[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many molecular assays for bladder cancer diagnosis and surveillance have been developed over the past several decades. However, none of these markers have been routinely implemented into clinical decision making. Beyond their potential for screening high-risk populations, urine markers likely have the greatest potential in the follow-up of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Here, we discuss the current options and limitations of the use of urine markers for patient surveillance, focusing on patients with low-/intermediate-risk NMIBC.
As these patients have a very low risk of tumor progression, the primary goal of surveillance is detection of recurrent disease. Although urine cytology seems to be limited to detection of few patients who would develop high-grade tumors, we conclude that the use of markers with high sensitivity for low-grade disease for patient follow-up has the potential to decrease the frequency of urethrocystoscopy without compromising patient prognosis. Because a single marker may not have sufficient sensitivity for detection of low-grade tumors, different scenarios, e.g., multitesting and reflex or sequential approaches, are discussed.
There is consensus that currently available markers have the potential to support clinical decision making in follow-up of patients with low-/intermediate-risk NMIBC. In light of our analysis, further additional randomized controlled studies to effectively assess the clinical usefulness of modern urine markers are required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 11 independent susceptibility loci associated with bladder cancer risk. To discover additional risk variants, we conducted a new GWAS of 2,422 bladder cancer cases and 5,751 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with two independently published bladder cancer GWAS, resulting in a combined analysis of 6,911 cases and 11,814 controls of European descent. TaqMan genotyping of 13 promising SNPs with P< 1x10(-5) was pursued in a follow-up set of 801 cases and 1,307 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs10936599 on 3q26.2 (P=4.53×10(-9)) and rs907611 on 11p15.5 (P=4.11×10(-8)). Two notable loci were also identified that approached genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 on 20p12.2 (P=7.13×10(-7)) and rs4510656 on 6p22.3 (P=6.98×10(-7)); these require further studies for confirmation. In conclusion, our study has identified new susceptibility alleles for bladder cancer risk that require fine-mapping and laboratory investigation, which could further understanding into the biological underpinnings of bladder carcinogenesis.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated survival of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy to confirm the utility of existing clinical tools to identify low risk patients who could be treated with radical cystectomy alone and a high risk group most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
We identified patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Patients were deemed high risk based on the clinical presence of hydroureteronephrosis, cT3b-T4a disease, and/or histologic evidence of lymphovascular invasion, micropapillary or neuroendocrine features on transurethral resection. We evaluated survival (disease-specific, progression-free, and overall) and rate of pathological upstaging. An independent cohort of patients from a separate institution was used to confirm our findings.
We identified 98 high risk and 199 low risk patients eligible for analysis. High risk patients exhibited decreased five-year overall survival (47.0 vs. 64.8%) and decreased disease-specific (64.3 vs. 83.5%) and progression-free (62.0 vs. 84.1%) survival probabilities compared to low risk patients (p<0.001). Survival outcomes were confirmed in the validation subset. On final pathology, 49.2% of low risk patients were upstaged.
Five-year disease-specific survival of low risk patients was above 80%, supporting the distinction of high and low risk muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The presence of high risk features identifies patients with a poor prognosis who are most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, while many of those who are low risk can undergo upfront surgery with good expectations and avoid chemotherapy-associated toxicity.
The Journal of urology 07/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ● Pathologic examination of ureteral margins during radical cystectomy (RC) occasionally reveals lesions present in proximal but not in distal ureteral sections ("skip lesions"). ● We assessed the incidence and clinical significance of these lesions.
● We identified 660 patients who underwent a RC and had at least 2 permanent margins for a given ureter. ● Overall, 1173 ureters were analyzed and classified as the followings: "normal" (no tumor, reactive atypia, mild or moderate dysplasia) or "abnormal" (severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS), or tumor). ● Transitions from "normal" distal pathology to "abnormal" on proximal section(s) determined frequency of skip lesions. ● Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to study correlations.
● Ureteral skip lesions were found in 4.8% patients (2.9% ureters). ● Pathology of skip lesions was CIS: 55.9%, TCC: 23.5% and severe dysplasia in 20.6%. ● Skip lesions were associated with lymphovascular invasion (34.4% vs. 13.7%, p=0.0035) and advanced pT stage (p=0.0068). ● On multivariate analysis, skip lesions correlated with lower median overall survival (OS) (inestimable vs. 8.2 years, p=0.014) in patients with pT0 or pTa disease and a trend towards lower OS (2.7 years vs. 8.8 years, p=0.066) in pTis disease. ● Concordance between frozen distal margin and permanent proximal margin varied; sensitivity was 80% in those without and 20% in those with skip lesions.
● The presence of a ureteral skip lesion may be associated with lower survival in patients with pT0, pTa or pTis urothelial carcinoma. ● Thus, while uncommon, ureteral skip lesions should be reported in pathologic findings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Results of studies of fluid consumption and its association with bladder cancer have been inconsistent. Few studies have considered modification effects from genetic variants that may interact with the type of consumed fluids. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), which are membrane-bound conjugating enzymes, catalyse the transformation of hydrophobic substrates to more water-soluble glucuronides to facilitate renal or biliary excretion. Whether genetic variants in UGTs could modulate the association between fluid intake and bladder cancer has not been studied.Methods:We conducted a case-control study with 1007 patients with histopathologically confirmed bladder cancer and 1299 healthy matched controls. Fluid intake and epidemiologic data were collected via in-person interview. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Results:After adjustment for potential confounders, high quantity of total fluid intake (2789 vs <1696 ml per day) conferred a 41% increased risk of bladder cancer (OR=1.41; 95% CI=1.10-1.81). Specific fluids such as regular soft drinks and decaffeinated coffee were also associated with increased risks, whereas tea, wine, and liquor were associated with decreased risks. Among 83 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the UGT gene family, 18 were significantly associated with bladder cancer risk. The most significant one was rs7571337, with the variant genotype conferring a 29% reduction in risk (OR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56-0.90).Conclusions:Total and specific fluid intakes are associated with bladder cancer risk in the study population and that genetic variants of UGT genes could modulate the effects. These results facilitate identification of high-risk individuals and have important implications in bladder cancer prevention.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 30 April 2013;doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.190 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on hexaminolevulinate (HAL) cystoscopy report improved detection of bladder tumours. However, recent meta-analyses report conflicting effects on recurrence. OBJECTIVE: To assess available clinical data for blue light (BL) HAL cystoscopy on the detection of Ta/T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS) tumours, and on tumour recurrence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This meta-analysis reviewed raw data from prospective studies on 1345 patients with known or suspected non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). INTERVENTION: A single application of HAL cystoscopy was used as an adjunct to white light (WL) cystoscopy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We studied the detection of NMIBC (intention to treat [ITT]: n=831; six studies) and recurrence (per protocol: n=634; three studies) up to 1 yr. DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model was used to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes for detection. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: BL cystoscopy detected significantly more Ta tumours (14.7%; p<0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 4.898; 95% CI, 1.937-12.390) and CIS lesions (40.8%; p<0.001; OR: 12.372; 95% CI, 6.343-24.133) than WL. There were 24.9% patients with at least one additional Ta/T1 tumour seen with BL (p<0.001), significant also in patients with primary (20.7%; p<0.001) and recurrent cancer (27.7%; p<0.001), and in patients at high risk (27.0%; p<0.001) and intermediate risk (35.7%; p=0.004). In 26.7% of patients, CIS was detected only by BL (p<0.001) and was also significant in patients with primary (28.0%; p<0.001) and recurrent cancer (25.0%; p<0.001). Recurrence rates up to 12 mo were significantly lower overall with BL, 34.5% versus 45.4% (p=0.006; RR: 0.761 [0.627-0.924]), and lower in patients with T1 or CIS (p=0.052; RR: 0.696 [0.482-1.003]), Ta (p=0.040; RR: 0.804 [0.653-0.991]), and in high-risk (p=0.050) and low-risk (p=0.029) subgroups. Some subgroups had too few patients to allow statistically meaningful analysis. Heterogeneity was minimised by the statistical analysis method used. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that HAL BL cystoscopy significantly improves the detection of bladder tumours leading to a reduction of recurrence at 9-12 mo. The benefit is independent of the level of risk and is evident in patients with Ta, T1, CIS, primary, and recurrent cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: A Phase l trial of intravesical recombinant adenovirus-mediated interferon-α2b gene therapy (rAd-IFNα) formulated with the excipient SCH Syn3 was conducted in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who recurred after Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The primary objective was to determine the safety of rAd-IFNα/Syn3; secondary endpoints were to demonstrate effective rAd-IFNα gene expression and preliminary evidence of clinical activity at three months. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with recurrent NMIBC after BCG were enrolled. A single treatment of rAd-IFNα (3x10(9) to 3x10(11) particles/mL) formulated with the excipient Syn3 was administered. Patient safety was evaluated for ≥12 weeks. Efficacy of gene transfer was determined by urine IFNα protein concentrations. Preliminary drug efficacy was determined at 3 months. RESULTS: Intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated as no dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was encountered. Urgency was the most common adverse event and all were grade 1 or 2. rAd-IFNα DNA was not detected in the blood, however, transient low serum IFNα and Syn3 levels were measured. High and prolonged dose-related urine IFNα levels were achieved with the initial treatment. Of the 14 patients treated at doses ≥ 10(10) particles/mL with detectable urine IFNα, 6 (43%) experienced a complete response at 3 months and 2 remained disease free at 29.0 and 39.2 months respectively. CONCLUSION: Intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 was well tolerated with no DLT encountered. Dose dependent urinary IFNα concentrations confirmed efficient gene transfer and expression. Intravesical rAd-IFNα/Syn3 demonstrated clinical activity in NMIBC recurring after BCG.
The Journal of urology 03/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the fourth most common cancer in men. Survival from the disease has not improved in the last 25 yr. Population-based screening theoretically provides the best opportunity to improve the outcomes of aggressive BCa. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature regarding the usefulness and feasibility of screening for bladder cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a nonsystematic review restricted to English using the keywords urinary bladder neoplasms, mass screening, mandatory testing, and early detection of cancer. We retrieved 184 articles and selected 22. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There was no level 1 evidence (obtained from a randomised controlled trial [RCT]) addressing the impact of screening on BCa survival or tumour downstaging. No study assessed the diagnostic performance of urinary markers in the context of screening. Two case-control series suggested a benefit of screening on survival, and a third found a nonsignificant beneficial trend in favour of screening. Two studies suggested downstaging of BCa at diagnosis. Other reports concluded that most cancers detected with screening were of low grade and that current urinary testing cannot detect all tumours. Screening is likely to be of benefit in high-risk populations using cost-efficient high-performing urinary biomarkers. There was insufficient evidence to define an efficient screening protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Although BCa screening is theoretically feasible in a high-risk population, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend it. This is due to insufficient data to define an efficient screening protocol with selection of an appropriate population and the lack of accurate and cost-effective urinary markers able to discriminate low-risk from high-risk cancers. Major improvements are needed in the evaluation of urinary biomarkers before evaluation in a RCT can be achieved.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the 11th annual meeting of the Society of Urologic Oncology, an expert panel was convened to discuss the practical use of perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The discussion was structured as a case-based debate among the panelists. The topics included: neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a focus on T2 disease, pros and cons, survival data, tolerability of cisplatin-based therapy, can we avoid radical cystectomy in complete responders, limitations and alternatives to cisplatin-based therapy, management of 'suboptimal' chemotherapy, residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and key aspects of radical cystectomy and lymph-node dissection in multimodal therapy. The presentations were derived from published literature. The panelists agreed that patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be managed with a multidisciplinary team, including urologist and medical oncologist. Cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has demonstrated improved survival and should be incorporated into the management of all eligible patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. However, in some centers, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reserved for patients with >T2 disease or high-risk features. There are no data for the administration of non-cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, such as carboplatin-combinations. Cisplatin-ineligible patients should proceed directly to surgical extirpation with adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy considered based on pathologic findings. However, the data for adjuvant chemotherapy is less compelling. As our refinement of the selection process continues, we may be able to better identify subsets of patients who may be spared chemotherapy, but much work remains to be done in this arena. The current standard for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients is cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph-node dissection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is a disease of significant morbidity and mortality. It is important to understand the risk factors of this disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of UBC and to review and interpret the current evidence on and impact of the related risk factors. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search in English was performed using PubMed. Relevant papers on the epidemiology of UBC were selected. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: UBC is the 7th most common cancer worldwide in men and the 17th most common cancer worldwide in women. Approximately 75% of newly diagnosed UBCs are noninvasive. Each year, approximately 110 500 men and 70 000 women are diagnosed with new cases and 38 200 patients in the European Union and 17 000 US patients die from UBC. Smoking is the most common risk factor and accounts for approximately half of all UBCs. Occupational exposure to aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are other important risk factors. The impact of diet and environmental pollution is less evident. Increasing evidence suggests a significant influence of genetic predisposition on incidence. CONCLUSIONS: UBC is a frequently occurring malignancy with a significant impact on public health and will remain so because of the high prevalence of smoking. The importance of primary prevention must be stressed, and smoking cessation programs need to be encouraged and supported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Patients with positive lymph nodes at radical cystectomy have a poor prognosis. The actual outcome of patients varies based on many factors, among which lymph node density has emerged as being more informative than nodal status of TNM staging. We combined clinical data from two major cancer centres in the USA and identified patients with an adequate lymphadenectomy and no perioperative chemotherapy to understand the natural history of the disease. Using this information, we created prognostic tools incorporating lymph node density that can be used for risk stratification, patient counselling and clinical trial design. OBJECTIVE: • To develop a clinical tool based on lymph node density (LND) for patient counselling after radical cystectomy and for design of clinical trials of adjuvant therapies after radical cystectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: • Using pooled data from two comprehensive cancer centres, we identified patients with lymph node metastases after radical cystectomy who received an adequate lymph node dissection according to existing literature (resection of eight or more nodes). • Only patients who had not received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were included to ensure that prediction models were based on the natural course of the disease. • Thresholds for LND ranging from 5% to 35%, in 5% increments, were used to dichotomize the study population. Within each set of two groups, the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator was used to estimate disease-specific survival (DSS) for each group, and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the significance of differences in DSS between the group with higher LND and the group with lower LND. • Tables and graphs showing the relationship between LND categories and 2-year and 5-year estimated DSS were created to aid in clinical decision-making. RESULTS: • LND was valuable as a tool for stratifying node-positive patients into different risk groups based on expected survival. • At each LND threshold from 10% to 35%, patients with higher LND had significantly worse DSS than patients with lower LND (P≤ 0.001). • As expected, DSS in the higher-LND group worsened with each 5% increase in LND threshold: patients with LND > 35% had a 5-year DSS rate of 4%. • Using our data as a tool, multiple cut-offs can be employed to categorize patients into various risk groups with different risk. For example, patients with LND ≤ 10% have an estimated 5-year DSS rate of 61.9%, whereas patients with LND > 15% have an estimated 5-year DSS rate of 19.2%. CONCLUSIONS: • Patients with node-positive bladder cancer have poor outcomes, and survival varies widely according to LND. • Categorical LND should be used to risk-stratify patients for counselling regarding prognosis. • Furthermore, categorical LND should be used as a tool for designing and reporting on clinical trials of adjuvant therapies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed the impact of hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopic detection of papillary, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer on the long-term recurrence rate.
Long-term followup was assessed in 551 participants enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of fluorescence cystoscopy for Ta or T1 urothelial bladder cancer. In the original study 280 patients in the white light cystoscopy group and 271 in the fluorescence cystoscopy group were followed with cystoscopy for 3, 6 and 9 months after initial resection or until recurrence. A study extension protocol was done for long-term followup of these patients.
Followup information was obtained for 261 of the 280 patients (93%) in the white light group and 255 of the 271 (94%) in the fluorescence group. Median followup in the white light and fluorescence groups was 53.0 and 55.1 months, and 83 (31.8%) and 97 patients (38%) remained tumor free, respectively. Median time to recurrence was 9.4 months in the white light group and 16.4 months in the fluorescence group (p = 0.04). The intravesical therapy rate was similar in the 2 groups (46% and 45%, respectively). Cystectomy was done in 22 of 280 cases (7.9%) in the white light group and in 13 of the 271 (4.8%) in the fluorescence group (p = 0.16).
Hexaminolevulinate fluorescence cystoscopy significantly improves long-term bladder cancer time to recurrence with a trend toward improved bladder preservation.
The Journal of urology 05/2012; 188(1):58-62. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Small cell urothelial carcinoma (SCUC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy with a propensity for early microscopic metastases. Data suggest that neoadjuvant chemotherapy may lead to improved survival compared with initial surgery. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on survival of SCUC patients in a large single-institution cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Between 1985 and 2010, 172 patients were treated for SCUC at MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). Clinical, pathologic, and surgical data were collected and analyzed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on survival. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of 125 patients with resectable disease (≤cT4aN0M0), 95 were surgical candidates. Forty-eight received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 47 underwent initial surgery. Neoadjuvant treatment was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with initial cystectomy (median OS: 159.5 mo vs 18.3 mo, p<0.001; 5-yr DSS: 79% vs 20%, p<0.001). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy resulted in pathologic downstaging to ≤pT1N0 in 62% of tumors compared with only 9% treated with initial surgery (odds ratio: 44.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.39-191). Eight patients with clinically node-positive disease had surgical consolidation with cystectomy and extended lymph node dissection after clinical complete response to chemotherapy. Median OS and DSS in this group of patients were 23.3 mo and 21.8 mo, respectively, with 5-yr OS and DSS of 38%. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with a high rate of pathologic downstaging and correlates with significantly higher survival compared with historical expectations. Although limited by a small sample size and retrospective analysis, in the context of a rare disease, this experience suggests neoadjuvant chemotherapy as a standard approach in treating SCUC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No reliable methods currently exist to predict patient response to intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin given after transurethral resection for high risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. We initiated a prospective clinical trial to determine whether fluorescence in situ hybridization results during bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy can predict therapy failure.
Candidates for standard of care bacillus Calmette-Guérin were offered participation in a clinical trial. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed before bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months during bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy with maintenance. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between fluorescence in situ hybridization results and tumor recurrence or progression. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to estimate recurrence-free and progression-free survival.
A total of 126 patients participated in the study. At a median followup of 24 months 31% of patients had recurrent tumors and 14% experienced disease progression. Patients who had positive fluorescence in situ hybridization results during bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy were 3 to 5 times more likely than those who had negative fluorescence in situ hybridization results to experience recurrent tumors and 5 to 13 times more likely to have disease progression (p <0.01). The timing of positive fluorescence in situ hybridization results also affected outcomes. For example, patients with a negative fluorescence in situ hybridization result at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months demonstrated an 8.3% recurrence rate compared to 48.1% for those with a positive result at all 3 points.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization results can identify patients at risk for tumor recurrence and progression during bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy. This information may be used to counsel patients about alternative treatment strategies.
The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(3):862-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed the association between meat intake, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and bladder cancer (BC) risk in a large case-control study comprised of 884 BC cases and 878 healthy controls, recruited from 1999 to 2009. Epidemiologic and dietary data were collected via an in-person interview. Compared to the lowest quartile of red meat intake, the odds ratios (ORs) for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87-1.58), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.09-1.99) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.41-2.68), respectively, (p-for trend <0.001). In a subset of participants with intakes of HCAs available, compared with those with the lowest quartile of intake, the ORs for the second, third and fourth quartiles were 1.47 (95% CI: 0.60-3.64), 2.58 (95% CI: 1.09-6.11) and 3.32 (95% CI: 1.37-8.01), respectively, (p for trend <0.001). In cumulative analysis of SNPs in the pathway, compared with subjects carrying 0-4 unfavorable genotypes, subjects carrying 5 and 6 or more unfavorable genotypes were at 1.60-fold (95% CI: 1.20-2.12) and 2.37-fold (95% CI: 1.82-3.10) increased risk, respectively. Moreover, subjects carrying six or more unfavorable genotypes and whose red meat intake was in the highest quartile were at 5.09-fold increased risk (95% CI: 2.89-8.96; p < 0.001). These results strongly support that high red meat intake, high intake of HCAs and carrying high number of unfavorable genotypes in the HCA metabolic pathways are associated with increased risk of BC in the study population.
International Journal of Cancer 01/2012; 131(8):1892-903. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used protein expression profiles to develop a classification rule for the detection and prognostic assessment of bladder cancer in voided urine samples. Using the Ciphergen PBS II ProteinChip Reader, we analyzed the protein profiles of 18 pairs of samples of bladder tumor and adjacent urothelium tissue, a training set of 85 voided urine samples (32 controls and 53 bladder cancer), and a blinded testing set of 68 voided urine samples (33 controls and 35 bladder cancer). Using t-tests, we identified 473 peaks showing significant differential expression across different categories of paired bladder tumor and adjacent urothelial samples compared to normal urothelium. Then the intensities of those 473 peaks were examined in a training set of voided urine samples. Using this approach, we identified 41 protein peaks that were differentially expressed in both sets of samples. The expression pattern of the 41 protein peaks was used to classify the voided urine samples as malignant or benign. This approach yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 59% and 90%, respectively, on the training set and 80% and 100%, respectively, on the testing set. The proteomic classification rule performed with similar accuracy in low- and high-grade bladder carcinomas. In addition, we used hierarchical clustering with all 473 protein peaks on 65 benign voided urine samples, 88 samples from patients with clinically evident bladder cancer, and 127 samples from patients with a history of bladder cancer to classify the samples into Cluster A or B. The tumors in Cluster B were characterized by clinically aggressive behavior with significantly shorter metastasis-free and disease-specific survival.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42452. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress pathway genes may contribute to carcinogenesis, disease recurrence, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. We applied a pathway-based approach to determine the effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this pathway on clinical outcomes in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We genotyped 276 SNPs in 38 genes and evaluated their associations with clinical outcomes in 421 NMIBC patients. Twenty-eight SNPs were associated with recurrence in the BCG-treated group (P<0.05). Six SNPs, including five in NEIL2 gene from the overall and BCG group remained significantly associated with recurrence after multiple comparison adjustments (q<0.1). Cumulative unfavorable genotype analysis showed that the risk of recurrence increased with increasing number of unfavorable genotypes. In the analysis of risk factors associated with progression to disease, rs3890995 in UNG, remained significant after adjustment for multiple comparison (q<0.1). These results support the hypothesis that genetic variations in host oxidative stress genes in NMIBC patients may affect response to therapy with BCG.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38533. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significant morbidity and expense result from frequent recurrences of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after standard treatment, and carcinoma in situ (Tis) is a poor prognostic factor. Predicated on observational and preclinical data strongly supporting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the pathogenesis, and the activity of COX-2 inhibitors, in bladder cancer, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether celecoxib could reduce the time-to-recurrence (TTR) in NMIBC patients at high risk for recurrence. A total of 146 patients were randomized to celecoxib (200 mg) or placebo orally twice daily for at least 12 months. The average treatment duration was 1.25 years. Primary intent-to-treat analysis revealed celecoxib did not statistically significantly prolong TTR compared with placebo (P = 0.17, log rank) with a median follow-up of 2.49 years. The recurrence-free rate at 12 months with celecoxib was 88% (95% CI: 0.81-0.96) versus 78% (95% CI: 0.69-0.89) with placebo. After controlling for covariates with Cox regression analysis, recurrence rates did not differ between the two study arms (HR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.37-1.29). However, celecoxib had a marginally significant effect on reducing metachronous recurrences (vs. placebo) with HR of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.3-1.06; P = 0.075). Celecoxib was well tolerated, with similar adverse events and quality-of-life in both arms. Our clinical trial results do not show a clinical benefit for celecoxib in preventing NMIBC recurrence but further investigation of COX-2 inhibitors in this setting is warranted.
Cancer Prevention Research 08/2011; 4(10):1580-9. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies of bladder cancer have identified 10 susceptibility loci thus far. We conducted a meta-analysis of two previously published genome-wide scans (4501 cases and 6076 controls of European background) and followed up the most significant association signals [17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genomic regions] in 1382 cases and 2201 controls from four studies. A combined analysis adjusted for study center, age, sex, and smoking status identified a novel susceptibility locus that mapped to a region of 18q12.3, marked by rs7238033 (P = 8.7 × 10(-9); allelic odds ratio 1.20 with 95% CI: 1.13-1.28) and two highly correlated SNPs, rs10775480/rs10853535 (r(2)= 1.00; P = 8.9 × 10(-9); allelic odds ratio 1.16 with 95% CI: 1.10-1.22). The signal localizes to the solute carrier family 14 member 1 gene, SLC14A1, a urea transporter that regulates cellular osmotic pressure. In the kidney, SLC14A1 regulates urine volume and concentration whereas in erythrocytes it determines the Kidd blood groups. Our findings suggest that genetic variation in SLC14A1 could provide new etiological insights into bladder carcinogenesis.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2011; 20(21):4282-9. · 7.69 Impact Factor