Guangming Lu

Nanjing University, Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (131)437.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Efforts to identify meaningful functional imaging-based biomarkers are limited by the ability to reliably characterize inter-individual differences in human brain function. Although a growing number of connectomics-based measures are reported to have moderate to high test-retest reliability, the variability in data acquisition, experimental designs, and analytic methods precludes the ability to generalize results. The Consortium for Reliability and Reproducibility (CoRR) is working to address this challenge and establish test-retest reliability as a minimum standard for methods development in functional connectomics. Specifically, CoRR has aggregated 1,629 typical individuals’ resting state fMRI (rfMRI) data (5,093 rfMRI scans) from 18 international sites, and is openly sharing them via the International Data-sharing Neuroimaging Initiative (INDI). To allow researchers to generate various estimates of reliability and reproducibility, a variety of data acquisition procedures and experimental designs are included. Similarly, to enable users to assess the impact of commonly encountered artifacts (for example, motion) on characterizations of inter-individual variation, datasets of varying quality are included.
    09/2015; 1. DOI:10.1038/sdata.2014.49
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    ABSTRACT: The combination therapy has exhibited important potential for the treatment of cancers, especially for drug-resistant cancers. In this report, bi-functional nanoprobes based on doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded NaYF4:Yb/Tm-TiO2 inorganic photosensitizers (FA-NPs-DOX) were synthesized for in vivo near infrared (NIR)-triggered inorganic photodynamic therapy (PDT) and enhanced chemotherapy to overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancers. Using the up-conversion luminescence (UCL) performance of NaYF4:Yb/Tm converting near-infrared (NIR) into ultraviolent (UV) lights, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were triggered from TiO2 inorganic photosensitizers for PDT under the irradiation of a 980 nm laser, by which the deep-penetration and low photo-damage could be reached. Moreover, nanocarrier delivery and folic acid (FA) targeting promoted the cellular uptake, and accelerated the release of DOX in drug-sensitive MCF-7 and resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. The toxicity assessment in vitro and in vivo revealed the good biocompatibility of the as-prepared FA-NPs-DOX nanocomposites. By the combination of enhanced chemotherapy and NIR-triggered inorganic PDT, the viability of MCF-7/ADR cells could decrease by 53.5%, and the inhibition rate of MCF-7/ADR tumors could increase up to 90.33%, compared with free DOX. Therefore, the MDR of breast cancers could be obviously overcome by enhanced chemotherapy and NIR-triggered inorganic PDT of FA-NPs-DOX nanocomposites under the excitation of a 980 nm laser. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 07/2015; 57. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.04.006 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multifunctional gold nanostructures possessing the abilities of photothermal therapy (PTT) effect and high-quality X-ray/computed tomography (CT) imaging have drawn much attention in recent research. In particular, the developing of more effective PTT to cancer is always an attractive focus for further clinical need. Since the intracellular concentration is critical for the photothermal therapeutic efficacy of gold nanostructures, we dedicatedly decorated gold nanostructures with positively charged polyethylene glycol (PEG) to boost their degree of cell uptake. Herein gold nanostars (GNSs) were designed and decorated with amine-terminated PEG (GNS-PEG-NH2) and methoxy-terminated PEG (GNS-mPEG). PEGylated GNSs showed good dispersivity, high stability and low cytotoxicity. Moreover, compared with GNS-mPEG, GNS-PEG-NH2 exhibited superior thermal therapeutic efficacy to breast tumor cells due to their higher cellular uptake. Measurement of the X-ray absorption coefficient revealed that the attenuation of GNS-PEG-NH2 was about 3.6 fold higher than commercial CT contrast agent iodixanol at the concentration of 25 mg/L. Importantly, GNS-PEG-NH2 also exhibited effective tumor therapeutic efficacy in vivo, and the tumor sites injected with GNS-PEG-NH2 showed high contrast X-ray/CT imaging. And most of the injected GNS-PEG-NH2 was cleared from tumors 15 days post-injection, indicating the rapid clearance and minimal toxicity of GNS-PEG-NH2. Such PEGylated GNSs integrating high distinguishable contrast imaging-guided enhanced PTT therapy might bring opportunities for future cancer theranostic development.
    04/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5TB00509D
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    ABSTRACT: Amplitude and functional connectivity are two fundamental parameters for describing the spontaneous brain fluctuations. These two parameters present close coupling in physiological state, and present different alteration patterns in epilepsy revealed by functional MRI (fMRI). We hypothesized that the alteration of coupling between these two imaging parameters may be underpinned by specific pathological factors of epilepsy, and can be employed to improve the capability for epileptic focus detection. Forty-seven patients (26 left- and 21 right-sided) with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and 32 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. All patients were detected to have interictal epileptic discharges on simultaneous electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings. Amplitude-connectivity coupling was calculated by correlating amplitude and functional connectivity density of low-frequency brain fluctuations. We observed reduced amplitude-connectivity coupling associated with epileptic discharges in the mesial temporal regions in both groups of patients, and increased coupling associated with epilepsy durations in the posterior regions of the default-mode network in the right-sided patients. Moreover, we proposed a new index of amplitude subtracting connectivity, which elevated imaging contrast for differentiating the patients from the controls. The findings indicated that epileptic discharges and chronic damaging effect of epilepsy might both contribute to alterations of amplitude-connectivity coupling in different pivotal regions in mTLE. Investigation on imaging coupling provides synergistic approach for describing brain functional changing features in epilepsy. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.22805 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multifunctional nanoprobes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) have potential applications in diagnosis and visualized therapy of cancers, and it was important to investigate active-targeting ability and in vivo reliability of nanoprobes. In this work, folic acid (FA)-targeted, photosensitizer (PS)-loaded Fe3O4@NaYF4:Yb/Er (FA-NPs-PS) nanocomposites were synthesized for in vivo T2-weighted MRI and visualized PDT of cancers by modeling MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice. By measuring the upconversion luminescence (UCL) and fluorescence emission spectra, the as-prepared FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites showed near-infrared (NIR)-triggered PDT performance due to the production of singlet oxygen species. Moreover, by tracing PS fluorescence in MCF-7, HeLa cells and in MCF-7 tumors, the FA-targeted nanocomposites demonstrated the good targeting ability both in vitro and in vivo. Under the irradiation of a 980 nm laser, the viabilities of MCF-7 and HeLa cells incubated with FA-NPs-PS nanocomposites could decrease to about 18.4% and 30.7%, respectively, and the inhibition of MCF-7 tumor could reach about 94.9%. The transverse MR relaxivity of 63.79 mM-1s-1 (r2 value) and in vivo MR imaging of MCF-7 tumors indicated an excellent T2-weighted MR performance. This work demonstrated the FA-targeted MRI/PDT nanoprobes were effective for in vivo diagnosis and visualized therapy of breast cancers.
    Nanoscale 04/2015; 7(19). DOI:10.1039/C5NR01932J · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degradation behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) influences their biological applications. The present study was a systematic investigation of the biological degradation behavior of mesoporous silica synthesized by the Stöber method. Different sized Stöber mesoporous silica nanoparticles were prepared and immersed in simulated body fluid, and degradation curves were obtained by measuring the dissolved silicon content of the fluid. Structural changes during degradation were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The Stöber mesoporous silica nanoparticles tended to become hollow during the degradation process, and each particle was almost completely degradable from its interior to its exterior. Because of this unique degradation behavior, the morphology of the Stöber mesoporous silica nanoparticles can be retained even after over 85% of the silica degraded. Thus, during degradation, the dispersibility of the silica particles was superior to that of MSNs prepared in aqueous phases. Furthermore, the degradation behavior, intracellular distribution, and structural transformation of Stöber mesoporous silica nanoparticles in human embryo kidney 293T cells were investigated by measuring the silicon content in culture medium and analyzing TEM images. When these silica nanoparticles degraded in cells, their size and dispersibility remained unchanged, which would reduce the biological toxicity associated with the accumulation of silica aggregates in tissues. Overall, these results demonstrate that Stöber mesoporous silica nanoparticles can degrade in biological medium from inside to outside and maintain their good dispersibility, which suggests that these nanoparticles have great potential for applications as degradable biomedical materials such as drug carriers.