[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B cells have been reported to promote graft rejection through alloantibody production. However, there is growing evidence that B cells can contribute to the maintenance of tolerance. Here, we used a mouse model of MHC-class I mismatched skin transplantation to investigate the contribution of B cells to graft survival. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of B cells prolongs skin graft survival but only when the B cells were isolated from mice housed in low sterility "conventional" (CV) facilities and not from mice housed in pathogen free facilities (SPF). However, prolongation of skin graft survival was lost when B cells were isolated from IL-10 deficient mice housed in CV facilities. The suppressive function of B cells isolated from mice housed in CV facilities correlated with an anti-inflammatory environment and with the presence of a different gut microflora compared to mice maintained in SPF facilities. Treatment of mice in the CV facility with antibiotics abrogated the regulatory capacity of B cells. Finally, we identified transitional B cells isolated from CV facilities as possessing the regulatory function. These findings demonstrate that B cells, and in particular transitional B cells, can promote prolongation of graft survival, a function dependent on licensing by gut microflora.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of immune cells that selectively accumulate in mucosal tissues serving as sentinels at the vanguard of host protective immunity. However, they are also implicated as cellular mediators of immune-mediated diseases, most notably IBD. ILCs are subdivided into distinct lineages based on the expression of effector cytokines and master transcription factors that programme their differentiation and inflammatory behaviour. Strikingly, these subsets closely resemble CD4(+) T-cell lineages, including T helper (TH)1, TH2 and TH17 cells that are similarly implicated in immune-mediated diseases. However, ILCs that promote the maintenance of intestinal epithelial cells, mostly through production of IL-22, also exist. ILCs rapidly respond to environmental cues, including cytokines, metabolic signals and luminal bacteria. They are potent and immediate producers of key cytokines linked to IBD pathogenesis, including TNF, IL-17, IL-22 and IFN-γ. Some subsets are implicated as mediators of chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others might provide protective functions. They are present in the gut of patients with IBD and, intriguingly, closer scrutiny of IBD susceptibility loci shows that many of these genes are either expressed by, or are intimately linked to, ILC function. Looking forward, targeting ILCs could represent a new IBD treatment paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Substantial progress in molecular immunology, coupled with an increasing focus on translational research and an enthusiasm for personalized medicine, has resulted in a rapid expansion in the field of immune biomarkers in recent years. In this Science and Society article, we provide a conceptual overview of the field and discuss the progress that has been made so far, as well as the future potential in the context of the scientific, logistical, financial, legal and ethical framework within which this research is being carried out and translated into clinical use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediate dominant peripheral tolerance and treat experimental colitis. Tregs can be expanded from patient blood and were safely used in recent phase 1 studies in graft versus host disease and type 1 diabetes. Treg cell therapy is also conceptually attractive for Crohn's disease (CD). However, barriers exist to this approach. The stability of Tregs expanded from Crohn's blood is unknown. The potential for adoptively transferred Tregs to express interleukin-17 and exacerbate Crohn's lesions is of concern. Mucosal T cells are resistant to Treg-mediated suppression in active CD. The capacity for expanded Tregs to home to gut and lymphoid tissue is unknown.
Methods To define the optimum population for Treg cell therapy in CD, CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA+ and CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA− Treg subsets were isolated from patients’ blood and expanded in vitro using a workflow that can be readily transferred to a good manufacturing practice background.
Results Tregs can be expanded from the blood of patients with CD to potential target dose within 22–24 days. Expanded CD45RA+ Tregs have an epigenetically stable FOXP3 locus and do not convert to a Th17 phenotype in vitro, in contrast to CD45RA− Tregs. CD45RA+ Tregs highly express α4β7 integrin, CD62L and CC motif receptor 7 (CCR7). CD45RA+ Tregs also home to human small bowel in a C.B-17 severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) xenotransplant model. Importantly, in vitro expansion enhances the suppressive ability of CD45RA+ Tregs. These cells also suppress activation of lamina propria and mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes isolated from inflamed Crohn's mucosa.
Conclusions CD4+CD25+CD127loCD45RA+ Tregs may be the most appropriate population from which to expand Tregs for autologous Treg therapy for CD, paving the way for future clinical trials.
Gut 02/2015; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-306919 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte recruitment maintains intestinal immune homeostasis but also contributes to inflammation. The orphan chemoattractant receptor GPR15 mediates regulatory T cell homing and immunosuppression in the mouse colon. We show that GPR15 is also expressed by mouse TH17 and TH1 effector cells and is required for colitis in a model that depends on the trafficking of these cells to the colon. In humans GPR15 is expressed by effector cells, including pathogenic TH2 cells in ulcerative colitis, but is expressed poorly or not at all by colon regulatory T (Treg) cells. The TH2 transcriptional activator GATA-3 and the Treg-associated transcriptional repressor FOXP3 robustly bind human, but not mouse, GPR15 enhancer sequences, correlating with receptor expression. Our results highlight species differences in GPR15 regulation and suggest it as a potential therapeutic target for colitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a heterogeneous illness characterised by inflammation secondary to suspected or proven infection. A clinical and research challenge in this area is the ability to diagnose true sepsis, defined as inflammation secondary to infection. Infection is often indirectly confirmed using surrogates, whilst awaiting microbiological confirmation. microRNAs are novel molecules with a potential to be point of care rapid diagnostic test for true sepsis.