[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the diagnostic performance of multidetector CT (MDCT) for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis using a new scoring method.
Of 80 patients with suspected biliary disease who underwent biphasic CT and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, 39 were diagnosed as having acute cholangitis (Group 1) and 41 patients were classified as suspected biliary disease (Group 2). 100 age-matched patients without evidence of biliary disease were selected randomly as a control group (Group 3). Each patient's axial scan was scored by two independent radiologists for the extent of transient hepatic attenuation difference, the presence of biliary dilatation and identification of a biliary obstructive lesion. The difference in the scores among the three groups was evaluated and the optimal cut-off score for the diagnosis of acute cholangitis was determined. Interobserver agreement was also evaluated.
The total scores (mean ± standard deviation) for Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 7.0 ± 2.0, 4.4 ± 2.4 and 0.9 ± 1.2, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 7.2 ± 2.7 and 0.7 ± 1.1, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Significant differences were found for the subscores and the total scores among the three groups (p < 0.001). Using a cut-off score of ≥ 5, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing acute cholangitis were 84.6% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 1 and 89.7% and 83.7%, respectively, for Reviewer 2. Agreement for the subscores between readers was good to excellent (κ = 0.74-0.86).
Based on dynamic MDCT and the described CT scoring method, the diagnosis of acute choangitis can be made with high sensitivity and specificity.
The British journal of radiology 07/2011; 85(1014):770-7. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report multidetector row CT images of multiple gastrointestinal tumours in a patient with Type 1 neurofibromatosis who presented with haemoperitoneum. The use of CT demonstrated multiple, variably sized, ovoid, relatively well-enhancing masses in the intramural or subserosal location of the jejunum. The largest mass that showed a haemorrhagic necrosis caused haemoperitoneum. These imaging features are unique and differ from previous imaging features that have been reported in the radiological literature.
The British journal of radiology 08/2009; 82(979):e133-6. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most common form of splenic anomaly with a concurrent short pancreas is polysplenia, which has been described in various studies in the radiological literature. However, splenic duplication has never been reported. We report here a case of splenic duplication associated with a short pancreas and pre-duodenal portal vein. This extremely rare case of splenic anomaly shows unique multidetector CT findings that are distinguishable from a splenic lobulation or cleft.
The British journal of radiology 04/2009; 82(975):e42-3. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a low-cost bidirectional (BiDi) wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) employing colorless uncooled BiDi transceivers (TRxs) and superluminescent diode (SLD)-based broadband light sources (BLSs). The C band is allocated for upstream and the E+ band for downstream in consideration of BiDi packaging, SLD development, and wavelength alignment of dual-window arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs). The BiDi TRx integrates an uncooled Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD), a p-i-n photodiode (PD), and a 45°-angled thin-film filter in a small-form-factor (SFF) package. The SLD-based BLSs provide 13-dBm amplified spontaneous emissions (ASEs) with spectral ripples of < 3 dB and polarization dependencies of <1 dB. Colorless operations over 32 100-GHz-spaced channels are demonstrated from -20 to 80°C in 155-Mb/s BiDi transmissions over 25 km.
Journal of Lightwave Technology 02/2006; · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed polarization-independent high-power superluminescent diodes (SLDs) for wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) applications. The SLD presents CW output power of 150 mW, spectral bandwidth of 40 nm, polarization-dependent power variation of less than 1 dB, and spectral ripple of 3 dB at current of 1.47 A and temperature of 25 degC
Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2005. LEOS 2005. The 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE; 11/2005
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a low-cost C/S-band WDM-PON employing colorless uncooled bidirectional transceivers and SOA-based broadband light sources. Colorless operations over 32 DWDM channels are demonstrated from -20 to 80°C in 155-Mb/s bidirectional transmissions over 25 km.
Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2005. Technical Digest. OFC/NFOEC; 04/2005
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm. It is an aggressive malignant tumour characterized by rapid local progression and early metastasis. We report a case of small cell carcinoma arising in the transverse colon in a 34-year-old man who presented with epigastric pain. On CT, a poorly enhancing bulky mass encircling the transverse colon with extensive regional lymph node metastases was observed. A segmental annular narrowing with thick interhaustral folds of the transverse colon was found by barium enema examination. This is the first report of barium study and CT findings of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the colon.
British Journal of Radiology 04/2005; 78(927):255-6. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present R-SOAs with improved modulation bandwidth of ∼1.35 GHz as WDM sources in 1.25 Gbit/s WDM-PONs. In back-to-back transmission using the R-SOA seeded by 0.6 nm-wide ASE of -20 dBm, receiver sensitivity at a 10<sup>-9 </sup>BER was - 25.3 dBm.
Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 2004. LEOS 2004. The 17th Annual Meeting of the IEEE; 12/2004
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent development of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the parallel escalation in the capabilities of the workstation allow the use of high-quality multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstruction images. As a noninvasive technique, MDCT dedicated to the biliary tract represents an alternative to magnetic resonance cholangiography. The usefulness of three-dimensional reconstructed images using MDCT in evaluating biliary tract abnormality is illustrated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate is considered to be the primary neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT), which delivers photic information from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. However, substance P (SP) also has been suggested to play a role in retinohypothalamic transmission. In this study, we sought evidence that SP from the RHT contributes to photic resetting of the circadian pacemaker and further explored the possible interaction of SP with glutamate in this process. In rat hypothalamic slices cut parasagittally, electrical stimulation of the optic nerve in early and late subjective night produced a phase delay (2.4 +/- 0.5 hr; mean +/- SEM) and advance (2.6 +/- 0.3 hr) of the circadian rhythm of SCN neuronal firing activity, respectively. The SP antagonist L-703,606 (10 microm) applied to the slices during the nerve stimulation completely blocked the phase shifts. Likewise, a cocktail of NMDA (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 50 microm) and non-NMDA (6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, 10 microm) antagonists completely blocked the shifts. Exogenous application of SP (1 microm) or glutamate (100 microm) to the slices in early subjective night produced a phase delay ( approximately 3 hr) of the circadian firing activity rhythm of SCN neurons. Coapplication of the NMDA and non-NMDA antagonist cocktail (as well as L-703,606) resulted in a complete blockade of the SP-induced phase delay, whereas L-703,606 (10 microm) had no effect on the glutamate-induced delay. These results suggest that SP, as well as glutamate, has a critical role in photic resetting. Furthermore, the results suggest that the two agonists act in series, SP working upstream of glutamate.
Journal of Neuroscience 07/2001; 21(11):4026-31. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A process of making a new type of silicon depth-probe microelectrode array is described using a combination of plasma and wet etch. The plasma etch, which is done using a low temperature oxide (LTO) mask, enables probe thickness to be controlled over a range from 5 to 90 mu. Bending tests show that the probe's mechanical strength depends largely on shank thickness. More force can be applied to thicker shanks while thinner shanks are more flexible. One can then choose a thickness and corresponding mechanical strength using the process developed. The entire probe shaping process is performed only at low temperature, and thus is consistent with the standard CMOS fabrication. Using the probe in recording from rat's somatosensory cortex, we obtained four channel simultaneous recordings which showed clear independence among channels with a signal-to-noise ratio performance comparable with that obtained using other devices.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular and biochemical responses of the pectoral muscle to variation in seasonal activity were studied in the bat, Murina leucogaster ognevi. We collected bats in mid-hibernation (February), end-hibernation (April), and mid-summer (August) to track major activity periods in their annual cycle. Our findings indicated that myofiber cross-sectional area decreased to 68% between mid- and end-hibernation, but returned to the winter level in mid-summer. Total soluble protein and total RNA concentrations were not altered over these sampling periods. Oxidative potential gauged by citrate synthase activity increased 1.47-fold from mid- to end-hibernation and then remained at the similar level in mid-summer. Glycolytic potential gauged by lactate dehydrogenase activity changed little between mid- and end-hibernation but increased 1.42-fold in summer, compared with the winter level. Thus, the myofibers underwent disuse atrophy during hibernation, while enzymatic catalytic function recovered towards the level of mid-summer.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology 07/2000; 126(2):245-50. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a neural pathway through which photic time cues are delivered directly to the mammalian circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although the excitatory amino acid glutamate is the primary neurotransmitter in the RHT, other substances such as substance P (SPq also have been suggested to play a role. The present study tested the hypothesis that SP participates in retinohypothalamic transmission and selectively modulates either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. The SP antagonist L-703,606 depressed the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) evoked by optic nerve stimulation in SCN neurons in rat hypothalamic slices. The SP antagonist also had a similar depressive effect on the NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-mediated components of the EPSC. These results suggest that SP is an excitatory neuromodulator contributing to the expression of both the NMDA and non-NMDA receptor-mediated components of retinohypothalamic transmission.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of substance P (SP) on nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in macrophages by measuring the production of nitrite and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein. In LPS-activated macrophages, SP stimulated NO production in time and concentration dependent manners. These SP effects were blocked by a specific NK-1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, SP stimulation increased the levels of both iNOS mRNA and iNOS protein. These results demonstrate that SP can increase LPS induced NO production in macrophages by augmenting the induction of iNOS expression. We also examined the role of SP on acute-cold stress induced altered production of NO by mouse peritoneal macrophages. SP enhanced the LPS-induced macrophages NO production from stressed mice relative to the non-stressed mice. These results suggest that SP may have an important modulatory role in production of NO by macrophages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of the excitotoxin kainate produces seizure activity and selective neuronal death in various brain areas. We examined the degeneration pattern of hippocampal neurons following systemic injections of kainate in the hamster and the rat. As reported, treatment with kainate resulted in severe neuronal loss in the hilus and CA3 in the rat. While the hilar neurons were also highly vulnerable to kainate in the hamster, neurons in the CA1 area, but not CA3, were highly sensitive to kainate. In both animals, immunoreactivity to anti-p50 nuclear factor kappa B antibody was increased in nuclei of the hilar neurons within 4 h following administration of kainate. Kainate treatment also increased the nuclear factor kappa B immunoreactivity in hamster CA1 neurons and rat CA3 neurons 24 h later. Neurons showing intense nuclear factor kappa B signal were stained with acid fuchsin. Kainate also increased DNA binding activity of p50 and p65 nuclear factor kappa B in the nuclear extract of the hippocampal formation as analysed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in the hamster, suggesting that activation of nuclear factor kappa B may contribute to kainate-induced hippocampal degeneration. Administration of 100 nmol dizocilpine maleate 3 h prior to kainate attenuated kainate-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B and neuronal death in CA1 in the hamster. The present study provides evidence that the differential vulnerability of neurons in the rat and the hamster hippocampus to kainate is partly mediated by mechanisms involving N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent activation of nuclear factor kappa B.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity-dependent changes of conduction velocity (CV) and conduction block in single A(delta) fibers of primary afferent neurons were characterized in a rat model of neuropathy (NP). Injured dorsal root (DR) fiber in NP rats exhibited profoundly greater decreases of CV following impulse activity than did DR fiber in normal rats. Activity-dependent conduction block was absent up to 100 Hz of activity rate in DR fiber of NP rats, but was present above 25 Hz in normal rats. Profiles of activity dependence in sciatic fibers were similar in both NP and normal rats. These results suggest that nerve injury may alter activity-dependent hypoexcitability of A(delta) DR fibers. Furthermore, this excitability change may be responsible for the elevated pain perception in neuropathy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of topical application of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the short and long latency evoked unit responses of the neurones in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex were determined quantitatively in anaesthetized rats. IL-6 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 units) significantly suppressed (-15.13 +/- 3.4%) short latency afferent sensory responses, while it induced profound facilitation (+464.74 +/- 132.7%) of long latency responses in a dose-dependent manner. IL-6-induced afferent modulations fully recovered by 60 min after drug administration. In control experiments, saline solution containing 0.2% bovine serum albumin, used as a vehicle, did not affect afferent sensory transmission. Implications of these results are discussed with reference to the different somatosensory functions of short and long latency response components in the SI cortex.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activity-dependent changes of the conduction latency of single A beta fibers of primary afferent neurons were characterized in both neuropathic (L4 and L6 ligated) and normal rats. Activity-dependent increases in conduction latency of dorsal root fibers in neuropathic rats were significantly stronger than those in normal rats. Different profiles of activity dependence were also observed between injured and adjacent intact dorsal root fibers of neuropathic rats. However, activity-dependent latency changes in sciatic nerves distal to the dorsal root ganglion were not different between neuropathic and normal rats. These results suggest that partial nerve injury induces activity-dependent excitability changes in the dorsal root fibers of neuropathic rat and that these changes may be responsible for the altered sensory processing such as those seen in allodynia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single unit responses of the primary somatosensory (SI) cortical neurons to the stimulation of the forepaw single digit were monitored in anesthetized rats before and after subcutaneous injection of lidocaine to an ipsilateral homologous receptive field (IHRF). Quantitative determination of the temporal changes of afferent sensory transmission was done by analyzing poststimulus time histograms of unit responses. Temporary deafferentation to the IHRF induced immediate, but reversible suppression of afferent sensory transmission in the SI cortex and this suppression lasts up to 35 min post-deafferentation period (during 10-15 min, -21.81 +/- 5.9%, P < 0.01). This result suggests that temporary absence of afferent inflow from the digit to the SI cortex may exert interhemispheric modulation of afferent sensory transmission in the opposite somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of acute lowering of body temperature on afferent sensory transmission to the primary somatosensory cortex were determined quantitatively in anaesthetized rats and hamsters. Rats showed no change in afferent sensory transmission until 27 degrees C, but dramatic suppression between 26 degrees C and 22 degrees C, reaching 100% inhibition at 21 degrees C. Hamsters exhibited gradual suppression of sensory transmission from 34 degrees C to 18 degrees C, reaching 95% inhibition at 18 degrees C. Differential effects were also observed during rewarming up to 37 degrees C. Response latencies were also differentially affected during hypothermia in rats and hamsters. These results suggest the presence of inherently different neural mechanisms to process somatosensory information during transient lowering of body temperature between hibernators and non-hibernators.