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 04/2015; 11(4). DOI:10.1166/jbn.2015.2072 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic photosensitizer coupled Gd-based upconversion luminescent (UCL) nanocomposites have potential application for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancers using the light stability and biocompatibility of TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer. However, TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer could only be excited by ultraviolet (UV) light, which was harmful and weakly penetrable in tissues. In this work, folic acid (FA)-targeted NaGdF4:Yb/Tm@SiO2@TiO2 nanocomposites (FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs) were constructed and synthesized for both in vivo MRI and near infrared (NIR)-responsive inorganic PDT, in which TiO2 component could be excited by NIR light due to the UCL performance of NaGdF4:Yb/Tm component converting NIR to UV light. The results showed the as-prepared FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs had good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, MR study indicated that FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs were good T1-weighted MRI contrast agents with high longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.53 mm−1 s−1, also in vivo MRI of nude mice showed “bright” signal in MCF-7 tumor. Under the irradiation of 980 nm laser at the power density of 0.6 W/cm2 for 20 min, the viability of HeLa and MCF-7 cells incubated with FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs could decrease from about 90 % to 35 % and 31%, respectively. Furthermore, in vivo PDT of MCF-7 tumor-bearing nude mice model showed that the inhibition ratio of tumors injected with FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs reached up to 88.6% after 2-week treatment, compared with that of nude mice in control group. Based on the deep penetration of NIR light and the good biocompatibility of TiO2 inorganic photosensitizer, the as-prepared FA-Gd-Si-Ti NPs could have potential applications in both MRI and NIR-responsive PDT of cancers in deep tissues.
    Biomaterials 03/2015; 44. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.12.040 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate image quality and radiation dose of single- versus multi-phase acquisition protocol for prospective-triggered sequential dual-source computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography. A total of 140 patients were randomly assigned to single- or multi-phase group. Image quality and radiation dose were compared. No significant difference was found in image quality between the two groups. Effective dose of single-phase group was 21.6% lower than that of multi-phase group (P<.001). Prospective-triggered sequential dual-source CT coronary angiography using single-phase protocol can reduce radiation dose without sacrifice of image quality in diastole compared with multi-phase protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Clinical imaging 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.clinimag.2015.02.014 · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a novel aptamer-targeting photoresponsive drug delivery system by non-covalent assembly of Cy5.5-AS1411 aptamer conjugate on the surface of graphene oxide wrapped doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN-Dox@GO-Apt) for light-mediated drug release and aptamer-targeted cancer therapy. The MSN-Dox@GO-Apt with two “off-on” switches were controlled by aptamer targeting and light triggering, respectively. The Cy5.5-AS1411 ligand provides MSN-Dox@GO-Apt with nucleolin specific targeting ability and real-time indicator by “off-on” Cy5.5 fluorescence recovery. The GO acts as a gatekeeper to prevent the loaded Dox from leaking in the absence of laser irradiation, and to control the Dox release in response to laser irradiation. When GO wrapping falls off upon laser irradiation, the “off-on” photoresponsive drug delivery system is activated, thus inducing chemotherapy. Interestingly, with the increase of laser power, the synergism of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy in a single MSN-Dox@GO-Apt platform led to much more effective cancer cell killing than monotherapies, providing a new arsenal against cancer.
    Nanoscale 03/2015; 7(14). DOI:10.1039/C4NR07493A · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    Applied Surface Science 02/2015; 332. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.01.204 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the five most lethal malignancies and has a poor prognosis due to its abundant stromal barriers and lack of effective available therapies. Although gemcitabine has been used as a standard therapy for several decades, there has been little progress in the improvement of the 5 year survive rate due to the low targeting efficiency for pancreatic cancer cells. To achieve a targeted delivery of gemcitabine to pancreatic cancer cells, we have developed a c(RGDfE) [cyclic (Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Glu)] conjugated multi-functional nanomedicine delivery system composed of a magnetic core and mesoporous silica shell. These magnetic mesoporous nanoparticles demonstrated sufficient relaxivity properties for detection with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These c(RGDfE) peptide conjugated magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles [c(RGDfE)–pMMSNs] can target pancreatic cancer cells and increase cellular uptake in human pancreatic cancer cell lines that overexpress integrin ανβ3. Gemcitabine loaded c(RGDfE)–pMMSNs were most efficiently targeted to pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3). Growth inhibition of the BxPC-3 cell line was achieved in a time dependent manner consistent with observed drug release behavior. Intracellular targeted gemcitabine delivery using c(RGDfE)–pMMSNs offers a promising approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
    01/2015; 3(6). DOI:10.1039/C4TB01402B
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    ABSTRACT: Shielding nanoparticles from nonspecific interactions with normal cells/tissues before they reach and after they leave tumors is crucial for the selective delivery of nanoparticles. On page 1801, G. Lu and co-workers design PEGylated mixed-charge gold nanostars that show a reversible, significant, and sensitive cell affinity and therapeutic efficacy to the extracellular pH gradient between normal tissues and tumors. In vivo, this smart nanosystem shows higher accumulation in tumors and improved photothermal therapeutic efficacy than pH-insensitive gold nanostars. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Small 01/2015; 11(15). DOI:10.1002/smll.201403248 · 7.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Betel quid dependence (BQD) patients have a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms which are associated with structural abnormalities in brain gray matter. However, so far there have neither been brain structural studies investigating the alterations related to BQD, nor studies assessing the brain structural changes with clinical indexes. 65 subjects were recruited including 33 'pure' BQD patients and another 32 gender and age matched in the control group. T1 structural voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume alterations. In BQD patients, Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate the association between GM segmentations and clinical indexes, including BQD scores, illness duration, SAS and SDS. Compared with that of the control group, the VBM of GM in BQD patients exhibited a significant decrease in volume (All P values > 0.05, AlphaSim correction) in the midbrain, right anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG), and also there was an increased volume in right hippocampal and right precuneus. GM volumes of the left DLPFC and right rACC showed negative correlation with the duration of BQD, meanwhile, midbrain volumes were negative correlating with BQD scores (All P values > 0.05). Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in BQD patients, and those may be a neurobiological basis for BQD patients. These findings may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of BQD. Also, VBM is an effective tool for in vivo investigation of gray matter alterations in patients with BQD.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2015; 7(2):364-74. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements occur in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcimomas (ACA), leading to ALK overexpression and predicting response to targeted therapy. To the present, few studies have been focused on the expression of ALK protein in lung squamous cell carcinomas (SqCC). Only several cases of lung SqCC were reported expression of ALK protein. No clinical study has been published to explicit the relationship between ALK expression and the response to targeted therapy in SqCC.Methods In this study, we analyzed ALK protein expression with a specific rabbit monoclonal Ig antibody (D5F3 clone) in 207 cases of lung SqCC. The positive cases were confirmed with ALK fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RT-PCR.ResultsWe found that 3 out of 207 (1.4%) cases of lung SqCC were ALK positive detected by IHC staining, which were confirmed by ALK FISH and RT-PCR.Conclusions Our results indicate that ALK protein expression is not a rare molecular event in SqCC. Although the frequency of EML4-ALK rearrangements is lower in lung SqCC than that in lung adenocarcinomas, their presence may provide additional treatment options in lung SqCC. The response of SqCC patients with ALK expression to target therapy of crizotinib should be explored.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 12/2014; 33(1):109. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-5931327691483387 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of malignant cells from malignant effusion is crucial to establish or adjust therapies of patients with cancer. The conventional qualitative detection in malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion is cytological analysis, which is time-consuming and complicated. Therefore, a faster and more convenient detection strategy is urgently needed. In this study, we report a rapid method to detect malignant cells from malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion (hydrothorax and ascites) of patients using IR-808, a tumor-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent heptamethine dye (tNRI dye), which exhibited superior labeling efficacy without specific conjugation to biomarkers. The targeted imaging performance toward malignant cells using IR-808 was confirmed by comparing with normal cells, and the fluorescence stability assay of IR-808 in malignant effusion was performed from 1 h to 48 h. In order to save time and dose, the incubation time and concentration were optimized to 10 min and 5 μM, which were used to detect malignant cells from 28 clinical samples of malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion. The results revealed that IR-808 could be internalized selectively by malignant cells of samples, and these malignant cells could be easily distinguished from normal cells under a fluorescence microscope. The positive rates between cytological analysis and the IR-808 staining method were 86% (24/28) and 79% (22/28), respectively. An excellent concordance level (Kappa = 0.752, P < 0.001) was observed between the two methods. Our results indicated that IR-808, a new NIR fluorescent heptamethine dye with unique optical imaging and tumor targeting properties, could provide a fast and simple way to detect a broad spectrum of malignant cells from malignant pleuroperitoneal effusion in patients.
