Guangming Lu

Xiamen University, Amoy, Fujian, China

Are you Guangming Lu?

Claim your profile

Publications (92)315.23 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decreased oxygen saturation in asymmetrically prominent cortical veins (APCV) seen in ischemic stroke has been hypothesized to correlate with an increase of de-oxygenated hemoglobin. Our goal is to quantify magnetic susceptibility to define APCV by establishing a cutoff above which the deoxyhemoglobin levels are considered abnormal. A retrospective study was conducted on 26 patients with acute ischemic stroke in one cerebral hemisphere that exhibited APCV with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was used to calculate the magnetic susceptibility of the cortical veins. A paired t-test was used to compare the susceptibility of the cortical veins in the left and right hemispheres for healthy controls as well as in the contralateral hemisphere for stroke patients with APCV. The change in oxygen saturation in the APCV relative to the contralateral side was calculated after thresholding the susceptibility using the mean plus two standard deviations of the contralateral side for each individual. The thresholded susceptibility value of the APCVs in the stroke hemisphere was 254±48ppb which was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that in the contralateral hemisphere (123±12ppb) and in healthy controls (125±8ppb). There was a decrease of oxygen saturation in the APCV ranging from 16% to 44% relative to the veins in the contralateral hemisphere. In conclusion, APCV seen in SWI correspond to reduced levels of oxygen saturation and these abnormal veins can be identified using a susceptibility threshold on the QSM data.
    Magnetic resonance imaging. 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) has attracted increasing attentions due to its high prevalence and great influence on social functions of children and adolescents. However, the pathophysiology underlying PBD remains unclear. In the present study, the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to detect abnormalities of baseline brain functions in depressed PBD youth.Methods Seventeen youth with PBD-depression aged 10 - 18 years old and 18 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited in this study. The fMRI data under resting state were obtained on a Siemens 3.0 Tesla scanner and were analyzed using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Correlations between the ReHo values of each survived area and the severity of depression symptoms in patients were further analyzed.ResultsAs compared with the control group, PBD-depression patients showed decreased ReHo in the medial frontal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, and the right putamen. Significant negative correlations of the mood and feelings questionnaire scores with mean ReHo values in the medial frontal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus in PBD-depression patients were observed.Conclusion Our results suggest that extensive regions with altered baseline brain activities are existed in PBD-depression and these brain regions mainly locate in the fronto-limbic circuit and associated striatal structures. Moreover, the present findings also add to our understanding that there could be unique neuropathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD-depression.
    BMC Psychiatry 08/2014; 14(1):222. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brain connectome collects the complex network architectures, looking at both static and dynamic functional connectivity. The former normally requires stationary signals and connections. However, the human brain activity and connections are most likely time dependent and dynamic, and related to ongoing rhythmic activity. We developed an open-source MATLAB toolbox DynamicBC with user-friendly graphical user interfaces, implementing both dynamic functional and effective connectivity for tracking brain dynamics from functional MRI. We provided two strategies for dynamic analysis: 1) the commonly utilized sliding-window analysis and 2) the flexible least squares based time-varying parameter regression strategy. The toolbox also implements multiple functional measures including seed-to-voxel analysis, region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI analysis, and voxel-to-voxel analysis. We describe the principles of the implemented algorithms, and then present representative results from simulations and empirical data applications. We believe that this toolbox will help neuroscientists and neurologists to map easily dynamic brain connectomics.
    Brain connectivity. 08/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often characterized by region-specific brain activation/deactivation and functional abnormalities in corticolimbic circuitry, as elucidated by task-dependent functional neuroimaging. However, little is known about the abnormalities in the local coherence of cortical and subcortical activity occurring during the resting state.
    Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987). 06/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, pH-responsive drug nanocarriers based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) capped with a natural, nontoxic protein cytochrome C (CytC) are designed and demonstrated for cancer therapy. At neutral pH the positively charged CytC can prevent the premature release of a preloaded anti-cancer drug. The results show that the CytC capped nanocarriers have excellent doxorubicin (DOX) loading efficiency (414 μg mg−1 MSN) and the leakage of the drug is only 16% at pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered saline for 72 h. Simultaneously, the DOX release percentage can reach 54% by decreasing the pH to 5.5. In contrast, unsealed MSNs show a fast DOX release rate at pH 7.4 and a slight pH-response. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrates that the nanocarriers can enter human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and the DOX is sustained released from the drug carriers. Cytotoxicity tests and histological assays confirm that the constructed CytC capped nanocarriers possess lower toxicity than free DOX and unsealed drug carriers. Furthermore, intratumoral administration of the nanocarriers is significantly more efficacious in tumor reduction than free DOX and unsealed drug carriers in the xenograft models of MCF-7 cancer. Overall, this study demonstrates new drug nanocarriers with pH-sensitive and sustained drug release properties by using natural and nontoxic proteins as pore blockers to achieve highly efficient cancer treatment.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 06/2014; 2(27).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many studies have demonstrated the small-worldness of the human brain, and have revealed a sexual dimorphism in brain network properties. However, little is known about the gender effects on the topological organization of the brain metabolic covariance networks. To investigate the small-worldness and the gender differences in the topological architectures of human brain metabolic networks. FDG-PET data of 400 healthy right-handed subjects (200 women and 200 age-matched men) were involved in the present study. Metabolic networks of each gender were constructed by calculating the covariance of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) across subjects on the basis of AAL parcellation. Gender differences of network and nodal properties were investigated by using the graph theoretical approaches. Moreover, the gender-related difference of rCMglc in each brain region was tested for investigating the relationships between the hub regions and the brain regions showing significant gender-related differences in rCMglc. We found prominent small-world properties in the domain of metabolic networks in each gender. No significant gender difference in the global characteristics was found. Gender differences of nodal characteristic were observed in a few brain regions. We also found bilateral and lateralized distributions of network hubs in the females and males. Furthermore, we first reported that some hubs of a gender located in the brain regions showing weaker rCMglc in this gender than the other gender. The present study demonstrated that small-worldness was existed in metabolic networks, and revealed gender differences of organizational patterns in metabolic network. These results maybe provided insights into the understanding of the metabolic substrates underlying individual differences in cognition and behaviors.
    Acta Radiologica 04/2014; · 1.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Induced angiogenesis is a major hallmark of malignant tumor. As reported on page 1585, G. Lu, X. Chen, and co-workers design cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide conjugated plasmonic gold nanostars (RGD-GNS) to specifically target integrin avß3 overxpressed on tumor neovasculature. Quantitative volumetric angiography of tumors can be achieved with high resolution and deep penetration by a hemispherical photoacoustic imaging system. It also permits photothermal therapy and sequential therapeutic monitoring.
    Small 04/2014; 10(8):1441. · 7.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Monodisperse yolk-shell mesoporous hybrid spheres with ordered radial mesochannels are demonstrated to be readily prepared by incubating mesostructured hybrid spheres with water. The obtained yolk-shell mesoporous spheres have inorganic-organic hybrid framework, tunable diameter, high surface area, radially oriented ordered mesochannels, large pore volume, and excellent hemocompatibilitys, showing great promise for various applications.
