Heinz Feldmann

National Institutes of Health, 베서스다, Maryland, United States

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Publications (361)2332.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: With up to 500,000 infections annually, Lassa virus (LASV), the cause of Lassa fever, is one of the most prevalent etiological agents of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. LASV is endemic in several West African countries with sporadic cases and prolonged outbreaks observed most commonly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Additionally several cases of Lassa fever have been imported into North America, Europe and Asia making LASV a global threat to public health. Despite this, currently no approved therapeutic or vaccine exists to treat or prevent LASV infections. Here, using a passaged strain of LASV that is uniformly lethal in Hartley guinea pigs, we demonstrate that favipiravir, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent and leading treatment option for influenza, has potent activity against LASV infection. In this model, once daily treatment with favipiravir significantly reduced viral titers in tissue samples and reduced mortality rates when compared with animals receiving vehicle-only or ribavirin, the current standard of care for Lassa fever. Favipiravir remained highly effective against lethal LASV infection when treatments were initiated nine days post-infection, a time when animals were demonstrating advanced signs of disease. These results support the further preclinical evaluation of favipiravir for Lassa fever and other VHFs.
    Scientific Reports 10/2015; 5:14775. DOI:10.1038/srep14775 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In late 2013, the largest documented outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever started in Guinea and has since spread to neighboring countries, resulting in almost 27,000 cases and >11,000 deaths in humans. In March 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the causative agent. This study compares the pathogenesis of a new EBOV strain, Makona, which was isolated in Guinea in 2014 with the prototype strain from the 1976 EBOV outbreak in the former Zaire. Both strains cause lethal disease in cynomolgus macaques with similar pathologic changes and hallmark features of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. However, disease progression was delayed in EBOV-Makona-infected animals, suggesting decreased rather than increased virulence of this most recent EBOV strain.
    Emerging infectious diseases 10/2015; 21(10). DOI:10.3201/eid2110.150259 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Henipaviruses are zoonotic viruses that can cause severe and acute respiratory diseases and encephalitis in humans. To date, no vaccine or treatments are approved for human use. The presence of neutralizing antibodies is a strong correlate of protection against lethal disease in animals. However, since RNA viruses are prone to high mutation rates, the possibility of these viruses to escape neutralization remains a potential concern.In the present study, we generated neutralization escape mutants using six different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the effect of these neutralization escape mutations on in vitro and in vivo fitness.These data provide a mechanism for overcoming neutralization escape by use of cocktails of cross-neutralizing MAbs that recognize residues within the glycoprotein that are important for virus replication and virulence.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv449 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First identified in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by an emerging human coronavirus, which is distinct from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and represents a novel member of the lineage C betacoronoviruses. Since its identification, MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been linked to more than 1372 infections manifesting with severe morbidity and, often, mortality (about 495 deaths) in the Arabian Peninsula, Europe, and, most recently, the United States. Human-to-human transmission has been documented, with nosocomial transmission appearing to be an important route of infection. The recent increase in cases of MERS in the Middle East coupled with the lack of approved antiviral therapies or vaccines to treat or prevent this infection are causes for concern. We report on the development of a synthetic DNA vaccine against MERS-CoV. An optimized DNA vaccine encoding the MERS spike protein induced potent cellular immunity and antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, macaques, and camels. Vaccinated rhesus macaques seroconverted rapidly and exhibited high levels of virus-neutralizing activity. Upon MERS viral challenge, all of the monkeys in the control-vaccinated group developed characteristic disease, including pneumonia. Vaccinated macaques were protected and failed to demonstrate any clinical or radiographic signs of pneumonia. These studies demonstrate that a consensus MERS spike protein synthetic DNA vaccine can induce protective responses against viral challenge, indicating that this strategy may have value as a possible vaccine modality against this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science translational medicine 08/2015; 7(301):301ra132. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.aac7462 · 15.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The latest Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic spread rapidly through Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, creating a global public health crisis and accelerating the assessment of experimental therapeutics and vaccines in clinical trials. One of those vaccines is based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (VSV-EBOV), a live-attenuated vector with marked preclinical efficacy. Here, we provide the preclinical proof that VSV-EBOV completely protects macaques against lethal challenge with the West African EBOV-Makona strain. Complete and partial protection was achieved with a single dose given as late as 7 and 3 days before challenge, respectively. This indicates that VSV-EBOV may protect humans against EBOV infections in West Africa with relatively short time to immunity, promoting its use for immediate public health responses. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science 08/2015; 349(6249). DOI:10.1126/science.aab3920 · 33.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in terms of both its size and duration, and there has been speculation and concern regarding the potential for EBOV to increase in virulence as a result of its prolonged circulation in humans. Here we investigate the relative potency of the interferon (IFN) inhibitors encoded by EBOVs from West Africa, since an important EBOV virulence factor is inhibition of the antiviral IFN response. Based on this work we show that, in terms of IFN antagonism, the West African viruses display no discernible differences from the prototype Mayinga isolate, which corroborates epidemiological data suggesting these viruses show no increased virulence compared with those from previous outbreaks. This finding has important implications for public health decisions, since it does not provide experimental support for theoretical claims that EBOV might gain increased virulence due to the extensive human-to-human transmission in the on-going outbreak.
    Nature Communications 08/2015; 6:8000. DOI:10.1038/ncomms9000 · 11.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: The VP40 matrix protein is a key structural protein critical for Ebola virus budding. Physical and functional interactions between VP40 and host proteins such as Tsg101 and Nedd4 facilitate efficient release of VLPs and infectious virus. We reported that host TLR4 is a sensor for Ebola GP on VLPs, and that resultant TLR4 signaling pathways lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Host SOCS3 regulates the innate immune response by controlling and limiting the proinflammatory response through negative-feedback inhibition of cytokine receptors. We present evidence that Ebola virus VLPs stimulate induction of SOCS3 as well as proinflammatory cytokines, and that expression of human SOCS3 enhances budding of Ebola VLPs and infectious virus via a mechanism linked to the host ubiquitinylation machinery.
    Journal of Virology 08/2015; 89(20). DOI:10.1128/JVI.01736-15 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in West Africa is unprecedented, with nearly 26 000 confirmed cases and >10 000 deaths. Comprehensive data on the pathogenesis of EBOV infection are lacking; however, recent studies suggested that fatal EBOV infections are characterized by dysregulation of the innate immune response and a subsequent cytokine storm. Specifically, several studies suggested that hypersecretion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) correlates with lethal EBOV infections. To examine the significance of IL-1Ra in EBOV infections, we infected mice that lack the gene encoding IL-1Ra, Il1rn (IL-1RN-KO), and mice with wild-type Il1rn (IL-1RN-WT) with a mouse-adapted EBOV (MA-EBOV). Infected IL-1RN-KO mice lost more weight and had a lower survival rate than IL-1RN-WT mice infected with MA-EBOV. In addition, IL-1RN-KO mice infected with wild-type EBOV, which does not cause lethal infection in adult immunocompetent mice, such as C57BL/6 mice, experienced greater weight loss than IL-1RN-WT mice infected with wild-type EBOV. Further studies revealed that the levels of 6 cytokines in spleens-IL-1α, IL-1β, interleukin 12p40, interleukin 17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted-were significantly different between IL-1RN-KO mice and IL-1RN-WT mice infected with MA-EBOV. Collectively, our data suggest that IL-1Ra may have a protective effect upon EBOV infection, likely by damping an overactive proinflammatory immune response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv335 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus (EBOV) protein 24 antagonizes the host interferon (IFN) response by hijacking select nuclear importin-α isoforms. Thereby, it blocks STAT1-mediated IFN-α/β and IFN-γ synthesis. However, owing to the lack of importin-α knockout animal models in the past, their role in EBOV pathogenesis remained largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that importin-α7 is involved in the formation of EBOV inclusion bodies and replication. However, deletion of the gene encoding importin-α7 was not sufficient to increase survival rates among mice infected with EBOV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv240 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) pseudotypes expressing Ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) in place of the VSV G protein demonstrated protection of nonhuman primates from lethal homologous Ebolavirus challenge. Those pseudotype vectors contained no additional attenuating mutations in the rVSV genome. Here we describe rVSV vectors containing a full complement of VSV genes and expressing the Ebola virus (EBOV) GP from an additional transcription unit. These rVSV vectors contain the same combination of attenuating mutations used previously in the clinical development pathway of an rVSV/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. One of these rVSV vectors (N4CT1-EBOVGP1), which expresses membrane-anchored EBOV GP from the first position in the genome (GP1), elicited a balanced cellular and humoral GP-specific immune response in mice. Guinea pigs immunized with a single dose of this vector were protected from any signs of disease following lethal EBOV challenge, while control animals died in 7-9 days. Subsequently, N4CT1-EBOVGP1 demonstrated complete, single-dose protection of 2 macaques following lethal EBOV challenge. A single sham-vaccinated macaque died from disease due to EBOV infection. These results demonstrate that highly attenuated rVSV vectors expressing EBOV GP may provide safer alternatives to current EBOV vaccines. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv316 · 6.00 Impact Factor
  • Thomas W Geisbert · James E Strong · Heinz Feldmann ·
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    ABSTRACT: The filoviruses, Ebola virus and Marburg virus, are zoonotic pathogens that cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs), with case-fatality rates ranging from 23% to 90%. The current outbreak of Ebola virus infection in West Africa, with >26 000 cases, demonstrates the long-underestimated public health danger that filoviruses pose as natural human pathogens. Currently, there are no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. Licensure of any medical countermeasure may require demonstration of efficacy in the gold standard cynomolgus or rhesus macaque models of filovirus infection. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in characterizing the filovirus NHP models. However, there is considerable debate over a variety of experimental conditions, including differences among filovirus isolates used, routes and doses of exposure, and euthanasia criteria, all of which may contribute to variability of results among different laboratories. As an example of the importance of understanding these differences, recent data with Ebola virus shows that an addition of a single uridine residue in the glycoprotein gene at the editing site attenuates the virus. Here, we draw on decades of experience working with filovirus-infected NHPs to provide a perspective on the importance of various experimental conditions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv284 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antimalarial drug chloroquine has been suggested as a treatment for Ebola virus infection. Chloroquine inhibited virus replication in vitro, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. In mouse and hamster models, treatment did not improve survival. Chloroquine is not a promising treatment for Ebola. Efforts should be directed toward other drug classes.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 06/2015; 21(6):1065-7. DOI:10.3201/eid2106.150176 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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    Gary Wong · Xiangguo Qiu · Hideki Ebihara · Heinz Feldmann · Gary P Kobinger ·
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a lethal pathogen that causes up to 90% mortality in humans, whereas H5N1 avian influenza has a 60% fatality rate. Both viruses are considered pandemic threats. The objective was to evaluate the protective efficacy of a bivalent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine expressing both the A/Hanoi/30408/2005 H5N1 hemagglutinin and the EBOV glycoprotein (VSVΔG-HA-ZGP) in a lethal mouse model of infection. Methods: Mice were vaccinated 28 days before or 30 minutes after a lethal challenge with mouse-adapted EBOV or selected H5N1 influenza viruses from clades 0, 1, and 2. Animals were monitored for weight loss and survival, in addition to humoral and cell-mediated responses after immunization. Results: A single VSVΔG-HA-ZGP injection was efficacious when administered 28 days before a homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, as well as a heterologous H5N1 challenge. Postexposure protection was only observed in vaccinated animals challenged with homologous H5N1 and/or mouse-adapted EBOV. Analysis of the adaptive immune response postvaccination revealed robust specific T- and B-cell responses, including a potent hemagglutinin inhibition antibody response against all H5N1 strains tested. Conclusions: The results highlight the ability of vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccines to rapidly confer protection against 2 unrelated pathogens and stimulate cross-protection against H5N1 influenza viruses.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv257 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stat1 (-/-) mice lack a response to interferon α, β, and γ, allowing for replication of nonadapted wild-type (wt) Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus. We sought to establish a mouse model for efficacy testing of live attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based filovirus vaccine vectors using wt Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus challenge strains. While infection of immunocompetent mice with different rVSV-based filovirus vectors did not cause disease, infection of Stat1 (-/-) mice with the same vectors resulted in systemic infection and lethal outcome for the majority of tested rVSVs. Despite differences in viral loads, organ tropism was remarkably similar between rVSV filovirus vaccine vectors and rVSVwt, with the exception of the brain. In conclusion, Stat1 (-/-) mice are not an appropriate immunocompromised mouse model for efficacy testing of live attenuated, replication-competent rVSV vaccine vectors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv188 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As of 25 March 2015, the largest recorded outbreak of Ebola virus infection is ongoing, with almost 25 000 cases and >10 000 deaths. There are 5 genetically and antigenically distinct species within the genus Ebolavirus. Limited cross-reactivity and protection is observed between these 5 Ebolavirus species, which complicates vaccine development. However, on the basis of sequence homology between the 5 Ebolavirus species, we hypothesize that conserved epitopes are present on the viral glycoprotein (GP), which can be targeted by antibodies. In the current study, a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies was isolated and characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine cross-reactivity, avidity, and competition for epitope binding; Western blot analysis was also performed. Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by ELISA as cross-reacting with the GPs of all 5 Ebolavirus species. The identification of cross-reactive antibodies that bind the GPs of all known Ebolavirus species will give us important insight into the presence of conserved epitopes on the viral GP. These data will be crucial for the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostic assays. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv209 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ebola virus (EBOV) uses transcriptional editing to express several glycoproteins (GPs), including secreted soluble GP (sGP) and structural GP1,2, from a single gene. Recombinant viruses predominantly expressing GP1,2 are known to rapidly mutate and acquire an editing site predominantly expressing sGP in vivo, suggesting an important role of this protein during infection. Therefore, we generated a recombinant virus that is no longer able to express sGP and assessed its virulence in the EBOV guinea pig model. Surprisingly, although this virus remained genetically stable, it did not show any significant attenuation in vivo, showing that sGP is not required for virulence in this model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv111 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The 2005 outbreak of Marburg virus (MARV) infection in Angola was the most lethal MARV infection outbreak in history, with a case-fatality rate (90%) similar to that for Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) infection. However, very little is known about the pathogenicity of MARV Angola, as few studies have been conducted to date. Therefore, the immune response was examined in MARV Angola-infected nonhuman primates. Methods: Cynomolgus macaques were infected with MARV Angola and monitored for survival. The effect of MARV Angola on the immune system was examined by immunophenotyping whole-blood and by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma and spleen specimens, using flow cytometry. Results: The prominent clinical findings were rapid onset of disease and death (mean time after infection, 6.7 days), fever, depression, anorexia, petechial rash, and lymphopenia. Specifically, T, B, and natural killer cells were severely depleted in the blood by day 6. The typical cytokine storm was present, with levels of interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and CCL2 rising in the blood early during infection. Conclusions: MARV Angola displayed the same virulence and disease pathology as EBOV. MARV Angola appears to cause a more rapid onset and severe outcome of infection than other MARV strains.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv095 · 6.00 Impact Factor
  • Joseph Prescott · Darryl Falzarano · Heinz Feldmann ·
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    ABSTRACT: Most ebolaviruses can cause severe disease in humans and other primates, with high case fatality rates during human outbreaks. Although these viruses have been studied for almost 4 decades, little is know regarding the mechanisms by which they cause disease and what is important for protection or treatment after infection. Because of the sporadic nature of the outbreaks and difficulties accessing the populations affected by ebolaviruses, little is also known about what constitutes an appropriate immune response to infection in humans that survive infection. Such knowledge would allow a targeted approach to therapies. In contrast to humans, rodents are protected from disease on infection with ebolaviruses, although adapted versions of some of the viruses are lethal in mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. Using the recently described hamster model, along with T-cell depletion strategies, we show that CD4(+) T cells are required for natural immunity to Ebola virus infection and that CD4-dependent antibody responses are required for immunity in this model. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; 212 Suppl 2. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv203 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe respiratory and/or encephalitic disease in humans, often resulting in death. It is transmitted from pteropus fruit bats, which serve as the natural reservoir of the virus, and outbreaks occur on an almost annual basis in Bangladesh or India. Outbreaks are small and sporadic, and several cases of human-to-human transmission have been documented as an important feature of the epidemiology of Nipah virus disease. There are no approved countermeasures to combat infection and medical intervention is supportive. We recently generated a recombinant replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine that encodes a Nipah virus glycoprotein as an antigen and is highly efficacious in the hamster model of Nipah virus disease. Herein, we show that this vaccine protects African green monkeys, a well-characterized model of Nipah virus disease, from disease one month after a single intramuscular administration of the vaccine. Vaccination resulted in a rapid and strong virus-specific immune response which inhibited virus shedding and replication. This vaccine platform provides a rapid means to afford protection from Nipah virus in an outbreak situation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 04/2015; 33(24). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.089 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple host molecules are known to be involved in the cellular entry of filoviruses, including Ebola virus (EBOV); T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been identified as attachment and fusion receptors, respectively. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the entry process have not been fully understood. We found that TIM-1 and NPC1 colocalized and interacted in the intracellular vesicles where EBOV glycoprotein (GP)-mediated membrane fusion occurred. Interestingly, a TIM-1-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), M224/1, prevented GP-mediated membrane fusion and also interfered with the binding of TIM-1 to NPC1, suggesting that the interaction between TIM-1 and NPC1 is important for filovirus membrane fusion. Moreover, MAb M224/1 efficiently inhibited the cellular entry of viruses from all known filovirus species. These data suggest a novel mechanism underlying filovirus membrane fusion and provide a potential cellular target for antiviral compounds that can be universally used against filovirus infections. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Journal of Virology 04/2015; 89(12). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03156-14 · 4.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

15k Citations
2,332.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Virology (LV)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003-2015
    • University of Manitoba
      • • Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Immunology
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 1992-2015
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • The University of Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2010-2013
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
      Hamilton, Ohio, United States
  • 2002-2013
    • National Microbiology Laboratory, Canada
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2012
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kansas State University
      • Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology
      Манхэттен, Kansas, United States
  • 1991-2012
    • Philipps-Universität Marburg
      • Institut für Virologie
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2002-2011
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Pathobiological Sciences
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2001-2010
    • Robert Koch Institut
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • Carl Gustav Carus-Institut
      Pforzheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007
    • The Academy of Sciences of Islamic Republic of Iran
      Teheran, Tehrān, Iran
  • 2002-2007
    • Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2005
    • Public Health Agency of Canada
      • Special Pathogens Program
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Institute of Physiology
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2004
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Sweden
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1993-1995
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
  • 1994
    • National Treatment Centers for Environmental Disease
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1988
    • Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
      • Institut für Virologie
      Gieben, Hesse, Germany