[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnant women who are positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPOAb(+)] are prone to develop postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and permanent hypothyroidism. Selenium (Se) decreases thyroid inflammatory activity in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.
We examined whether Se supplementation, during and after pregnancy, influences the thyroidal autoimmune pattern and function.
This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Endocrinology.
A total of 2143 euthyroid pregnant women participated in the study; 7.9% were TPOAb(+).
During pregnancy and the postpartum period, 77 TPOAb(+) women received selenomethionine 200 microg/d (group S1), 74 TPOAb(+) women received placebo (group S0), and 81 TPOAb(-) age-matched women were the control group (group C).
We measured the prevalence of PPTD and hypothyroidism.
PPTD and permanent hypothyroidism were significantly lower in group S1 compared with S0 (28.6 vs. 48.6%, P<0.01; and 11.7 vs. 20.3%, P<0.01).
Se supplementation during pregnancy and in the postpartum period reduced thyroid inflammatory activity and the incidence of hypothyroidism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance cluster in the insulin resistance syndrome. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) are able to reduce insulin resistance. Furthermore, among ARB, telmisartan displays the property of stimulating PPARgamma. The aim of the study was to examine if and to what extent treatment with irbesartan and telmisartan induces variations in metabolic parameters in insulin resistant, hypertensive subjects. Forty-six non diabetic, obese, insulin-resistant, hypertensive patients took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. Group A (23) was submitted to irbesartan 150 mg/day, Group B (23) to telmisartan 80 mg/day for 6 months. Adiponectin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids (FFA), steady-state plasma insulin and glucose (SSPG), 24-hBP were determined at the beginning and at the end of the study. Both irbesartan or telmisartan reduced blood pressure and ameliorated the insulin sensitivity, with increased adiponectin values; in Group B, the amelioration of metabolic parameters was greater than in Group A and the reduction of blood pressure was related with variation of adiponectin levels. Data obtained showed that the antihypertensive action of telmisartan and irbesartan is associated with the amelioration of the metabolic picture. The greater impact on the improvement of the metabolic profile showed by telmisartan and the inverse correlation between adiponectin levels and blood pressure may be partly due to the action as partial PPARgamma agonist displayed by telmisartan.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension in type 2 diabetes represents a strong risk factor for cardiovascular events. Either calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may reduce insulin resistance. One of the ARBs, telmisartan (Telm) acting as a PPARgamma agonist, significantly reduces HbA(1C) levels. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects on glycaemic control of amlodipine (Aml) and Telm in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.
Forty diabetic hypertensive subjects were assigned to two groups. Group A: rosiglitazone (RSG) 4 mg + Telm 80 mg; Group B: RSG 4 mg + Aml 10 mg. All the patients were already treated with metformin, but not with antihypertensive drugs.
After four months treatment, both groups showed a significant reduction of mean blood pressure (Group A: - 13.5%; Group B: - 13.3%) and a positive influence on glycaemic control and insulin resistance. Lower values of glucose, HbA1C, HOMA index and higher adiponectin levels were observed in Group A compared to Group B. Conclusions. In type 2 diabetic hypertensive patients, the association of Telm 80 mg and RSG 4 mg seems to display a metabolic advantage compared to Aml 10 mg. The simultaneous beneficial effects on blood pressure and insulin sensitivity may confer make Telm particularly suitable in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System 01/2007; 7(4):243-6. DOI:10.3317/jraas.2006.045 · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Euthyroid women with autoimmune thyroid disease show impairment of thyroid function during gestation and seem to suffer from a higher rate of obstetrical complications.
We sought to determine whether these women suffer from a higher rate of obstetrical complications and whether levothyroxine (LT(4)) treatment exerts beneficial effects.
This was a prospective study.
The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
A total of 984 pregnant women were studied from November 2002 to October 2004; 11.7% were thyroid peroxidase antibody positive (TPOAb(+)).
TPOAb(+) patients were divided into two groups: group A (n = 57) was treated with LT(4), and group B (n = 58) was not treated. The 869 TPOAb(-) patients (group C) served as a normal population control group.
Rates of obstetrical complications in treated and untreated groups were measured.
At baseline, TPOAb(+) had higher TSH compared with TPOAb(-); TSH remained higher in group B compared with groups A and C throughout gestation. Free T(4) values were lower in group B than groups A and C after 30 wk and after parturition. Groups A and C showed a similar miscarriage rate (3.5 and 2.4%, respectively), which was lower than group B (13.8%) [P < 0.05; relative risk (RR), 1.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.25; and P < 0.01; RR = 4.95; 95% CI = 2.59-9.48, respectively]. Group B displayed a 22.4% rate of premature deliveries, which was higher than group A (7%) (P < 0.05; RR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.18-2.34) and group C (8.2%) (P < 0.01; RR = 12.18; 95% CI = 7.93-18.7).
Euthyroid pregnant women who are positive for TPOAb develop impaired thyroid function, which is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and premature deliveries. Substitutive treatment with LT(4) is able to lower the chance of miscarriage and premature delivery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The class of antidiabetic drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZD), possesses as its main feature, the ability to ameliorate insulin sensitivity. As diabetes and hypertension share common ground in insulin resistance, the aim of this study was to evaluate if Rosiglitazone (RSG) may exert antihypertensive properties. Diabetic patients selected for the study were free from complications and/or other diseases. They were not known hypertensives, not on any antihypertensive treatment and they were on up to 2550 mg of metformin per day. Twenty-four hour blood pressure (24-h BP) measurements were recorded and monitored. Thirty-eight patients with a nocturnal decline in BP less than 10% (nondippers) participated in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to metformin+placebo (19 patients: group A) or to metformin+RSG 4 mg b.i.d. (19 patients: group B). Patients from both groups continued to take the same dosage of metformin during the study period. After 12 months of treatment, 24-h BP measurements were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol and trigliceryde levels were taken at the beginning and again at the end of the study. After 12 months of treatment with RSG+metformin we observed an amelioration of metabolic parameters (reduction of HOMA index, glucose, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol and triglycerides); an increase in body weight and BMI; a significant reduction of systolic and diastolic BP values both during the day and night and variations in the HOMA index were positively related to the reduction of diurnal and nocturnal BP (HOMA index versus diurnal systolic BP (P<0.001; r2=0.727); versus diastolic BP (P<0.001; r2=0.757); versus nocturnal systolic BP (P<0.001; r2=0.842), versus diastolic BP (P<0.001; r2=0.773)). These findings indicate firstly that RSG is able to induce a reduction of BP and secondly the amelioration of insulin sensitivity is associated with the reduction of BP.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10/2005; 70(1):20-5. DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2005.02.012 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infertile women positive for thyroid antibodies suffer from a poor pregnancy/delivery outcome, although conflicting data have been published. Our objective was to investigate if levothyroxine (LT4) exerts any effect on pregnancy and/or delivery rates in thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb)-positive (+) women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies.
Patients undergoing treatment were screened for TPOAb, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). A total of 72 (15%) out of the 484 euthyroid women selected were TPOAb (+). These 72 patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 36) underwent LT4 treatment, group B (n = 36) placebo. Group C consisted of 412 women (85%) who were TPOAb negative (-). All patients received controlled ovarian stimulation. The endpoints of treatment were pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and delivery rate.
No differences in pregnancy rate were observed between the three groups. Miscarriage rate was higher in TPOAb (+) in comparison to TPOAb (-) [relative risk: 2.01 (95% CI = 1.13-3.56), P = 0.028].
The pregnancy rate is not affected either by presence of TPOAb or treatment with LT4. However, TPOAb (+) women show a poorer delivery rate compared to TPOAb (-). LT4 treatment in TPOAb (+) does not affect the delivery rate.
Human Reproduction 07/2005; 20(6):1529-33. DOI:10.1093/humrep/deh843 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between insulin resistance and hypertension is firmly established and has been extensively investigated. Thiazolidinediones (TZD), a class of oral hypoglycemic agents that act as insulin sensitizers have been demonstrated, in many in vivo and in vitro studies, to possess antihypertensive properties. Whether the ability of TZD to lower blood pressure (BP) should be ascribed to a reduction of insulin resistance, or to a direct vasodilating effect, is matter of debate. Since blunted BP nocturnal dipping precedes overt hypertension and is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, we evaluated the pioglitazone effects on BP in non-dipper type 2 diabetic patients.
Forty non-dipper diabetic patients were randomly assigned to metformin + placebo (M) or metformin + pioglitazone 30 mg (MP) and submitted to 24 hours blood pressure monitoring at the beginning and after 8 weeks.
After 8 weeks of treatment in subjects on metformin + pioglitazone 30 mg (group MP1), we found a reduction of nocturnal blood pressure values (mean nocturnal systolic BP 128.05+/- 1.23 vs 122.8+/-2.3 mmHg; p<0.02; mean nocturnal diastolic BP 81.2+/-0.99 vs 75.65+/-0.93 mmHg; p<0.005). The observed improvements in BP were independent from changes in metabolic parameters.
The obtained data show that pioglitazone was effective in reducing BP values in non-dipping diabetic patients. The reduction of BP values was independent from amelioration of the metabolic picture: that suggest the hypothesis that these ameliorations may be also due to a direct antihypertensive action exerted by pioglitazone.