    Advanced Materials 03/2014; · 14.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose To characterize interhemispheric functional and anatomic connectivity in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the local institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. All participants provided written informed consent. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 52 patients with GTCS and 65 healthy control subjects. The functional connectivity between bilateral homotopic voxels was calculated. Homotopic regions showing abnormal functional connectivity in patients were adopted as regions of interest for an analysis of diffusion-tensor imaging tractography. The fractional anisotropy and fiber length were compared between groups. Two-sample t test and nonparametric correlation analysis were used. Results Compared with control subjects, patients showed increased interhemispheric functional connectivity between the bilateral cuneus (P = .0008, corrected) and anterior cingulate cortex (P = .0003, corrected) and decreased functional connectivity between the bilateral olfactory cortex (P = .00005, corrected), inferior frontal gyrus (P = .00005, corrected), supramarginal gyrus (P = .0002, corrected), and temporal pole (P = .0003, corrected). Furthermore, the fiber length of the commissural fiber bundles connecting the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (t = -2.30; P = .03, uncorrected) and the bilateral cuneus was shorter in patients than in control subjects (t = -3.19; P = .002, uncorrected). Conclusion Our findings show that the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex may be critical to the pathophysiology of patients with GTCS and suggest that the corresponding commissural fiber bundle in the genu of the corpus callosum is a potential target for future surgical treatment in patients with intractable GTCS. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 03/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain's total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus. Additionally, ALFF values in left pallidum were positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale score in PBD. The abnormal resting-state neuronal activities of the basal ganglia, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex may play an important role in the pathophysiology in PBD patients.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:317-23. · 2.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Yuan Zhong, Gang Zheng, Yijun Liu, Guangming Lu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using spatial independent component analysis (sICA) method, a model of "latent variables" is often employed, which is based on the assumption that fMRI data are linear mixtures of statistically independent signals. However, actual fMRI signals are nonlinear and do not automatically meet with the requirement of sICA. To provide a better solution to this problem, we proposed a novel approach termed instantaneous power based fMRI (ip-fMRI) for regularization of fMRI data. Given that the instantaneous power of fMRI signals is a scalar value, it should be a linear mixture that naturally satisfies the "latent variables" model. Based on our simulated data, the curves of accuracy and resulting receiver-operating characteristic curves indicate that the proposed approach is superior to the traditional fMRI in terms of accuracy and specificity by using sICA. Experimental results from human subjects have shown that spatial components of a hand movement task-induced activation reveal a brain network more specific to motor function by ip-fMRI than that by the traditional fMRI. We conclude that ICA decomposition of ip-fMRI may be used to localize energy signal changes in the brain and may have a potential to be applied to detection of brain activity.
    Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine 01/2014; 2014:579652. · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy is the main cause of therapeutic failure and death in women with breast cancer. Overexpression of various members of the superfamily of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC)-transporters has been shown to be associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in breast cancer cells. MDR1 protein promotes the intracellular efflux of drugs. A novel approach to address cancer drug resistance is to take advantage of the ability of nanocarriers to sidestep drug resistance mechanisms by endosomal delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic commonly used in breast cancer chemotherapy and a substrate for ABC-mediated drug efflux. In the present study, we developed breast cancer MCF-7 cells with overexpression of MDR1 and designed mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) which were used as a drug delivery system. We tested the efficacy of DOX in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7/MDR1 and in a MCF-7/MDR1 xenograft nude mouse model using the MSNs drug delivery system. Our data show that drug resistance in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/MDR1 can be overcome by treatment with DOX encapsulated within mesoporous silica nanoparticles.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2014; 7(4):1337-47. · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Granger causality model is an analysis method that requires no priori knowledge and emphasizes time sequence. Such model applied to brain effective connectivity network can reflect the directional connectivity among brain regions or neurons. This paper reviews the principle of Granger causality model, basic test steps and improved models, analyzes and discusses applications and existing problems of Granger causality model in brain effective connectivity network.
    Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi 12/2013; 30(6):1343-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are ideal nanocarriers that have recently gained attention in important bioapplications such as drug, gene, and protein delivery. The efficacy of endocytosis greatly affects the biological functions of MSNs. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cationic liposomes of Lipofectamine 2000 on cellular uptake of MSNs and the cytotoxicity of cationic liposomes combining with MSNs both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, mesoporous silica nanoparticles with an average diameter of 130 nm and negative surface charge were synthesized and characterized. The possible role of Lipofectamine 2000 in cellular uptake of MSNs was evaluated in human embryonic kidney cell line 293T cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The toxicities of liposomes combining with MSNs were tested in vitro via cell apoptosis assay and MTT cell viability assay, and in vivo by histological examination of six organs of mice after intravenous injection. The endocytosis efficiency of MSNs in human embryonic kidney 293T cells was greatly increased using Lipofectamine 2000 compared with controls (P < 0.001). No apparent in vitro or in vivo cytotoxicity was found for Lipofectamine 2000 combining with MSNs. Our data indicate that cationic liposomes of Lipofectamine 2000 has the potential to greatly increase cellular uptake of MSNs with negative surface charge in human renal 293T cells without apparent toxicity.
    Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology 11/2013; 9(11):1882-90. · 7.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) presents typical symptoms of cognitive impairments and mental disorders, which is presumed to be related to impairment of self-referential processing. This study aims to investigate the alterations of self-reference in mTLE using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifty patients with unilateral mTLE (26 left- and 24 right-sided mTLE) were recruited in the present study. Traditional task paradigm of internally-cued condition vs. externally-cued condition was employed to induce self-referential activation. FMRI activation in each group of patients was compared with that of 30 healthy controls. Moreover, fMRI responses in the dorsal mesial prefrontal cortex were specifically addressed by correlating with behavioral data of reaction times and clinical data of epilepsy duration, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, both two groups of patients showed decreased behavioral performance (reaction times) and decreased fMRI activation of self-reference in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Moreover, fMRI activation was found to be negatively correlated with behavioral performance and epilepsy duration. The present findings implicate functional impairment of self-reference caused by epilepsy in mTLE. This study provided imaging evidence for functional impairments of self-referential processing and brain default-mode function in mTLE.
    Neuroscience Letters 09/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the feasibility of combining GESFIDE with PROPELLER sampling approaches for simultaneous abdominal R2 and R2* mapping. R2 and R2* measurements were performed in 9 healthy volunteers and phantoms using the GESFIDE-PROPELLER and the conventional Cartesian-sampling GESFIDE approaches. Images acquired with the GESFIDE-PROPELLER sequence effectively mitigated the respiratory motion artifacts, which were clearly evident in the images acquired using the conventional GESFIDE approach. There was no significant difference between GESFIDE-PROPELLER and reference MGRE R2* measurements (p=0.162) whereas the Cartesian-sampling based GESFIDE methods significantly overestimated R2* values compared to MGRE measurements (p<0.001). The GESFIDE-PROPELLER sequence provided high quality images and accurate abdominal R2 and R2* maps while avoiding the motion artifacts common to the conventional Cartesian-sampling GESFIDE approaches.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Control of the morphology, mesostructure, and surface chemistry of multifunctional materials is important for their applications. We report here the fabrication of multifunctional spheres which possess a silica-coated magnetite core and a highly aminated mesoporous silica shell with radially aligned ordered pore channels. The well-designed core–shell structured spheres have superparamagnetism, high magnetization (32 emu g−1), large surface area (133 m2 g−1), uniform accessible mesopores (3.4 nm), and abundant amino groups on the mesoporous shell. Owing to the presence of the amino groups, the composite spheres exhibit high capacity for convenient connection of fluorescent dyes, which make them promising candidates for applications in various biomedical fields, such as cell imaging and cell sorting. Furthermore, a fibrin-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was successfully prepared by connecting the composite spheres with pentapeptide Gly–Pro–Arg–Pro–Pro, which can significantly increase the MRI signal of thrombus.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 08/2013; 1(36).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent and temporary brain dysfunction due to discharges of interconnected groups of neurons. The brain of epilepsy patients has a dynamic bifurcation that switches between epileptic and normal states. The dysfunctional state involves large-scale brain networks. It is very important to understand the network mechanisms of seizure initiation, maintenance, and termination in epilepsy. Absence epilepsy provides a unique model for neuroimaging investigation on dynamic evolutions of brain networks over seizure repertoire. By using a dynamic functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses to study absence seizures (AS), we aimed to obtain transition of network properties that account for seizure onset and offset. We measured resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) from children with AS. We used simultaneous EEG to define the preictal, ictal and postictal intervals of seizures. We measured dynamic connectivity maps of the thalamus network and the default mode network (DMN), as well as functional connectome topologies, during the three different seizure intervals. The analysis of dynamic changes of anti-correlation between the thalamus and the DMN is consistent with an inhibitory effect of seizures on the default mode of brain function, which gradually fades out after seizure onset. Also, we observed complex transitions of functional network topology, implicating adaptive reconfiguration of functional brain networks. In conclusion, our work revealed novel insights into modifications in large-scale functional connectome during AS, which may contribute to a better understanding the network mechanisms of state bifurcations in epileptogenesis.
    Brain Structure and Function 08/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A multifunctional theranostic platform based on photosensitizer-loaded plasmonic vesicular assemblies of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is developed for effective cancer imaging and treatment. The gold vesicles (GVs) composed of a monolayer of assembled GNPs show strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) range of 650-800 nm, as a result of the plasmonic coupling effect between neighboring GNPs in the vesicular membranes. The strong NIR absorption and the capability of encapsulating photosensitizer Ce6 in GVs enable trimodality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging-guided synergistic photothermal/photodynamic therapy (PTT/PDT) with improved efficacy. The Ce6-loaded GVs (GV-Ce6) have the following characteristics: (i) high Ce6 loading efficiency (up to ∼18.4 wt %; (ii) enhanced cellular uptake efficiency of Ce6; (iii) simultaneous trimodality NIR fluorescence/thermal/photoacoustic imaging; (iv) synergistic PTT/PDT treatment with improved efficacy using single wavelength continuous wave laser irradiation.
    ACS Nano 05/2013; · 12.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of applying prospectively ECG-triggered sequential coronary CT angiography (CCTA) to patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and evaluate the image quality and radiation dose compared with a retrospectively ECG-gated helical protocol. METHODS: 100 patients with persistent AF were enrolled. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to a prospective protocol and the other patients to a retrospective protocol using a second-generation dual-source CT (DS-CT). Image quality was evaluated using a four-point grading scale (1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = moderate, 4 = poor) by two reviewers on a per-segment basis. The coronary artery segments were considered non-diagnostic with a quality score of 4. The radiation dose was evaluated. RESULTS: Diagnostic segment rate in the prospective group was 99.4 % (642/646 segments), while that in the retrospective group was 96.5 % (604/626 segments) (P < 0.001). Effective dose was 4.29 ± 1.86 and 11.95 ± 5.34 mSv for each of the two protocols (P < 0.001), which was a 64 % reduction in the radiation dose for prospective sequential imaging compared with retrospective helical imaging. CONCLUSION: In AF patients, prospectively ECG-triggered sequential CCTA is feasible using second-generation DS-CT and can decrease >60 % radiation exposure compared with retrospectively ECG-gated helical imaging while improving diagnostic image quality. KEY POINTS : • Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can be difficult in patients with arrhythmias. • Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential CCTA is feasible in patients with atrial fibrillation. • Prospective sequential imaging can improve quality compared with retrospective analysis. • Prospective sequential imaging decreases radiation exposure by 64 % compared with retrospective mode.
    European Radiology 05/2013; · 4.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

763 Citations
315.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Xiamen University
      Amoy, Fujian, China
  • 2007–2014
    • Nanjing University
      • Department of Clinical Medicine
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2013
    • Central South University
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
    • Hangzhou Normal University
      • Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders
      Hangzhou, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • Beijing Normal University
      • State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
    • Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Capital Medical University
      • Department of Radiology
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
      • School of Life Science and Technology
      Chengdu, Sichuan Sheng, China
    • Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command
      Wu-han-shih, Hubei, China
  • 2009–2013
    • Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics
      • College of Civil Aviation / College of Flight
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2006–2013
    • Nanjing Medical University
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • Nanjing General Hospital
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Government of the People's Republic of China
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2011
    • The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University
      Ch’ang-sha-shih, Hunan, China
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine
      Bethesda, MD, United States
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Evanston, IL, United States
    • University of Florida
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
    • Nanjing Normal University
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2008
    • Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
      • Institute of Automation
      Beijing, Beijing Shi, China