    The Analyst 12/2014; 140(3). DOI:10.1039/c4an01958j · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Examining the resting-state networks (RSNs) may help us to understand the neural mechanism of the frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were acquired from 46 patients with FLE (study group) and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group). The independent component analysis (ICA) method was used to identify RSNs from each group. Compared with the healthy subjects, decreased functional connectivity was observed in all the networks; however, in some areas of RSNs, functional connectivity was increased in patients with FLE. The duration of epilepsy and the seizure frequency were used to analyze correlation with the regions of interest (ROIs) in the nine RSNs to determine their influence on FLE. The functional network connectivity (FNC) was used to study the impact on the disturbance and reorganization of FLE. The results of this study may offer new insight into the neuropathophysiological mechanisms of FLE.
    Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 11/2014; 2014:864979. DOI:10.1155/2014/864979 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major cause for incurable breast cancer. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), the hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen/Red Sage), was examined for cytotoxicities to MDR MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and their parental counterparts. We have shown that SAA inhibited proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and induced apoptosis dose dependently to the two kinds of cancer cells. However, the resistant cells were significantly susceptible to the inhibition of SAA compared with the parental cells. SAA increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 6.2-fold in the resistant cells, whereas the level of SAA-induced ROS changed only by 1.6-fold in their parental counterparts. Thus, the data showed that the selective cytotoxicity resulted from the hypersensitivity of the resistant cells to the strongly elevated ROS by SAA. In addition, SAA-triggered apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3 activity, disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, downregulated Bcl-2 expression, and upregulated Bax expression in the resistant cells. Moreover, SAA downregulated the level of P-glycoprotein, which was overexpressed in the resistant cells. This indicated that SAA modulated MDR. Furthermore, SAA showed higher antitumor activity than did doxorubicin in xenografts established from the resistant cells. The present work raised a possibility that SAA might be considered a potential choice to overcome MDR for the selective susceptibility of the resistant breast cancer cells to SAA treatment.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 11/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1097/CAD.0000000000000184 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A minimally invasive, highly efficient and versatile strategy is proposed for localized tumor regression by developing a smart injectable liquid-solid phase-transformation organic-inorganic hybrid composite material, i.e., magnetic Fe powder-dispersed PLGA (Fe/PLGA) implants formagnetic-hyperthermiatherapy of cancer.
    Advanced Materials 11/2014; 26(44). DOI:10.1002/adma.201402509 · 15.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has great potential for gene therapy of breast cancer. The development of multifunctional nanocarriers possessing the targeted ability and multimodal imaging function is important to increase siRNA transfection efficiency and to visualize the delivery events. Herein, we demonstrate flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and polyethylenimine (PEI) modified Fe3O4@mTiO2 nanoparticles (Fe3O4@mTiO2/FMN-PEI) as a novel magnetic fluorescent siRNA delivery system. The system has magnetic targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, and high siRNA binding ability. Survivin-siRNA delivered by this system can effectively enter into MCF-7 cells, which can be further enhanced by exerting an external magnetic field. More importantly, the siRNA delivery events including the location, trafficking, distribution, and release, can be visualized by MRI and optical imaging. Gene silencing by the survivin-siRNA can cause significant protein knockdown (96%) and considerable cell apoptosis (30%), indicating the usefulness of the Fe3O4@mTiO2/FMN-PEI as a siRNA delivery system.
    09/2014; DOI:10.1039/C4TB01264J

Publication Stats

1k Citations
437.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2015
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Clinical Medicine
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2014
    • Taishan Medical University
      Taishan, Jiangxi Sheng, China
    • Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2013
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Hangzhou Normal University
      • Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009–2012
    • Nanjing Medical University
      • Department of Medical Imaging
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2006–2012
    • Nanjing General Hospital
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2010
    • Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China