G Trinchieri

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States

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Publications (406)2063.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Using deep two-color near-infrared HST imaging and unbiased grism spectroscopy we present a detailed study of the z=1.803 JKCS041 cluster. Uniquely, for a high redshift cluster, we confirm a mass of $\log M=14.2$ in solar units using three different techniques based on the X-ray temperature, the X-ray luminosity and the cluster richness. JKCS041 is thus a progenitor of a local system like the Coma cluster. Our rich dataset and the abundant population of 14 spectroscopically-confirmed red sequence galaxies allows us to explore the past star formation history of this system in unprecedented detail. Remarkably, we find a prominent red sequence down to stellar masses as low as $\log M=9.8$, corresponding to a mass range of 2 dex. These quiescent galaxies are concentrated around the cluster center with a core radius of 330 kpc. Blue members are few and avoid the cluster center. In JKCS041 quenching was therefore largely completed by a look-back time of 10 Gyr and we can constrain the epoch at which this occurred via spectroscopic age-dating of the individual galaxies. Most galaxies were quenched about 1.1 Gyr prior to the epoch of observation. The less massive quiescent galaxies are somewhat younger, corresponding to a decrease in age of 650 Myr per mass dex, but the scatter in age at fixed mass is only 380 Myr (at $\log M=11$). The size-mass relation of quiescent galaxies in JKCS041 is consistent with that observed for local clusters within our uncertainties. Comparing our data on JKCS041 with 41 clusters at lower redshift, we find that the form of the mass function of red sequence galaxies has hardly evolved in the past 10 Gyr, both in terms of its faint end slope and characteristic mass. Despite observing JKCS041 soon after its quenching and the three fold expected increase in mass in the next 10 Gyr, it is already remarkably similar to present-day clusters.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: As the nodes of the cosmic web, clusters of galaxies trace the large-scale distribution of matter in the Universe. They are thus privileged sites in which to investigate the complex physics of structure formation. However, the complete story of how these structures grow, and how they dissipate the gravitational and non-thermal components of their energy budget over cosmic time, is still beyond our grasp. Fundamental questions such as How do hot diffuse baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter potentials? How and when was the energy that we observe in the ICM generated and distributed? Where and when are heavy elements produced and how are they circulated? are still unanswered. Most of the cluster baryons exists in the form of a diffuse, hot, metal-enriched plasma that radiates primarily in the X-ray band (the intracluster medium, ICM), allowing the X-ray observations of the evolving cluster population to provide a unique opportunity to address these topics. Athena+ with its large collecting area and unprecedented combination of high spectral and angular resolution offers the only way to make major advances in answering these questions. Athena+ will show how the baryonic gas evolves in the dark matter potential wells by studying the motions and turbulence in the ICM. Athena+ will be able to resolve the accreting region both spatially and spectroscopically, probing the true nature and physical state of the X-ray emitting plasma. Athena+ has the capabilities to permit a definitive understanding of the formation and evolution of large-scale cosmic structure through the study of the cluster population.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: HST WFPC2 data for NGC 4261 were obtained with the F450W, F606W and F814W filters (roughly corresponding to the B, V and I bands, respectively; see WFPC2 Instrument Handbook, version 10.0, table 3.1). (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] NGC 5238 and NGC 4756 are the brightest unperturbed elliptical galaxies in their respective loose groups. In the present study we aim at characterizing the properties of the hot gas in the halos of the brightest members and in the environment. In NGC 4756 we are also interested in the properties of a substructure identified to the SW and the region connecting the two structures, to search for a physical connection between the two. However, we have to take into account the fact that the group is projected against the bright, X-ray emitting cluster A1361, which heavily contaminates and confuses the emission from the foreground structure. We present a careful analysis of XMM-Newton data of the groups to separate different components. We also present a re-evaluation of the dynamical properties of the systems and . SPH simulations to interpret the results. We find that the X-ray source associated with NGC 4756 indeed sits on top of extended emission from the background cluster A1361, but can be relatively well distinguished from it as a significant excess over it out to r\sim150"\ (~40 kpc). NGC 4756 has an X-ray luminosity of ~10^41 erg/s due to hot gas, with an average temperature of kT\sim0.7 keV. We measure a faint diffuse emission also in the region of the subclump to the SW, but more interestingly, we detect gas between the two structures, indicating a possible physical connection. The X-ray emission from NGC 5328 is clearly peaked on the galaxy, also at 10^41 erg/s, and extends to r\sim110 kpc. Simulations provide an excellent reproduction of the SED and the global properties of both galaxies, which are caught at two different epochs of the same evolutionary process, with NGC 5328 ~2.5 Gyr younger than NGC 4756.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectral and temporal variability properties of 18 candidate transient and potential transient (TC and PTC) sources detected in deep multi-epoch Chandra observation of the nearby elliptical galaxies, NGC 3379, NGC 4278 and NGC 4697. Only one source can be identified with a background counterpart, leaving 17 TCs + PTCs in the galaxies. Of these, 14 are in the galaxy field, supporting the theoretical picture that the majority of field X-ray binaries (XRBs) will exhibit transient accretion for >75% of their lifetime. Three sources are coincident with globular clusters (GCs), including two high-luminosity candidate black hole (BH) XRBs, with Lx=5.4E38 erg/s, and Lx=2.8E39 erg/s, respectively. The spectra, luminosities and temporal behavior of these 17 sources suggest that the transient population is heterogeneous, including neutron star (NS) and BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, and super soft sources containing white dwarf binaries. Our TC and PTC detections are noticeably fewer that the number expected from the populations synthesis (PS) models of Fragos et al. (2009), tailored to our new Chandra pointings of NGC 4278. We attribute this discrepancy to the PS assumption that the transient population is composed of NS XRBs, as well as differences between the statistical analysis and error estimates used in the model and our observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 755(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The analysis of a deep (579 ks) Chandra ACIS pointing of the elliptical galaxy NGC4278, which hosts a low luminosity AGN and compact radio emission, allowed us to detect extended emission from hot gas out to a radius of \sim 5 kpc, with a 0.5--8 keV luminosity of 2.4x10^{39} erg/s. The emission is elongated in the NE-SW direction, misaligned with respect to the stellar body, and aligned with the ionized gas, and with the Spitzer IRAC 8\mum non-stellar emission. The nuclear X-ray luminosity decreased by a factor of \sim 18 since the first Chandra observation in 2005, a dimming that enabled the detection of hot gas even at the position of the nucleus. Both in the projected and deprojected profiles, the gas shows a significantly larger temperature (kT=0.75 keV) in the inner \sim 300 pc than in the surrounding region, where it stays at \sim 0.3 keV, a value lower than expected from standard gas heating assumptions. The nuclear X-ray emission is consistent with that of a low radiative efficiency accretion flow, accreting mass at a rate close to the Bondi one; estimates of the power of the nuclear jets require that the accretion rate is not largely reduced with respect to the Bondi rate. Among possibile origins for the central large hot gas temperature, such as gravitational heating from the central massive black hole and a recent AGN outburst, the interaction with the nuclear jets seems more likely, especially if the latter remain confined, and heat the nuclear region frequently. The unusual hot gas distribution on the galactic scale could be due to the accreting cold gas triggering the cooling of the hot phase, a process also contributing to the observed line emission from ionize gas, and to the hot gas temperature being lower than expected; alternatively, the latter could be due to an efficiency of the type Ia supernova energy mixing lower than usually adopted.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 758(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seyfert's Sextet (a.k.a HCG 79) is one of the most compact and isolated galaxy groups in the local Universe. It shows a prominent diffuse light component that accounts for ~50% of the total observed light. This likely indicates that the group is in an advanced evolutionary phase, which would predict a significant hot gaseous component. Previous X-ray observations had suggested a low luminosity for this system, but with large uncertainties and poor resolution. We present the results from a deep (70 ks), high resolution Chandra observation of Seyfert's Sextet, requested with the aim of separating the X-ray emission associated with the individual galaxies from that of a more extended inter-galactic component. We discuss the spatial and spectral characteristics of this group we derive with those of a few similar systems also studied in the X-ray band. The high resolution X-ray image indicates that the majority of the detected emission does not arise in the compact group but is concentrated towards the NW and corresponds to what appears to be a background galaxy cluster. The emission from the group alone has a total luminosity of ~1x10^40 erg/s in the (0.5-5) keV band. Most of the luminosity can be attributed to the individual sources in the galaxies, and only ~2x10^39 erg/s is due to a gaseous component. However, we find that this component is also mostly associated with the individual galaxies of the Sextet, leaving little or no residual in a truly IGM component. The extremely low luminosity of the diffuse emission in Seyfert's Sextet might be related to its small total mass.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of the globular cluster (GC) population of the elliptical galaxy NGC 4261 based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 data in the B, V and I bands. We study the spatial distribution of the GCs in order to probe the anisotropy in the azimuthal distribution of the discrete X-ray sources in the galaxy revealed by Chandra images. The luminosity function of our GC sample (complete at the 90 per cent level for mV= 23.8 mag) peaks at mV= 25.1? mag, which corresponds to a distance consistent with previous measurements. The colour distribution can be interpreted as being the superposition of a blue and red GC component with average colours V-I= 1.01? mag and 1.27? mag, respectively. This is consistent with a bimodal colour distribution typical of elliptical galaxies. The red GC's radial profile is steeper than that of the galaxy surface brightness, while the profile of the blue subpopulation looks more consistent with it. The most striking finding is the significant asymmetry in the azimuthal distribution of the GC population about a north-east-south-west (NE-SW) direction. The lack of any obvious feature in the morphology of the galaxy suggests that the asymmetry could be the result of an interaction or a merger.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2012; 421(4):2872-2887. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    S. Andreon, G Trinchieri, F. Pizzolato
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of the properties of the hot gas that fills the potential well of galaxy clusters is poorly known, since models are unable to give robust predictions and observations lack a sufficient redshift leverage and are affected by selection effects. Here, with just two high redshift, z approx 1.8, clusters avoiding selection biases, we obtain a significant extension of the redshift range and we begin to constrain the possible evolution of the X-ray luminosity vs temperature relation. The two clusters, JKC041 at z=2.2 and ISCSJ1438+3414 at z=1.41, are respectively the most distant cluster overall, and the second most distant that can be used for studying scaling relations. Their location in the X-ray luminosity vs temperature plane, with an X-ray luminosity 5 times lower than expected, suggests at the 95 % confidence that the evolution of the intracluster medium has not been self-similar in the last three quarters of the Universe age. Our conclusion is reinforced by data on a third, X-ray selected, high redshift cluster, too faint for its temperature when compared to a sample of similarly selected objects. Our data suggest that non-gravitational effects, such as the baryon physics, influence the evolution of galaxy cluster. Precise knowledge of evolution is central for using galaxy clusters as cosmological probes in planned X-ray surveys such as WFXT or JDEM. Comment: MNRAS, in press. Fig 1 degraded to fit arxiv size constraints
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a detailed spectral analysis of the population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4278 with Chandra. Seven luminous sources were studied individually, four in globular clusters (GCs) and three in the stellar field. The range of (0.3-8 keV) L X for these sources is ~(3-8) × 1038 erg s–1, suggesting that they may be black hole binaries (BHBs). Fitting the data with either single thermal accretion disk or power-law (PO) models results in best-fit temperatures of ~0.7-1.7 keV and Γ ~ 1.2-2.0, consistent with those measured in Galactic BHBs. Comparison of our results with simulations allows us to discriminate between disk and power-law-dominated emission, pointing to spectral/luminosity variability, reminiscent of Galactic BHBs. The BH masses derived from a comparison of our spectral results with the L X ~ T 4 in relation of Galactic BHBs are in the 5-15 M ☉ range, as observed in the Milky Way. The analysis of joint spectra of sources selected in three luminosity ranges (L X ≥ 1.5 × 1038 erg s–1, 6 × 1037ergs–1 ≤ L X < 1.5 × 1038 erg s–1, and L X < 6 × 1037 erg s–1) suggests that while the high-luminosity sources have prominent thermal disk emission components, power-law components are likely to be important in the mid- and low-luminosity spectra. Comparing low-luminosity average spectra, we find a relatively larger N H in the GC spectrum; we speculate that this may point to either a metallicity effect or to intrinsic physical differences between field and GC accreting binaries. Analysis of average sample properties uncovers a previously unreported L X-R G correlation (where R G is the galactocentric radius) in the GC-LMXB sample, implying richer LMXB populations in more central GCs. No such trend is seen in the field LMXB sample. We can exclude that the GC L X-R G correlation is the by-product of a luminosity effect and suggest that it may be related to the presence of more compact GCs at smaller galactocentric radii, fostering more efficient binary formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2010; 725(2):1824. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    G Trinchieri, A. Wolter
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxies are essential building blocks in the Universe. However they are faint and complex X-ray sources and require high performance instrumentation to be properly studied. Yet they are fundamental for our understanding of the Universe, and a detailed knowledge of the local structures is mandatory to explain the deep and far Universe. We make a few examples, and discuss how well suited WFXT is to address this issue. Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures; to appear in the Proceedings of "The Wide Field X-ray Telescope Workshop", held in Bologna, Italy, Nov. 25-26 2009, published by Memorie della Societ\`a Astronomica Italiana 2010 (arXiv:1010.5889)
    11/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We report a detailed spectral analysis of the population of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in the elliptical galaxy NGC~4278 with Chandra. Seven luminous sources were studied individually, four in globular clusters (GCs), and three in the stellar field. The range of (0.3-8 keV) $L_X$ for these sources suggests that they may be black hole binaries (BHBs). Comparison of our results with simulations allows us to discriminate between disk and power-law dominated emission, pointing to spectral/luminosity variability, reminiscent of Galactic BHBs. The BH masses derived from a comparison of our spectral results with the $L_X \sim T^4_{in}$ relation of Galactic BHBs are in the 5-15 $M_{\odot}$ range, as observed in the Milky Way. The analysis of joint spectra of sources selected in three luminosity ranges suggests that while the high luminosity sources have prominent thermal disk emission components, power-law components are likely to be important in the mid and low-luminosity spectra. Comparing low-luminosity average spectra, we find a relatively larger $N_H$ in the GC spectrum; we speculate that this may point to either a metallicity effect, or to intrinsic physical differences between field and GC accreting binaries. Analysis of average sample properties uncover a previously unreported $L_X - R_G$ correlation (where $R_G$ is the galactocentric radius) in the GC-LMXB sample, implying richer LMXB populations in more central GCs. No such trend is seen in the field LMXB sample. We can exclude that the GC $L_X - R_G$ correlation is the by-product of a luminosity effect, and suggest that it may be related to the presence of more compact GCs at smaller galactocentric radii, fostering more efficient binary formation. Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of careful selection of very homogeneous objects, both in terms of optical properties and environmental characteristics, we were unable to significantly reduce the large spread in the Lx vs Lb plane. We confirm that optical luminosities are not clear predictors of the X-ray luminosity in early-type galaxies, even when environmental effects have been minimized by choosing a sample of truly isolated objects.
    10/2010;
  • A. Wolter, D. Vergani, G. Trinchieri
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    ABSTRACT: Emission from cold gas is rarely found in ellipticals and is not correlated to the optical luminosity. However, HI is detected in on-going mergers as e.g. the NGC5719/13 pair (Vergani et al. 2007). Dynamical modeling require late-type spiral progenitors (Hibbard et al. 1995), which produced HI-rich tidal tails expected to fall back to the main body of the galaxy in about 3 Gyr. Es formed through merging of spirals might possess a reservoir of cold gas which is otherwise missing. Also the large intrinsic scatter in the X-ray properties of early type galaxies could be due to their different merging histories. Galaxies with distinctive signs of disturbances show a strong deficiency of hot ISM, and merger remnants, like NGC3921 and NGC7252 are under-luminous in X-rays compared with the typical mature E in which these remnants are expected to evolve (for details, see discussion in Memola et al 2009).We are currently studying the hypothesis that the presence of HI is related to a recent merger event and anti-correlated with high X-ray-luminosity gas. If true, this would also help explaining the LX / LK spread in terms of different evolutionary paths. The figure shows that in a sample of isolated ellipticals (Memola et al 2009, Trinchieri, this volume) most of the galaxies for which we have a secure detection of hot X-ray emitting gas have only upper limits in HI, while the objects for which cold gas is present are actually upper limits for the hot gas, hinting at the above hypothesis. However the paucity of data does not allow us to draw conclusions at this time.
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The X-ray-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of X-ray selected AGN at z=0.2-3 are modeled with a nuclear and host component in order to determine the importance of host type, nuclear obscuration, and AGN intrinsic SED in sources of different type and luminosity. Overall, there is a good correspondence between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption. The AGN is X-ray absorbed in type 2 AGN and unabsorbed in type 1 AGN, as expected. We find two types of intrinsic AGN SEDs with different X-ray/mid-infrared luminosity ratios independently of the AGN luminosity and obscuration.
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the XMM-Newton sample in the Chandra/SWIRE field. We compare the recent XMM (2008-2009) and previous Chandra (2004) observations to identify a sub-sample of variable sources. We find that variability is independent of X-ray absorption and dust obscuration. The analysis of the radio fluxes reveals a significant fraction of radio-weak AGNs and a higher incidence of absorption among radio-loud sources. The source list and multi-wavelength catalogs in the Chandra/SWIRE field can be accessed through an on-line database.
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: AGN exhibit a variety of spectral energy distributions whose shapes depend on the intrinsic properties of the AGN, the extinction and absorption suffered by the nuclear radiation and the contribution of the host galaxy. Here, the intrinsic AGN spectral energy distributions of a hard X-ray selected sample of AGN from the XMDS are characterized after removing the host contribution and taking into account the effects of obscuration and absorption. We find that the intrinsic AGN spectral energy distributions can differ in their mid-infrared-to-X-ray luminosity ratios.
    07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: From a deep multi-epoch Chandra observation of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 we report the spectral properties of eight luminous LMXBs (LX>1.2E38 erg/s). We also present a set of spectral simulations, produced to aid the interpretation of low-count single-component spectral modeling. These simulations demonstrate that it is possible to infer the spectral states of X-ray binaries from these simple models and thereby constrain the properties of the source. Of the eight LMXBs studied, three reside within globular clusters, and one is a confirmed field source. Due to the nature of the luminosity cut all sources are either neutron star binaries emitting at or above the Eddington luminosity or black hole binaries. The spectra from these sources are well described by single-component models, with parameters consistent with Galactic LMXB observations, where hard-state sources have a range in photon index of 1.5-1.9 and thermally dominated sources have inner disc temperatures between ~0.7-1.55 keV. The large variability observed in the brightest globular cluster source (LX>4E38 erg/s) suggests the presence of a black hole binary. At its most luminous this source is observed in a thermally dominated state with kT=1.5 keV, consistent with a black hole mass of ~4 Msol. This observation provides further evidence that globular clusters are able to retain such massive binaries. We also observed a source transitioning from a bright state (LX~1E39 erg/s), with prominent thermal and non-thermal components, to a less luminous hard state (LX=3.8E38 erg/s, Gamma=1.85). In its high flux emission this source exhibits a cool-disc component of ~0.14 keV, similar to spectra observed in some ultraluminous X-ray sources. Such a similarity indicates a possible link between `normal' stellar mass black holes in a high accretion state and ULXs. Comment: Accepted to ApJ; 24 pages with 17 figures. Replacement includes additional simulations and a decision tree summarizing the simulation results
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Anna Wolter, F. Pizzolato, G. Trinchieri
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    ABSTRACT: The compact X-ray source N10 detected in the Cartwheel ring is one of the brightest ULXs in the sky. I will present results on the variability of this source, and its spectrum. I will discuss the inferred parameters in the context of the current theoretical models. Due to the low statistics, we cannot clinch down the argument on the nature of N10. Nonetheless, I will show that the available information allow us to constrain the parameter space for black hole accretion.
    02/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: A key observational result that can constrain the nature of Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) is their time variability. From theory it has been suggested that transient behavior is expected from luminous (LX>1037 erg/s) LMXBs if these sources have evolved from native X-ray binaries in the stellar field, whereas GC-LMXBs are only expected to display transient behavior at lower luminosities. From deep, multi-epoch Chandra observations of three nearby elliptical galaxies; NGC 3379, NGC 4278 and NGC 4697, we have identified a population of transient LMXBs in each of these galaxies. Here I will present the spectral properties of these sources and discuss how spectral simulations can be utilized, even with low S/N data, to determine the spectral states of these transients. Further, I will discuss how these observational results can be used in combination with population synthesis modeling to predict future transient behavior within these galaxies and will discuss the best strategy on identifying transient sources with future observing programs.
    02/2010;

Publication Stats

25k Citations
2,063.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      Birmingham, Alabama, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Florence
      • Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica
      Florence, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1985–2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Bonn
      • Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA)
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • University of Crete
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
  • 2001
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      Ithaca, NY, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1992–2001
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1978–2001
    • Wistar Institute
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1994–2000
    • Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 1993–2000
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1991–2000
    • University of Verona
      • • Section of Urology
      • • Section of General Pathology
      Verona, Veneto, Italy
  • 1989–2000
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Department of Pathobiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Metamark Genetics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Neurological Sciences
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1995–1998
    • University of Münster
      Muenster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Universidade Federal da Bahia
      Bahia, Estado de Bahía, Brazil
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1996
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Dermatology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1994–1996
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases (LPD)
      Maryland, United States
  • 1993–1995
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Division of Infectious Diseases
      Philadelphia, PA, United States