Heike Franke

Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Bundeswehr, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (90)277.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that cortical ATP and ADP accumulating in the extracellular space, e.g. during prolonged network activity, contribute to a decline in cognitive performance in particular via stimulation of the G protein-coupled P2Y1 receptor (P2Y1R) subtype. Here, we report first evidence on P2Y1R-mediated control of cognitive functioning in rats using bilateral microinfusions of the selective agonist MRS2365 into medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MRS2365 attenuated prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex while having no impact on startle amplitude. Stimulation of P2Y1Rs deteriorated performance accuracy in the delayed non-matching to position task in a delay dependent manner and increased the rate of magazine entries consistent with both working memory disturbances and impaired impulse control. Further, MRS2365 significantly impaired performance in the reversal learning task. These effects might be related to MRS2365-evoked increase of dopamine observed by microdialysis to be short-lasting in mPFC and long-lasting in the nucleus accumbens. P2Y1Rs were identified on pyramidal cells and parvalbumin-positive interneurons, but not on tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers, which argues for an indirect activation of dopaminergic afferents in the cortex by MRS2365. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of P2Y1Rs in the mPFC impairs inhibitory control and behavioral flexibility mediated by increased mesocorticolimbic activity and local disinhibition.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 15 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.173.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2014; · 8.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background And PurposeIt is assumed that ATP induces closure of the binding jaw of ligand-gated P2X receptors, which eventually results in the opening of the membrane channel and the flux of cations. Immobilization by cysteine mutagenesis of the binding jaw inhibited ATP-induced current responses, but did not allow discrimination between disturbances of binding, gating, subunit assembly or trafficking to the plasma membrane.Experimental ApproachA molecular model of the pain-relevant human hP2X3 receptor was used to identify amino acid pairs which were located at the lips of the binding jaw and did not participate in agonist binding but strongly approached each other even in the absence of ATP.Key ResultsA series of cysteine double mutant hP2X3 receptors, expressed in HEK293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes, exhibited depressed current responses to α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), due to the formation of spontaneous inter-subunit disulfide bonds. Dithiothreitol (DTT), by reducing these bonds, reversed the blockade of the α,β-meATP transmembrane current. Amino-reactive fluorescence labelling of the His-tagged hP2X3 receptor and its mutants expressed in HEK293 or X. laevis oocytes demonstrated the formation of inter-subunit crosslinks in cysteine double mutants and in addition, confirmed their correct trimeric assembly and cell surface expression.Conclusions And ImplicationsIn conclusion, spontaneous tightening of the binding jaw of the hP2X3 receptor by inter-subunit cross-linking of cysteine residues substituted at positions not directly involved in agonist binding inhibited agonist-evoked currents without interfering with binding, subunit assembly or trafficking.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord processes incoming painful information to ascending projection neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from SG spinal cord slices documented that in a low Ca(2+) /no Mg(2+) (low X(2+) ) external medium adenosine triphosphate (ATP)/dibenzoyl-ATP, Bz-ATP) caused inward current responses, much larger in amplitude than those recorded in a normal X(2+) -containing bath medium. The effect of Bz-ATP was antagonized by the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A-438079. Neuronal, but not astrocytic Bz-ATP currents were strongly inhibited by a combination of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists AP-5 and CNQX. In fact, all neurons and some astrocytes responded to NMDA, AMPA, and muscimol with inward current, demonstrating the presence of the respective receptors. The reactive oxygen species H2 O2 potentiated the effect of Bz-ATP at neurons but not at astrocytes. Hippocampal CA1 neurons exhibited a behavior similar to, but not identical with SG neurons. Although a combination of AP-5 and CNQX almost abolished the effect of Bz-ATP, H2 O2 was inactive. A Bz-ATP-dependent and A-438079-antagonizable reactive oxygen species production in SG slices was proven by a microelectrode biosensor. Immunohistochemical investigations showed the colocalization of P2X7-immunoreactivity with microglial (Iba1), but not astrocytic (GFAP, S100β) or neuronal (MAP2) markers in the SG. It is concluded that SG astrocytes possess P2X7 receptors; their activation leads to the release of glutamate, which via NMDA- and AMPA receptor stimulation induces cationic current in the neighboring neurons. P2X7 receptors have a very low density under resting conditions but become functionally upregulated under pathological conditions. GLIA 2014.
    Glia 06/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unveiling the roles of distinct cell types in brain response to insults is a partially unsolved challenge and a key issue for new neuroreparative approaches. In vivo models are not able to dissect the contribution of residential microglia and infiltrating blood-borne monocytes/macrophages, which are fundamentally undistinguishable; conversely, cultured cells lack original tissue anatomical and functional complexity, which profoundly alters reactivity. Here, we tested whether rodent organotypic co-cultures from mesencephalic ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex (VTA/SN-PFC) represent a suitable model to study changes induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R). OGD/R induced cytotoxicity to both VTA/SN and PFC slices, with higher VTA/SN susceptibility. Neurons were highly affected, with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes undergoing very mild damage. Marked reactive astrogliosis was also evident. Notably, OGD/R triggered the activation of CD68-expressing microglia and increased expression of Ym1 and Arg1, two markers of "alternatively" activated beneficial microglia. Treatment with two well-known neuroprotective drugs, the anticonvulsant agent valproic acid and the purinergic P2-antagonist PPADS, prevented neuronal damage. Thus, VTA/SN-PFC cultures are an integrated model to investigate OGD/R-induced effects on distinct cells and easily screen neuroprotective agents. The model is particularly adequate to dissect the microglia phenotypic shift in the lack of a functional vascular compartment.
    Neurochemistry International 01/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Claudia Heine, Heike Franke
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    ABSTRACT: Organotypic slice co-cultures are suitable tools to study axonal regeneration and development (growth or regrowth) of different projection systems of the CNS under ex vivo conditions.In this chapter, we describe in detail the reconstruction of the mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection system culturing tissue slices from the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the striatum (STR). The protocol includes the detailed slice preparation and incubation. Moreover, different application possibilities of the ex vivo model are mentioned; as an example, the substance treatment procedure and biocytin tracing are described to reveal the effect of applied substances on fiber outgrowth.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1162:97-111. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-gated P2X7 receptor is a membrane-bound, non-selective cation channel, expressed in a variety of cell types. The P2X7 senses high extracellular ATP concentrations and seems to be implicated in a wide range of cellular functions as well as pathophysiological processes, including immune responses and inflammation, release of gliotransmitters and cytokines, cancer cell growth or development of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we identified natural compounds and analogues that can block or sensitize the ATP (1 mM)-induced Ca(2+) response using a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human P2X7 and fluorometric imaging plate reader technology. For instance, teniposide potently blocked the human P2X7 at sub-miromolar concentrations, but not human P2X4 or rat P2X2. A marked block of ATP-induced Ca(2+) entry and Yo-Pro-1 uptake was also observed in human A375 melanoma cells and mouse microglial cells, both expressing P2X7. On the other hand, agelasine (AGL) and garcinolic acid (GA) facilitated the P2X7 response to ATP in all three cell populations. GA also enhanced the YO-PRO-1 uptake, whereas AGL did not affect the ATP-stimulated intracellular accumulation of this dye. According to the pathophysiological role of P2X7 in various diseases, selective modulators may have potential for further development, e.g. as neuroprotective or antineoplastic drugs.
    Purinergic Signalling 10/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Heike Franke, Peter Illes
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    ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic damage to the central nervous system (CNS) releases large quantities of ATP. Whereas the ATP concentration in the extracellular space is normally in the micromolar range, under these conditions it increases to millimolar levels. Ligand-gated cationic channels termed P2X receptors (7 mammalian subtypes), and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors (8 mammalian subtypes) are located at astrocytes, as confirmed by the measurement of the respective mRNA and protein. Activation of both the P2X7 and P2Y1,2 subtypes identified at astrocytes initiates astrogliosis isolating damaged brain areas from surrounding healthy cells and synthesizing neurotrophins and pleotrophins that participate in neuronal recovery. Astrocytes are considered as cells of high plasticity which may alter their properties in a culture medium. Therefore, recent work concentrates on investigating nucleotide effects at in situ (acute brain slices) and in vivo astrocytes. A wealth of data relates to the involvement of purinergic mechanisms in astrogliosis induced by acute CNS injury such as mechanical trauma and hypoxia/ischemia. The released ATP may act within minutes as an excitotoxic molecule; at a longer time-scale within days it causes neuroinflammation. These effects sum up as necrosis/apoptosis on the one hand and proliferation on the other. Although the role of nucleotides in chronic neurodegenerative illnesses is not quite clear, it appears that they aggravate the consequences of the primary disease. Epilepsy and neuropathic pain are also associated with the release of ATP and a pathologic glia-neuron interaction leading to astrogliosis and cell death. In view of these considerations, P2 receptor antagonists may open new therapeutic vistas in all forms of acute and chronic CNS damage.
    Neuroscience Letters 10/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unveiling the mechanisms participating in the damage and repair of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fundamental to develop new therapies. The P2Y-like GPR17 receptor has recently emerged as a sensor of damage and a key actor in lesion remodeling/repair in the rodent brain, but its role in humans is totally unknown. Here, we characterized GPR17 expression in brain specimens from seven intensive care unit TBI patients undergoing neurosurgery for contusion removal and from 28 autoptic TBI cases (and 10 control subjects of matched age and gender) of two university hospitals. In both neurosurgery and autoptic samples, GPR17 expression was strong inside the contused core and progressively declined distally according to a spatio-temporal gradient. Inside and around the core, GPR17 labeled dying neurons, reactive astrocytes, and activated microglia/macrophages. In peri-contused parenchyma, GPR17 decorated oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) some of which had proliferated, indicating re-myelination attempts. In autoptic cases, GPR17 expression positively correlated with death for intracranial complications and negatively correlated with patients' post-traumatic survival. Data indicate lesion-specific sequential involvement of GPR17 in the (a) death of irreversibly damaged neurons, (b) activation of microglia/macrophages remodeling the lesion, and (c) activation/proliferation of multipotent parenchymal progenitors (both reactive astrocytes and OPCs) starting repair processes. Data validate GPR17 as a target for neurorepair and are particularly relevant to setting up new therapies for TBI patients.
    Purinergic Signalling 06/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurogenesis requires the balance between the proliferation of newly formed progenitor cells and subsequent death of surplus cells. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated the presence of P2X7 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity in cultured neural progenitor cells (NPCs) prepared from the adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed a marked potentiation of the inward current responses both to ATP and the prototypic P2X7 receptor agonist dibenzoyl-ATP (Bz-ATP) at low Ca(2+) and zero Mg(2+) concentrations in the bath medium. The Bz-ATP-induced currents reversed their polarity near 0 mV; in NPCs prepared from P2X7(-/-) mice, Bz-ATP failed to elicit membrane currents. The general P2X/P2Y receptor antagonist PPADS and the P2X7 selective antagonists Brilliant Blue G and A-438079 strongly depressed the effect of Bz-ATP. Long-lasting application of Bz-ATP induced an initial current, which slowly increased to a steady-state response. In combination with the determination of YO-PRO uptake, these experiments suggest the dilation of a receptor-channel and/or the recruitment of a dye-uptake pathway. Ca(2+)-imaging by means of Fura-2 revealed that in a Mg(2+)-deficient bath medium Bz-ATP causes [Ca(2+)]i transients fully depending on the presence of external Ca(2+). The MTT test indicated a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability by Bz-ATP treatment. Correspondingly, Bz-ATP led to an increase in active caspase 3 immunoreactivity, indicating a P2X7-controlled apoptosis. In acute SVZ brain slices of transgenic Tg(nestin/EGFP) mice, patch-clamp recordings identified P2X7 receptors at NPCs with pharmacological properties identical to those of their cultured counterparts. We suggest that the apoptotic/necrotic P2X7 receptors at NPCs may be of particular relevance during pathological conditions which lead to increased ATP release and thus could counterbalance the ensuing excessive cell proliferation.
    Neuropharmacology 05/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease caused by neurochemical and molecular changes in the brain. In this human autopsy study qualitative and quantitative changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes in the hippocampus of 26 lethally intoxicated drug addicts and 35 matched controls are described. The morphological characterization of these cells reflected alterations representative for astrogliosis. But, neither quantification of GFAP-positive cells nor the Western blot analysis indicated statistical significant differences between drug fatalities versus controls. However, by semi-quantitative scoring a significant shift towards higher numbers of activated astrocytes in the drug group was detected. To assess morphological changes quantitatively, graph-based representations of astrocyte morphology were obtained from single cell images captured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Their underlying structures were used to quantify changes in astroglial fibers in an automated fashion. This morphometric analysis yielded significant differences between the investigated groups for four different measures of fiber characteristics (Euclidean distance, graph distance, number of graph elements, fiber skeleton distance), indicating that e.g. astrocytes in drug addicts on average exhibit significant elongation of fiber structures as well as two fold increase in GFAP-positive fibers as compared with those in controls. In conclusion, the present data show characteristic differences in morphology of hippocampal astrocytes in drug addicts versus controls and further supports the involvement of astrocytes in human pathophysiology of drug addiction. The automated quantification of astrocyte morphologies provides a novel, testable way to assess the fiber structures in a quantitative manner as opposed to standard, qualitative descriptions.
    Brain research 01/2013; 1500:72-87. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CNS reparative-medicine therapeutic strategies need answers on the putative recapitulation of the basic rules leading to mammalian CNS development. To achieve this aim, we focus on the regeneration of functional connections in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. We used organotypic slice cocultures of ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) on a multielectrode array (MEA) platform to record spikes and local field potentials. The spontaneously growing synaptically based bidirectional bursting activity was followed from 2 to 28 days in vitro (DIV). A statistical analysis of excitatory and inhibitory neurons properties of the physiological firing activity demonstrated a remarkable, exponentially increasing maturation with a time constant of about 5-7 DIV. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory neurons (3:1) was in line with the functional results obtained. Exemplary pharmacology suggested that GABA(A) receptors were able to exert phasic and tonic inhibition typical of an adulthood network. Moreover, dopamine D2 receptor inactivation was equally inhibitory both on the spontaneous neuronal activity recorded by MEA and on patch-clamp electrophysiology in PFC pyramidal neurons. These results demonstrate that axon growth cones reach synaptic targets up to full functionality and that organotypic cocultures of the VTA/SN-PFC perfectly model their newly born dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal circuitries.
    Cerebral Cortex 09/2012; · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of appropriate models assessing the potential of substances for regeneration of neuronal circuits is of great importance. Here, we present procedures to analyze effects of substances on fiber outgrowth based on organotypic slice co-cultures of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in combination with biocytin tracing and tyrosine hydroxylase labeling and subsequent automated image quantification. Selected phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) were studied to identify their potential growth-promoting capacities. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize developing fibers in the border region between ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra co-cultivated with the striatum as well as the cellular expression of PDE2A and PDE10. The quantification shows a significant increase of fiber density in the border region induced by PDE2-Is (BAY60-7550; ND7001), comparable with the potential of the nerve growth factor and in contrast to PDE10-I (MP-10). Analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive fibers indicated a significant increase after treatment with BAY60-7550 and nerve growth factor in relation to dimethyl sulfoxide. Additionally, a dose-dependent increase of intracellular cGMP levels in response to the applied PDE2-Is in PDE2-transfected HEK293 cells was found. In summary, our findings show that PDE2-Is are able to significantly promote axonal outgrowth in organotypic slice co-cultures, which are a suitable model to assess growth-related effects in neuro(re)generation.
    Neurosignals 08/2012; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are fundamental for central nervous system (CNS) physiology and are the fulcrum of neurological diseases. Astroglial cells control development of the nervous system, regulate synaptogenesis, maturation, maintenance and plasticity of synapses and are central for nervous system homeostasis. Astroglial reactions determine progression and outcome of many neuropathologies and are critical for regeneration and remodelling of neural circuits following trauma, stroke, ischaemia or neurodegenerative disorders. They secrete multiple neurotransmitters and neurohormones to communicate with neurones, microglia and the vascular walls of capillaries. Signalling through release of ATP is the most widespread mean of communication between astrocytes and other types of neural cells. ATP serves as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter and has pronounced long-term (trophic) roles in cell proliferation, growth, and development. During pathology, ATP is released from damaged cells and acts both as a cytotoxic factor and a proinflammatory mediator, being a universal "danger" signal. In this review, we summarise contemporary knowledge on the role of purinergic receptors (P2Rs) in a variety of diseases in relation to changes of astrocytic functions and nucleotide signalling. We have focussed on the role of the ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2YRs working alone or in concert to modify the release of neurotransmitters, to activate signalling cascades and to change the expression levels of ion channels and protein kinases. All these effects are of great importance for the initiation, progression and maintenance of astrogliosis-the conserved and ubiquitous glial defensive reaction to CNS pathologies. We highlighted specific aspects of reactive astrogliosis, especially with respect to the involvement of the P2X(7) and P2Y(1)R subtypes. Reactive astrogliosis exerts both beneficial and detrimental effects in a context-specific manner determined by distinct molecular signalling cascades. Understanding the role of purinergic signalling in astrocytes is critical to identifying new therapeutic principles to treat acute and chronic neurological diseases.
    Purinergic Signalling 05/2012; 8(3):629-57. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    Agneta Mewes, Heike Franke, David Singer
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    ABSTRACT: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1) and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2) concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study provides evidence that adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old mice independently of the transgenic modification undergo slow programmed cell death, caused by a dysfunction of the neuronal repair systems.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45017. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are a class of neural cells that control homeostasis at all levels of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a bidirectional neuron-glia interaction via a number of extracellular signaling molecules, glutamate and ATP being the most widespread. ATP activates ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors, which operate in both neurons and astrocytes. Morphological, biochemical, and functional evidence indicates the expression of astroglial P2X(1/5) heteromeric and P2X(7) homomeric receptors, which mediate physiological and pathophysiological responses. Activation of P2X(1/5) receptors triggers rapid increase of intracellular Na(+) that initiates immediate cellular reactions, such as the depression of the glutamate transporter to keep high glutamate concentrations in the synaptic cleft, the activation of the local lactate shuttle to supply energy substrate to pre- and postsynaptic neuronal structures, and the reversal of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange resulting in additional Ca(2+) entry. The consequences of P2X(7) receptor activation are mostly but not exclusively mediated by the entry of Ca(2+) and result in reorganization of the cytoskeleton, inflammation, apoptosis/necrosis, and proliferation, usually at a prolonged time scale. Thus, astroglia detect by P2X(1/5) and P2X(7) receptors both physiological concentrations of ATP secreted from presynaptic nerve terminals and also much higher concentrations of ATP attained under pathological conditions.
    The Neuroscientist 10/2011; 18(5):422-38. · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ATP is an important neuronal and astroglial signaling molecule in the brain. In the present study, brain slices were prepared from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of Wistar rats and 2 lines of mice. P2X₇ receptor immunoreactivity was colocalized with astro- and microglial but not neuronal markers. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings showed that, in astroglial cells, dibenzoyl-ATP (BzATP) and ATP caused inward currents, near the resting membrane potential. The inactivity of α,β-methylene ATP, as well as the potency increases of BzATP and ATP in a low divalent cation (X²(+))-containing superfusion medium suggested the involvement of P2X₇ receptors. This idea was corroborated by the inhibition of these current responses by PPADS, Brilliant Blue G, A 438079, and calmidazolium. Ivermectin, trinitrophenyl-adenosine-5'-triphosphate, and cyclopentyl-dipropylxanthine did not alter the agonist effects. The reversal potential of BzATP was near 0 mV, indicating the opening of cationic receptor channels. In a low X²(+) superfusion medium, ATP-induced current responses in PFC astroglial cells of wild-type mice but not of the P2X₇ knockouts. Hence, cortical astroglia of rats and mice possess functional P2X₇ receptors. These receptors may participate in necrotic/apoptotic or proliferative reactions after stimulation by large quantities of ATP released by central nervous system injury.
    Cerebral Cortex 04/2011; 21(4):806-20. · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    Heike Franke
    Purinergic Signalling 03/2011; 7(1):1-5. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    BMC Pharmacology 01/2011; 11:1-2.
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    ABSTRACT: After ischemia of the CNS, extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) can reach high concentrations due to cell damage and subsequent increase of membrane permeability. ATP may cause cellular degeneration and death, mediated by P2X and P2Y receptors. The effects of inhibition of P2 receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS) on electrophysiological, functional and morphological alterations in an ischemia model with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were investigated up to day 28. Spontaneously hypertensive rats received PPADS or vehicle intracerebroventricularly 15 minutes prior MCAO for up to 7 days. The functional recovery monitored by qEEG was improved by PPADS indicated by an accelerated recovery of ischemia-induced qEEG changes in the delta and alpha frequency bands along with a faster and sustained recovery of motor impairments. Whereas the functional improvements by PPADS were persistent at day 28, the infarct volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the amount of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly reduced by PPADS only until day 7. Further, by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we identified both neurons and astrocytes as TUNEL-positive after MCAO. The persistent beneficial effect of PPADS on the functional parameters without differences in the late (day 28) infarct size and apoptosis suggests that the early inhibition of P2 receptors might be favourable for the maintenance or early reconstruction of neuronal connectivity in the periinfarct area after ischemic incidents.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19983. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2011; 7(4).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
277.76 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der Bundeswehr
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1997–2014
    • University of Leipzig
      • • Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Institut für Pharmakologie, Pharmazie und Toxikologie
      Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • 2013
    • Universitätsklinikum Halle (Saale)
      Halle-on-the-Saale, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 2011
    • Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
      • Department of Neurology
      Erlangen, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2001
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Brain Research Institute
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany