) also blocked the effects of H2O2 on cell viability and RANKL mRNA expression in periodontal ligament cells. These data suggest that heme oxygenase-1 induction plays a protective role in periodontal ligament cells against the cytotoxic and RANKL-inducing effects of H2O2, through multiple signaling pathways.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 09/2007; 42(4):331-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
  • Y-H Cho, H-J Lee, D S Kim, M-G Lee
    Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 02/2007; 21(1):105-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum response factor (SRF) is a widely expressed transcription factor involved in immediate-early and tissue-specific gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation. We defined a new role of SRF as a nuclear repressor of the tumor growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) growth-inhibitory signal during cell proliferation. We show that SRF significantly inhibits the TGF-β1/Smad-dependent transcription by associating with Smad3. SRF causes resistance to the TGF-β1 cytostatic response by directly repressing the Smad transcriptional activity and Smad binding to DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of SRF markedly decreases the level of Smad3 complex binding to the promoters of Smad3 target genes, p15INK4b and p21Cip1. This leads to the inhibition of expression of TGF-β1-responsive genes. SRF therefore acts as a nuclear repressor of Smad3-mediated TGF-β1 signaling.
    Oncogene 01/2007; 26(2):173-185. · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 12/2006; 20(10):1364-6. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is known to act cytostatically on several tumor cell when functioning as an effector molecule of activated macrophages, but the differential effects of NO on immortalized and malignant oral keratinocytes have not been examined. We investigated the influence of NO on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and differentiation of immortalized human oral keratinocytes (IHOK) and primary oral cancer cells (HN4) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, flow cytometry, nuclear DNA staining, and Western blotting. The MTT and SRB assays indicated inhibited growth of IHOK and HN4 cells that were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at concentrations higher than 1 mM but not at lower SNP concentrations. The higher concentrations of SNP up-regulated the apoptosis-related protein expression, which is consistent with the analyses of sub-G(1) phase arrest, annexin V-FITC (fluorescein isothiocynate) staining, nuclear staining, and DNA fragmentation. On the other hand, the lower concentrations of SNP enhanced the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers in IHOK and HN4 cells. These data suggest that high concentrations of NO can inhibit the growth of IHOK and HN4 cells through the induction of apoptosis, while low concentrations of NO can induce cytodifferentiation. The dual effects of NO, namely, the induction of apoptosis or cytodifferentiation, have important implications for the possible anti-oral cancer treatment.
    Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 08/2006; 35(6):352-60. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of sentinel node (SN) biopsy for gastric cancer. One hundred patients with gastric cancer diagnosed as cT1 (n=80) or cT2a (n=20) were enrolled. Indocyanine green-stained SNs were analysed by hematoxylin and eosin staining (n=100) and by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry (n=50). SNs were identified in 94 of the 100 patients and the mean number of SNs was 4.4 (range, 1-12). Of these 94 patients, 14 patients had lymph node metastases. Two patients with T1 and one patient with T2 had metastases in non-SNs alone by hematoxylin and eosin staining (diagnostic accuracy =97.3% in T1 and 95.0% in T2). All three patients with a false negative result had a tumour, which was more than 4 cm in size and signet ring cell histology. In two of them, the tumour was located at lesser curvature. By immunohistochemical staining, three patients with T1 and one patient with T2 were found to have lymph node micrometastases in non-SNs alone among 45 patients (diagnostic accuracy =92.1% in T1, 85.7% in T2). SN biopsy using indocyanine green can be performed rapidly and easily with a high detection rate and accuracy in patients with T1 gastric cancer. However, it should be performed with caution for large tumours with a signet ring cell histology located at lesser curvature due to the possibility of a false negative result.
    European Journal of Surgical Oncology 03/2006; 32(1):48-54. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few reports are available on the use of intraoperative gastroscopy for gastric surgery. The details of 33 patients (25 early gastric cancers and eight gastric submucosal tumors) who underwent intraoperative gastroscopy from June 2003 to June 2004 were analyzed. The type of operation or resection margin was determined by evaluating both sides of the stomach simultaneously by combined operative and gastroscopic methods. Preoperative endoscopic clipping was done preferentially for early gastric cancer. However, when precise localization was needed, intraoperative gastroscopy was used. Curative gastric resection was possible in 25 early gastric cancer patients after accurate lesion localization. Laparoscopic wedge resections of submucosal tumors were performed in seven patients without stenosis by combined laparoscopic and gastroscopic methods. Intraoperative gastroscopy can be used effectively during gastric surgery for early gastric cancer or submucosal tumors and can be regarded as a modern stethoscope to gastric surgeons.
    Surgical Endoscopy 11/2005; 19(10):1358-61. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify factors that predict morbidity and mortality in gastric cancer surgery. Data on 719 consecutive patients who underwent operations for gastric cancer at Seoul National University Hospital between January and December 2002 were reviewed. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 17.4 per cent (125 patients) and 0.6 per cent (four patients) respectively, and the rates of surgical and non-surgical complications were 14.7 per cent (106 patients) and 3.3 per cent (24 patients). Morbidity rates were higher in patients aged over 50 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.04 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1.02 to 1.06)), when the gastric tumour was resected with another organ (36 per cent for combined resection versus 15.4 per cent for gastrectomy only; OR 3.25 (95 per cent c.i. 1.76 to 6.03)) and when gastrojejunostomy was used for reconstruction after subtotal gastrectomy (17.0 per cent for Billroth II versus 9.5 per cent for Billroth I; OR 2.00 (95 per cent c.i. 1.05 to 3.79)). Only three patients (2.8 per cent) with a surgical complication underwent reoperation, two for adhesive obstruction and one for intra-abdominal bleeding. Age, combined resection and Billroth II reconstruction after radical subtotal gastrectomy were independently associated with the development of complications after gastric cancer surgery.
    British Journal of Surgery 10/2005; 92(9):1099-102. · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates the growth and function of many cells, including those with malignant transformation. Smad proteins have been identified as major components in the intracellular signaling of TGF-beta family members. To clarify the correlations between clinicopathologic profiles and the patient's survival, the expression of common mediator Smad (Smad4) and inhibitory Smad (Smad7) were evaluated immunohistochemically in 304 consecutive gastric carcinomas using the tissue array method. Positive Smad4 expression was observed in 266 (87.5%) tumors and positive Smad7 expression in 98 (32.2%) tumors. The prognosis of patients with a Smad4-positive tumor was significantly better than that of the patients with a negative tumor. The survival rate was significantly higher in patients with negative Smad7 expression than those with positive Smad7 expression. In subgroup analysis according to TNM (tumour-node-metastasis) stage, both Smad4 and Smad7 showed most significant prognostic differences in stage I gastric cancer patients. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis and Smad7 expression were independent prognostic factors. Enhanced expression of the TGF-beta signaling inhibitor Smad7 may present one of the novel mechanisms of TGF-beta resistance in human gastric carcinomas.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2004; 15(4):574-80. · 6.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

386 Citations
82.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2010
    • Wonkwang University
      • College of Dentistry
      Iksan, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2004–2010
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea