G C Hard

University of Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (106)492.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The spontaneous incidence of foci of oncocytic proliferation (oncocytic hyperplasia and oncocytoma) was assessed in a histopathological reevaluation of the kidneys of 2,391 male and female Fischer 344 (F344) groups of control rats from long-term carcinogenicity studies (involving 24 chemicals) that had been conducted by the National Toxicology Program. The overall incidence of oncocytic proliferation was 0.3%, with a male preponderance over females at 0.5% (6/1,236) versus 0.09% (1/1,155), respectively. In males, there appeared to be an association of oncocytic proliferation with advanced spontaneous chronic progressive nephropathy. Oncocytoma or oncocytic hyperplasia appear to be rare lesions in F344 rats, and observations from these carcinogenicity studies suggest that they are slow growing and tend to occur late in a rodent's life span.
    Toxicologic Pathology 03/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A thirteen week feeding study was conducted by feeding young adult male and female Sprague Dawley [Crl:CD(®)(SD)] rats diets containing grain from genetically modified (GM) DP-ØØ4114-3 maize that was either untreated (4114) or treated in the field with glufosinate ammonium (4114GLU). Control rats were fed diets containing the same concentration of near isogenic, non-GM maize grain (091) or one of three types of commercially available non-GM maize grain. At the end of the in-life phase, renal tubule tumors were reported in two male rats consuming diets containing 4114 maize grain. An expert panel of pathologists was convened as a Pathology Working Group (PWG) to review coded kidney histology sections from control (091) and treated (4114 and 4114GLU) male rats. The objectives were for the panel to characterize the histopathologic findings and to interpret their relationship to consumption of the indicated diet. The PWG concluded unanimously that the kidney tumors were characteristic of amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) tumors and AV atypical tubular hyperplasia which represent a distinctive phenotype that has been reported to occur sporadically in young Sprague Dawley Rats. The PWG determined that the neoplasms and atypical tubular hyperplasias were multicentric and bilateral which typifies tumors of familial origin. Degenerative/regenerative or cytotoxic changes consistent with nephrotoxicity leading to tumor induction were not observed in these rats and thus supports the conclusion that tumors were unrelated to consumption of the test diet. It was the unanimous opinion of the PWG that the proliferative renal tubule cell lesions were spontaneous and not related to consumption of diets containing 4114 maize grain.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 12/2012; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) is a spontaneous renal disease of rats which can be a serious confounder in toxicology studies. It is a progressive disease with known physiological factors that modify disease progression, such as high dietary protein. The weight of evidence supports an absence of a renal counterpart in humans. There is extensive evidence that advanced CPN, particularly end-stage kidney, is a risk factor for development of a background incidence of atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH) and renal tubule tumors (RTT). The likely cause underlying this association with tubule neoplasia is the long-term increased tubule cell proliferation that occurs throughout CPN progression. As a variety of chemicals are able to exacerbate CPN, there is a potential for those exacerbating the severity up to and including end-stage kidney to cause a marginal increase in RTT and their precursors lesions. Extensive statistical analysis of National Toxicology Program studies shows a strong correlation between high grade, especially end-stage CPN, and renal tumor development. CPN as a mode of action (MOA) for rat RTT has received attention from regulatory authorities only recently. In the absence of toxic effects elsewhere, this does not constitute a carcinogenic effect of the chemical but can be addressed through a proposed MOA approach for regulatory purposes to reach a decision that RTT developing as a result of CPN exacerbation in rats have no relevance for human risk assessment. Guidelines are proposed for evaluation of exacerbation of CPN and RTT as a valid MOA for a given chemical.
    Toxicological Sciences 10/2012; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From the archives of the National Toxicology Program, National Institutes of Health, kidney sections from twenty-four carcinogenicity studies (representing twenty-three chemicals) in male and female F344 rats were histopathologically re-evaluated to grade the severity of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) on an expanded scale of 0-8, and to record the presence of renal tubule tumors (RTT) and their precursor, atypical tubule hyperplasia (ATH). The data were statistically analyzed using SAS software for logistic regression analysis. This histopathological survey of 2,436 F344 rats showed clear evidence of a qualitative and statistically significant association between advanced stages of CPN severity and the development of low-grade RTT and ATH. Advanced CPN severity therefore represents a risk factor for the development of RTT and appears to be an underlying basis for spontaneous occurrence of RTT in the F344 rat. The difference in incidence and severity of CPN between the sexes also explains the 9:1 male-to-female sex difference in the spontaneous occurrence of ATH and RTT observed here. The regulatory significance of this finding is that chemicals exacerbating CPN as their only renal effect are likely to show a numerical increase in RTT with dose, which does not represent a direct tumorigenic effect of the chemical.
    Toxicologic Pathology 01/2012; 40(3):473-81. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP), and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying lesions observed in the urinary tract of rats and mice. The standardized nomenclature of urinary tract lesions presented in this document is also available electronically on the Internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material included histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world. Content includes spontaneous developmental and aging lesions as well as those induced by exposure to test materials. A widely accepted and utilized international harmonization of nomenclature for urinary tract lesions in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists.
    Toxicologic Pathology 01/2012; 40(4 Suppl):14S-86S. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An independent Pathology Working Group (PWG) re-evaluated the kidney changes in National Toxicology Program (NTP) toxicology/carcinogenicity studies of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in F344/N rats to determine possible mode(s) of action underlying renal tubule tumors in male rats at 2-years. In the 13-week study, the PWG confirmed that the normal pattern of round hyaline droplets in proximal convoluted tubules was replaced by angular droplet accumulation, and identified precursors of granular casts in the outer medulla, changes typical of alpha(2u)-globulin (α(2u)-g) nephropathy. In the 2-year study, the PWG confirmed the NTP observation of increased renal tubule tumors in treated male groups. Linear papillary mineralization, another hallmark of the α(2u)-g pathway was present only in treated male rats. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was exacerbated in high-dose males and females, with a relationship between advanced grades of CPN and renal tumor occurrence. Hyperplasia of the papilla lining was a component of CPN in both sexes, but there was no pelvic urothelial hyperplasia. High-dose females showed no TBA-related nephrotoxicity. The PWG concluded that both α(2u)-g nephropathy and exacerbated CPN modes of action were operative in TBA renal tumorigenicity in male rats, neither of which has relevance for human cancer risk.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 02/2011; 59(3):430-6. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The occurrence and severity of spontaneous chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) in control male F344 rats as well as the frequency of treatment-related CPN exacerbation were histopathologically reevaluated. A series of 43 National Toxicology Program (NTP) 90-day toxicity studies comparing the influence of NIH-07 or NTP-2000 diets was examined. Relationships between the histopathologic findings at 90 days and renal tubule proliferative lesions recorded in subsequent 2-year bioassays for 24 chemicals were statistically analyzed. CPN lesions were observed in 100% of the control male rats regardless of diet, but CPN was more severe in control rats fed NIH-07. Approximately one-third of the 90-day studies demonstrated a treatment-related exacerbation of CPN severity, which was independent of diet. For chemicals that proceeded to 2-year bioassays, all studies with a statistically significant increase in renal tubule tumors (RTT) at 2 years had treatment-related exacerbation of CPN in the 90-day and 2-year studies. These findings indicate that CPN occurs ubiquitously in young male F344 rats and that treatment-related exacerbation of CPN in 90-day studies is a relatively common occurrence, having the potential to be predictive of an increased incidence of RTT in subsequent 2-year bioassays.
    Toxicologic Pathology 01/2011; 39(2):381-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Furan, a food contaminant formed during heat processing, induces hepatocellular tumors in rodents and high incidences of cholangiocarcinomas in rats even at the lowest dose (2 mg/kg b.w.) administered. Initial estimates suggested that human intake of furan may be as high as 3.5 μg/kg b.w./day, indicating a relatively narrow margin of exposure. The aim of this study was to establish dose-response data for cytotoxicity, regenerative cell proliferation and secondary oxidative DNA damage in livers of male F344 rats treated with furan at doses ≤2 mg/kg b.w. for 28 days. No significant signs of hepatotoxicity other than a mild, dose-dependent increase in serum cholesterol and unconjugated bile acids, and no evidence of oxidative DNA damage were seen. Histopathological alterations and proliferative changes were restricted to subcapsular areas of the left and caudate liver lobes. Although statistically significant effects were only seen at the 2 mg/kg b.w. dose during the course of our study, a ∼two and ∼threefold increase in 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling index was observed at 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg b.w., respectively, suggesting that chronic exposure to doses even below 2 mg/kg b.w. may cause proliferative changes in rat liver and highlighting the need to assess furan carcinogenicity at lower doses.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 11/2010; 54(11):1556-67. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Edward A. Lock, Gordon C. Hard
    Cancer Risk Assessment, 08/2010: pages 482 - 500; , ISBN: 9780470622728
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    ABSTRACT: Risk evaluation and hazard classification for tetrahydrofuran (THF) is based partly on the incidences of renal tumors in male F344/N rats reported in a 2-year carcinogenicity study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). A Pathology Working Group (PWG) was commissioned to conduct an independent review of the kidney slides from this bioassay (along with two subchronic studies) to assess renal changes in light of recent scientific work on pathogenesis of pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions in rat kidney. PWG pathologists confirmed the NTP assessment that adenomas were non-statistically increased in animals exposed to the highest level of THF. However, when pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were combined, there was no difference between control and THF-exposed groups. Also, the majority of these proliferative lesions were in rats with severe chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). Accordingly, the PWG concluded that renal lesions in the control and THF-exposed groups resulted primarily from regenerative processes associated with advanced CPN. Based on an alpha(2u)-globulin/hyaline droplet response observed in a 4-week study with THF, the PWG could not exclude the possibility of both advanced CPN and low-grade alpha2u-g nephropathy contributing to the renal proliferative lesions developing chronically in high-dose males. Neither condition has a pathologic counterpart in humans.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 05/2010; 58(1):100-5. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The two-year cancer bioassay in rodents remains the primary testing strategy for in-life screening of compounds that might pose a potential cancer hazard. Yet experimental evidence shows that cancer is often secondary to a biological precursor effect, the mode of action is sometimes not relevant to humans, and key events leading to cancer in rodents from nongenotoxic agents usually occur well before tumorigenesis and at the same or lower doses than those producing tumors. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) hypothesized that the signals of importance for human cancer hazard identification can be detected in shorter-term studies. Using the National Toxicology Program (NTP) database, a retrospective analysis was conducted on sixteen chemicals with liver, lung, or kidney tumors in two-year rodent cancer bioassays, and for which short-term data were also available. For nongenotoxic compounds, results showed that cellular changes indicative of a tumorigenic endpoint can be identified for many, but not all, of the chemicals producing tumors in two-year studies after thirteen weeks utilizing conventional endpoints. Additional endpoints are needed to identify some signals not detected with routine evaluation. This effort defined critical questions that should be explored to improve the predictivity of human carcinogenic risk.
    Toxicologic Pathology 09/2009; 37(6):714-32. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    G C Hard, G P Flake, R C Sills
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    ABSTRACT: The histopathologic changes induced in F344 rat kidney by oral administration of melamine for 13-week and 2-year periods in studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program, NIH,(25) from 1976 to 1983 have been re-evaluated and described in detail. A constellation of tubule changes extending from papilla to cortex consistently included tubule dilatation and tubule basophilia as salient features at the subchronic time point. By 2 years, these lesions had usually resolved into fibrotic scars, in which tubule loss and collagen deposition were prominent, running from superficial cortex into the medulla. These fibrotic lesions required discrimination from chronic scars resulting from infarcts and foci of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). A case is presented here for interpreting the constellation of histologic changes induced in rats by melamine as representing an ascending form of nephropathy. The term retrograde nephropathy is considered to be the appropriate nomenclature for both the acute and chronic lesions. The cause for the reflux, emanating from the lower urinary tract, appeared not to be infection as an inflammatory response was not prominent. It can be speculated that melamine precipitation in the lower urinary tract created pressure effects through transient obstruction leading to the renal changes. These changes were different from those involved in a major US outbreak of renal disease and death in cats and dogs associated with triazine-contaminated pet food, in which crystalluria from insoluble melamine/cyanuric acid complexes occurred in the kidney. However, the rat findings may be relevant to melamine-associated kidney disease recently reported in infants in China.
    Veterinary Pathology 08/2009; 46(6):1248-57. · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male F-344 rats were administered corn oil (vehicle control), d-limonene (positive control, 300mg/kg), or MIBK (1000mg/kg) and female F-344 rats corn oil (vehicle control) or MIBK for 10 consecutive days by oral gavage. Approximately 24h after the final dose the kidneys were excised and the left kidney prepared and evaluated for histological changes including protein (hyaline) droplet accumulation, immunohistochemical staining for alpha2u-globulin (alpha2u), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to quantitate renal cell proliferation. The right kidney was prepared for quantitation of total protein and alpha2u using an ELISA. MIBK elicited an increase in protein droplets, accumulation of alpha2u, and renal cell proliferation in male, but not female rats, responses characteristic of alpha2u-mediated nephropathy. MIBK produced identical histopathological changes in the male rat kidney when compared to d-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of alpha2u-nephropathy except that the grade of severity tended to be slightly lower with MIBK. MIBK did not induce any effects in female rats. Therefore, renal histopathology, along with the other measures of alpha2u accumulation, provides additional weight of evidence to support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a alpha2u-nephropathy-mediated mode-of-action.
    Toxicology 05/2009; 258(2-3):131-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
  • Gordon C Hard, Kent J Johnson, Samuel M Cohen
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) is a single renal disease of unknown etiology, occurring in high incidence in laboratory rats, that can confound subchronic and carcinogenicity bioassay interpretation. It has effects on longevity and, in its early stages, it has a histological similarity to tubular degeneration from other causes. In its advanced stages it is associated with marginally increased renal tubule tumor incidences. Several natural or physiological factors influence its incidence and severity, most prominently protein and caloric intake and male sex hormones. By contrast, there is no entity in humans that presents with the combination or pattern of histological features found in rat CPN. Humans are affected by several different nephropathies of known etiology but generally these are found much less frequently than CPN is found in the rat. There are major differences in pathology between CPN and human nephropathies. Histological characteristics in CPN include prominently dilated tubules filled with proteinaceous casts with consequent kidney enlargement, which contrasts with the shrunken kidneys found in end-stage human nephropathy. Unlike human nephropathy, CPN is devoid of vascular changes, it has no immunological or autoimmune basis, and inflammation is not a prominent feature. Various chemicals exacerbate CPN; no equivalent chemical interactions are seen with human nephropathies. Because some chemicals exacerbate CPN, and advanced CPN is a small risk factor for renal tubule tumor development, an increase in renal tumors can be wrongly attributed to a direct chemical effect on the kidney. On the basis of differences in biology and pathology, this analysis concludes that there is no clear human counterpart of CPN. We recommend that chemically induced exacerbation of CPN not be acknowledged as an indicator of human toxic hazard. Increases in the incidence of CPN-related renal tumor is not considered relevant to humans.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/2009; 39(4):332-46. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male Wistar rats have been shown to be the most sensitive sex, strain and species to ethylene glycol-induced nephrotoxicity in subchronic studies. A chronic toxicity and dosimetry study was therefore conducted in male Wistar rats administered ethylene glycol via the diet at 0, 50, 150, 300, or 400 mg/kg/day for up to twelve months. Subgroups of animals were included for metabolite analysis and renal clearance studies to provide a quantitative basis for extrapolating dose-response relationships from this sensitive animal model in human health risk assessments. Mortality occurred in 5 of 20 rats at 300 mg/kg/day (days 111-221) and 4 of 20 rats at 400 mg/kg/day (days 43-193), with remaining rats at this dose euthanized early (day 203) due to excessive weight loss. Increased water consumption and urine volume with decreased specific gravity occurred at 300 mg/kg/day presumably due to osmotic diuresis. Calculi (calcium oxalate crystals) occurred in the bladder or renal pelvis at > or =300 mg/kg/day. Rats dying early at > or =300 mg/kg/day had transitional cell hyperplasia with inflammation and hemorrhage of the bladder wall. Crystal nephropathy (basophilic foci, tubule or pelvic dilatation, birefringent crystals in the pelvic fornix, or transitional cell hyperplasia) affected most rats at 300 mg/kg/day, all at 400 mg/kg/day, but none at < or =150 mg/kg/day. No significant differences in kidney oxalate levels, the metabolite responsible for renal toxicity, were observed among control, 50 and 150 mg/kg/day groups. At 300 and 400 mg/kg/day, oxalate levels increased proportionally with the nephrotoxicity score supporting the oxalate crystal-induced nephrotoxicity mode of action. No treatment-related effects on the renal clearance of intravenously infused (3)H-inulin, a marker for glomerular filtration, and (14)C-oxalic acid were observed in rats surviving 12 months of exposure to ethylene glycol up to 300 mg/kg/day. In studies with naïve male Wistar and F344 rats (a less sensitive strain), a significant difference was observed in oxalate clearances between young rats (i.e. Wistar clearance < F344) but not in age-matched old rats. Regardless, the ratios of oxalate:inulin clearances in these two strains of rats, including those exposed to ethylene glycol, were all < 1, suggesting that a fraction of the filtered oxalate is reabsorbed. Other species, including humans, typically have clearance ratios >1 and are more effective at clearing oxalic acid by both glomerular filtration and active secretion. Thus, the lower renal clearance and kidney accumulation of oxalates in male Wistar rats enhances their sensitivity, which will be a factor in human risk assessments. The benchmark dose values (BMD05, BMDL05) were 170 mg/kg/day and 150 mg/kg/day for nephropathy, and 170 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day for birefringent crystals, using incidence times severity data in each case. The NOAEL of 150 mg/kg/day is the same as that reported after 16-week exposure and appears to be a threshold dose below which no renal toxicity occurs, regardless of exposure duration.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2008; 228(2):165-78. · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • Gordon C Hard
    Toxicologic Pathology 02/2008; 36(7):1014-7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Toxicology Data Management System (TDMS) of the National Toxicology Program, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, was surveyed for occurrence and distribution of a distinctive renal tubule tumor type in rats. The hallmark features of this tumor included eosinophilic/amphophilic staining, large finely granular cells, and numerous vacuoles and/or minilumens. It is referred to here as the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) variant of renal tubule tumor. Of 154 studies in which renal tubule tumors had been recorded in the standard single sections of kidney in the TDMS, there were collectively 1012 rats with renal adenomas, carcinomas, or adenocarcinomas, and of these, 100 displayed the distinctive AV morphology, representing 74 studies involving mostly the F344 rat, but also the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar strains. The AV tumors (mainly adenomas but also some carcinomas) occurred usually as solitary lesions in the affected animals. However, they were multiple and bilateral in a few cases. They were equally distributed between the sexes, did not metastasize (at least to the lung), and were not associated with chronic progressive nephropathy. The distribution of this renal tumor type was random across studies and dose groups, underscoring the likelihood that it was of spontaneous origin and not chemically induced. Accordingly, it is suggested that this distinctive renal tumor phenotype be recorded as a separate category from conventional RTT when assessing the carcinogenic potential of a test compound.
    Toxicologic Pathology 02/2008; 36(3):388-96. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 01/2008; 21(4):199-205. · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • A Mally, G C Hard, W Dekant
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    ABSTRACT: Various reports suggest that chronic dietary exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin frequently detected in various food items may be linked to the pathogenesis of endemic nephropathy, a chronic tubulointerstitial kidney disease which occurs in geographically limited areas of the Balkan region. OTA is a potent nephrotoxin and renal carcinogen. However, the pathological lesions observed in kidneys of rats treated with OTA appear be rather different from the clinical and pathological characteristics of endemic nephropathy. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that OTA does not bind to DNA but induces tumors by an epigenetic, thresholded mechanism. This implies that there is a dose below which no adverse health effects are expected to occur. Based on food consumption data and OTA serum concentrations, it appears that human exposure - even in areas with relatively high dietary exposure to OTA such as endemic villages - is several orders of magnitude below doses known to cause nephrotoxicity and tumor formation in laboratory animals. While it is undoubtedly important to encourage prevention of food contamination by OTA and other mycotoxins, these observations suggest that OTA is not likely to be an etiological factor involved in BEN and indicate a need to search for new clues for the etiology of this endemic kidney disease.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 12/2007; 45(11):2254-60. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic and a potent renal carcinogen. Male rats are most susceptible to OTA toxicity, and chronic administration of OTA (70 and 210 microg/kg bw) for 2 years has been shown to induce high incidences of adenomas and carcinomas arising from the straight segment of the proximal tubule epithelium. In contrast, treatment with a lower dose of 21 microg/kg bw did not result in increased tumor rates, suggesting a nonlinear dose response for renal tumor formation by OTA. Since the mechanism of OTA carcinogenicity is still largely unknown, this study was conducted to investigate early functional and pathological effects of OTA and to determine if sustained stimulation of renal cell proliferation plays a role. Male F344/N rats were treated with OTA for up to 13 weeks under conditions of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) bioassay. Cell proliferation in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) was determined using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination showed renal alterations in mid- and high-dose-treated animals involving single-cell death and prominent nuclear enlargement within the straight proximal tubules. Treatment with OTA at doses of 70 and 210 microg/kg bw led to a marked dose- and time-dependent increase in renal cell proliferation, extending from the medullary rays into the OSOM. No effects were evident in kidneys of low-dose-treated animals or in the liver, which is not a target for OTA carcinogenicity. A no observed effect level in this study was established at 21 microg/kg bw, correlating with the dose in the NTP 2-year bioassay that did not produce renal tumors. The apparent correlation between enhanced cell turnover and tumor formation induced by OTA indicates that stimulation of cell proliferation may play an important role in OTA carcinogenicity and provides further evidence for an epigenetic, thresholded mechanism.
    Toxicological Sciences 07/2007; 97(2):288-98. · 4.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
492.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2010
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2007
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 1991
    • University of Zurich
      • Institute of Veterinary Pathology
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 1980–1984
    • Temple University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1971
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom